|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|Biological half-life||5–7 hours|
|Excretion||Urine (71%), Fecal (23%)|
|Molar mass||315.474 g/mol|
|(what is this?)|
Rotigotine (Neupro) is a dopamine agonist of the non-ergoline class of medications indicated for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) and Willis-Ekbom Disease  (WED) formerly known as restless legs syndrome (RLS) in Europe and the United States. It is formulated as a once-daily transdermal patch which provides a slow and constant supply of the drug over the course of 24 hours.
Rotigotine was first developed in 1985 as N-0427 by a team from the University of Groningen. Development was then continued by Aderis Pharmaceuticals. In 1998, Aderis licensed worldwide development and commercialization rights for rotigotine to the German pharmaceutical company Schwarz Pharma (today a subsidiary of the Belgian company UCB S.A.).
The drug has been approved by the EMEA for use in Europe in 2006 and is today being sold in several European countries. In 2007, the Neupro patch was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as the first transdermal treatment of Parkinson's disease in the United States. However, as of 2008, Schwarz Pharma has recalled all Neupro patches in the United States and some in Europe because of problems with the delivery mechanism. The patch was reformulated, and was reintroduced in the United States in 2012.
Rotigotine has been authorized as a treatment for restless legs syndrome since August 2008.
All affinities listed were assayed using human materials except that for α2B-adrenergic which was done with NG 108–15 cells. Rotigotine behaves as a partial or full agonist (depending on the assay) at all dopamine receptors listed, as an antagonist at the α2B-adrenergic receptor, and as a partial agonist at the 5-HT1A receptor. Though it has affinity for a large number of sites as shown above, at clinical doses rotigotine behaves mostly as a selective D2-like (D2, D3, D4) and D5 receptor agonist, with its α2B-adrenergic and 5-HT1A activity also possibly having some low relevance.
General side effects for rotigotine may include constipation, dyskinesia, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, fatigue, insomnia, somnolence, confusion, and hallucinations. More serious complications can include psychosis and impulse control disorders like hypersexuality, punding, and pathological gambling. Mild adverse skin reactions at the patch application site may also occur.
- Nightwalkers: Willis-Ekbom Foundation; Winter 2013 issue
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- Development & Commercialization of rotigotine by Aderis (Aderis Pharmaceuticals making a reference for the commercialization of rotigotine)
- Neupro Patch Re-launches in the US
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