Rowing at the 1980 Summer Olympics was represented by 14 events. It took place in the Man-made Basin, located at the Trade Unions Olympic Sports Centre (Krylatskoye district, Moscow). The rowing schedule began on 20 July and ended on 27 July.
Due to the American-led boycott some strong rowing nations were not present. In that situation East Germany dominated the competition: they won 14 medals, including 11 golds, from 14 events.