Rowing at the Summer Olympics

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Rowing at the Summer Olympics
Rowing pictogram.svg
Governing body FISA
Events 14 (men: 8; women: 6)
Games

Rowing at the Summer Olympics has been part of the competition since its debut in the 1900 Summer Olympics. Rowing was on the program at the 1896 Summer Olympics but was cancelled due to bad weather.[1] Only men were allowed to compete until the women's events were introduced at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal which gave national federations the incentive to support women's events and catalysed growth in women's rowing.[2] Lightweight rowing events (which have weight-limited crews) were introduced to the games in 1996. Qualifying for the rowing events is under the jurisdiction of the International Rowing Federation (or FISA, its French acronym). FISA predates the modern Olympics and was the first international sport federation to join the modern Olympic movement.

Events[edit]

At the current Olympics the following 14 events are offered:

The lightweight events were threatened in 2002 when the Programme Commission of the IOC recommended that, outside combat sports (boxing & wrestling, but not fencing, shooting, and archery) and weightlifting, there should not be weight-category events. The Executive Board overturned this recommendation and the lightweight rowing has been continued.

In the early games (1900 and 1904) there were several other categories of events (Junior, Novice, Association, and Intermediate). A number of other boat classes have made an appearance at several games (sometimes for a long time) but have been subsequently dropped – as recently as the 1990s. The primary loss has been in boats with coxwains, except for the eights, which have always been coxed. These were:

  • Men's Coxed Pair (1900–1992)
  • Men's Coxed Four (1900–1992)
  • Women's Coxed Four (1976–1988)
  • Women's Coxed Quad Sculls (1976–1984)
  • Women's Coxless Four (1992 only)
  • Men's Coxed Four with Inriggers[3] (1912 only)
  • Six-Man Naval Rowing Boats (1906 only)
  • 17-Man Naval Rowing Boats (1906 only)

The non-Olympic boatclasses (which still compete in World Championships) are today LM1X, LM4X, LM2-, LM8+, LW1X, LW4X, M2+ and W4-.

Race distances[edit]

Today all races are raced over a 2000 m course, but this did not become standard before the Stockholm Olympics in 1912. Before this it was raced over various distances. In Paris in 1900 (1750 m), in St. Louis in 1904 (3218 m), in London in 1908 (2412 m), and again in London in 1948 (1850 m). The 1908 and 1948 were held over the Henley Royal Regatta course.

Women's races were raced over 1,000 meters until 1988 when they were changed to 2,000 meters.[4]

Early games featured match races between two or three boats (in 1952, between four or five boats).

The modern six boat side-by-side format was first adopted at the 1936 Olympic Games, and has been the standard since the 1956 Olympic Games.

Qualification[edit]

There is a limited number of crews permitted to race, so the International Rowing Federation holds qualification events in order to determine who competes at the Olympic Games. At the Olympic Games, each National Olympic Committee can only have one boat per event.

The main qualification comes from the previous year's World Rowing Championships. Other qualifying events are called "Continental Qualification Regattas", of which four are held during the year preceding the games - Asia, Africa, Latin America, and Final (open to everyone else). Each year FISA issues details of how many crews qualify at each regatta.

At the World Championships, the top finishing boats guarantee a place for that country - the rowers in the crew can be changed before the games. At the qualification regattas, it is the crew that wins that qualifies for the Olympics, and if members of that crew race in the Olympics they must race in that event.

Medal table[edit]

The numbers below are after the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio.

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  United States (USA) 33 32 24 89
2  East Germany (GDR) 33 7 8 48
3  Great Britain (GBR) 31 24 13 68
4  Germany (GER) 23 13 15 51
5  Romania (ROM) 19 10 9 38
6  Soviet Union (URS) 12 20 11 43
7  Australia (AUS) 11 15 14 40
8  New Zealand (NZL) 11 4 10 24
9  Italy (ITA) 10 14 14 38
10  Canada (CAN) 9 17 15 41
11  France (FRA) 8 15 14 37
12  Netherlands (NED) 7 12 12 31
13  Switzerland (SUI) 7 8 9 24
14  Denmark (DEN) 7 5 12 24
15  West Germany (FRG) 4 4 6 14
16  United Team of Germany (EUA) 4 4 1 9
17  Poland (POL) 4 3 11 18
18  Norway (NOR) 3 6 8 17
19  Bulgaria (BUL) 3 4 7 14
20  Finland (FIN) 3 1 3 7
21  Czechoslovakia (TCH) 2 2 7 11
22  Belarus (BLR) 2 1 4 7
23  China (CHN) 1 4 4 9
24  Croatia (CRO) 1 3 1 5
 Czech Republic (CZE) 1 3 1 5
26  Slovenia (SLO) 1 1 3 5
 Yugoslavia (YUG) 1 1 3 5
28  Argentina (ARG) 1 1 2 4
29  South Africa (RSA) 1 1 1 3
 Ukraine (UKR) 1 1 1 3
31  Russia (RUS) 1 0 2 34
32  Belgium (BEL) 0 6 2 8
33  Austria (AUT) 0 3 2 5
34  Estonia (EST) 0 2 1 3
35  Sweden (SWE) 0 2 0 2
36  Uruguay (URU) 0 1 3 4
37  Greece (GRE) 0 1 2 3
 Hungary (HUN) 0 1 2 3
 Lithuania (LTU) 0 1 2 3
40  Spain (ESP) 0 1 0 1
 Ireland (IRL) 0 1 0 1
42  Unified Team (EUN) 0 0 1 1
Total 256 256 260 772

Multiple medalists[edit]

The table shows those who have won at least 3 gold medals.

Athlete (nation) Olympics  Gold  Silver Bronze Total Notes
Elisabeta Lipă
 Romania
1984, 1988, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004 5 2 1 8 20 years between first and last gold medal
Steve Redgrave
 Great Britain
1984, 1988, 1992, 1996, 2000 5 0 1 6 Gold medals in 1984 (M4+), 1988 (M2- with Andy Holmes), 1992 and 1996 (M2- with Matthew Pinsent) and 2000 (M4-). Only endurance athlete to win Olympic gold at five consecutive games.
Georgeta Damian
 Romania
2000, 2004, 2008 5 0 1 6 Won the pair and the eights in both 2000 and 2004, and the pair again in 2008
Doina Ignat
 Romania
1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008 4 1 1 6 Part of Romania's three-straight gold medalist eight
Kathrin Boron
 Germany
1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008 4 0 1 5 Four straight Olympic golds. Bronze in her final Olympics in the Quadruple Sculls
Viorica Susanu
 Romania
1996, 2000, 2004, 2008 4 0 1 5 Won three medals in the women's eight, and two in the pair
Matthew Pinsent
 Great Britain
1992, 1996, 2000, 2004 4 0 0 4 Four straight Olympic golds. Won with Steven Redgrave in the pair in 1992 and 1996. In the coxless four in 2000 and in 2004
Jack Beresford
 Great Britain
1920, 1924, 1928, 1932, 1936 3 2 0 5 First rower to win a medal at 5 straight Olympics. WWII prevented the opportunity for a sixth medal
Constanța Burcică
 Romania
1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008 3 1 1 5 Won three gold medals in the women's lightweight double sculls
Elena Georgescu
 Romania
1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008 3 1 1 5 Coxswain of Romania's women's eight
Drew Ginn
 Australia
1996, 2004, 2008, 2012 3 1 0 4 Member of the Oarsome Foursome
Eskild Ebbesen
 Denmark
1996, 2000, 2004, 2008, 2012 3 0 2 5 Won all his medals in the lightweight coxless four
Marnie McBean
 Canada
1992, 1996 3 0 1 4 Along with rowing partner Kathleen Heddle, Canadian with the most gold medals
Kathleen Heddle
 Canada
1992, 1996 3 0 1 4 Won all her medals with rowing partner Marnie McBean
James Tomkins
 Australia
1992, 1996, 2000, 2004 3 0 1 4 Most medaled Australian rower
John B. Kelly Sr.
 United States
1920, 1924 3 0 0 3 First rower to win 3 gold medals. Father of movie star turned princess Grace Kelly
Paul Costello
 United States
1920, 1924, 1928 3 0 0 3 First man to win 3 gold medals in the same event, the double sculls. Cousin of John B. Kelly Sr.
Vyacheslav Ivanov
 Soviet Union
1956, 1960, 1964 3 0 0 3 Won all his medals in the single sculls
Siegfried Brietzke
 East Germany
1972, 1976, 1980 3 0 0 3 First German triple gold medalist. Won in the pair and the coxless four
Pertti Karppinen
 Finland
1976, 1980, 1984 3 0 0 3 Won all his medals in the single sculls
Agostino Abbagnale
 Italy
1988, 1996, 2000 3 0 0 3 His brothers Carmine and Giuseppe each won 2 gold medals.
Liliana Gafencu
 Romania
1996, 2000, 2004 3 0 0 3 Won all three medals in Romania's women's eight
Elle Logan
 United States
2008, 2012, 2016 3 0 0 3 Won all three medals in USA women's eight
Pete Reed
 Great Britain
2008, 2012, 2016 3 0 0 3 Two wins in coxless four, then in eight
Andrew Triggs Hodge
 Great Britain
2008, 2012, 2016 3 0 0 3 Two wins in coxless four, then in eight

Events[edit]

Men's[edit]

Event 96 00 04 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 Years
Single sculls 27
Double sculls 24
Quadruple sculls 10
Coxless pairs 23
Coxed pairs 18
Coxless fours 24
Coxed fours •• 20
Coxed fours, with inriggers 1
Eights 27
Lightweight Double sculls 6
Lightweight Coxless fours 6
Events 0 5 5 4 4 5 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

Women's[edit]

Event 96 00 04 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 Years
Single sculls 11
Double sculls 11
Quadruple sculls 11
Coxless pairs 11
Coxed fours 4
Coxless fours 1
Eights 11
Lightweight Double sculls 6
Events 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

Nations[edit]

Number of rowers from each nation by year of Olympics, starting with 1896 (when none competed due to bad weather) then 1900 through 2016.

Nation 96 00 04 08 12 20 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 00 04 08 12 16 Years
 Algeria (ALG)   1 2 1 3 1 5
 Argentina (ARG)   9 9 3 26 9 9 12 9 18 10 7 6 6 22 8 6 2 10 18
 Australasia (ANZ)   10 1
 Australia (AUS)   10 1 1 12 8 14 26 25 26 11 16 13 16 25 16 28 45 45 45 48 47 21
 Austria (AUT)   6 2 9 7 4 4 10 7 3 16 3 7 6 5 12 13 8 5 18
 Azerbaijan (AZE)   2 1
 Belarus (BLR)   17 10 11 13 5 5
 Belgium (BEL)   11 10 6 20 15 21 7 4 12 7 5 2 1 5 7 6 8 9 5 4 3 3 1 23
 Bermuda (BER)   1 1
 Bohemia (BOH)   2 1
 Brazil (BRA)   5 2 18 21 2 3 5 5 2 2 7 10 10 10 8 6 1 4 6 4 20
 Bulgaria (BUL)   5 8 33 52 34 15 5 4 6 3 10
 Cameroon (CMR)   1 1 2
 Canada (CAN)   9 13 10 5 14 11 16 10 11 15 13 15 16 14 16 46 54 40 27 32 30 32 35 30 24
 Chile (CHI)   1 3 1 9 2 6 2 2 1 9
 China (CHN)   9 11 22 13 10 17 31 18 8
 Chinese Taipei (TPE)   2 1 1 3
 Colombia (COL)   1 1
 Croatia (CRO)   7 8 13 6 4 5 6
 Cuba (CUB)   5 9 9 11 7 14 17 3 2 9 7 9 6 13
 Czech Republic (CZE)   5 1 16 14 12 5
 Czechoslovakia (TCH)   15 1 17 4 8 11 22 20 15 21 34 26 17 31 14
 Denmark (DEN)   15 1 10 16 25 25 7 16 14 10 12 7 7 10 3 13 13 10 12 10 10 21
 East Germany (GDR)   26 26 54 55 44 5
 Egypt (EGY)   1 8 16 1 7 2 6 5 8
 El Salvador (ESA)   1 2 2
 Estonia (EST)   1 7 1 3 7 7 6 4 8
 Finland (FIN)   6 5 26 5 12 7 2 3 7 1 3 5 3 2 2 15
 France (FRA)   47 17 14 23 26 5 19 22 17 13 16 22 17 18 17 16 23 12 25 21 23 21 21 14 24
 Germany (GER)   21 3 26 23 16 26 21 53 48 31 48 48 48 13
 Great Britain (GBR)   1 30 24 10 21 23 15 18 26 23 12 26 8 11 17 31 43 42 30 46 37 36 37 44 47 25
 Greece (GRE)   8 3 1 6 3 1 7 2 5 4 4 5 10 13
 Guatemala (GUA)   2 1 2
 Hong Kong (HKG)   3 1 3 3 4 3 6
 Honduras (HON)   1 1
 Hungary (HUN)   11 11 7 6 23 9 15 4 9 6 15 8 20 8 8 3 4 6 2 4 20
 India (IND)   2 1 3 3 4
 Individual Olympic Athletes (IOA)   2 1
 Indonesia (INA)   1 1
 Iran (IRI)   2 2 2
 Iraq (IRQ)   2 1
 Ireland (IRL)   9 1 10 11 3 1 6 4 6 9 1 11
 Italy (ITA)   1 1 6 17 26 20 22 26 26 21 26 18 14 21 15 5 22 27 21 32 28 31 20 20 24
 Japan (JPN)   6 14 16 5 9 14 26 10 3 9 6 12 13 11 8 4 4 5 18
 Kazakhstan (KAZ)   1 3 2 3
 Kenya (KEN)   1 1 2
 Kuwait (KUW)   1 1
 Latvia (LAT)   3 4 1 3
 Lebanon (LIB)   1 1
 Lithuania (LTU)   8 3 2 2 1 4 10 7
 Mexico (MEX)   1 2 3 25 9 1 1 3 2 5 2 5 3 3 2 15
 Monaco (MON)   5 1 1 3
 Myanmar (MYA)   1 1 2
 Netherlands (NED)   13 4 12 17 21 2 11 6 12 13 17 22 21 24 10 17 16 20 34 33 26 30 32 23
 Niger (NIG)   1 1
 New Zealand (NZL)   1 11 5 8 1 15 14 19 18 22 12 12 11 6 11 16 26 36 18
 North Korea (PRK)   6 1
 Norway (NOR)   9 24 13 1 14 9 2 5 16 14 12 9 6 11 6 3 1 5 18
 Pakistan (PAK)   3 1
 Paraguay (PAR)   2 1 2
 Peru (PER)   2 3 3 1 1 5
 Philippines (PHI)   1 1 2
 Poland (POL)   6 14 8 11 10 8 5 11 3 16 22 38 13 15 12 17 23 20 26 20
 Portugal (POR)   14 9 5 3 2 4 2 2 8
 Puerto Rico (PUR)   1 1 2
 Romania (ROU)   9 8 7 14 9 21 33 28 26 32 30 28 17 11 15 15
 Russia (RUS)   24 23 19 10 5 5
 Saar (SAA)   7 1
 Serbia (SRB)   3 6 2
 Serbia and Montenegro (SCG)   6 6 2
 Slovakia (SVK)   2 1 2 3
 Slovenia (SLO)   6 7 8 9 10 2 6
 South Africa (RSA)   1 1 5 5 5 9 8 8 2 5 6 11
 South Korea (KOR)   9 5 28 2 4 3 2 5 4 9
 Soviet Union (URS)   26 25 25 26 27 26 55 54 53 9
 Spain (ESP)   5 10 1 6 18 3 13 10 13 22 11 4 9 1 14
 Sweden (SWE)   28 6 5 3 16 9 12 1 3 7 8 8 7 9 3 1 2 2 18
 Switzerland (SUI)   13 11 13 16 19 13 18 8 17 17 4 10 9 7 9 11 11 6 1 8 20
 Thailand (THA)   1 1 1 3
 Tunisia (TUN)   2 1 2 3
 Turkey (TUR)   1 1
 Ukraine (UKR)   20 12 10 10 21 5
 United Team of Germany (EUA)   12 26 26 3
 Unified Team (EUN)   47 1
 United Arab Republic (UAR)   9 1
 United States (USA)   9 35 15 20 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 27 27 26 54 54 53 52 46 48 45 45 44 23
 Uruguay (URU)   1 8 3 3 2 5 2 5 3 1 1 1 3 3 2 15
 Uzbekistan (UZB)   4 1 2
 Venezuela (VEN)   1 1
 Vietnam (VIE)   2 2 2
 West Germany (FRG)   26 26 44 36 38 5
 Zimbabwe (ZIM)   2 1 2 3
 Yugoslavia (YUG)   14 21 13 1 12 11 15 7 14 5 10 11
Nations 0 8 2 8 14 14 14 19 13 24 27 33 25 33 27 29 35 31 25 30 38 45 45 51 55 60 58 92
Rowers 0 108 44 81 186 136 182 245 153 313 310 404 242 410 330 353 440 593 470 447 592 627 608 547 557 555 550 547 10,030
Year 24 28 32 36 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 27

Venues[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "History of Rowing at the Olympic Games" (PDF). IOC. March 2015. Retrieved 15 March 2016. 
  2. ^ "Feature: the impact of Olympic inclusion on women's rowing". World Rowing. 12 June 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2015. 
  3. ^ An "inrigger" is a boat with oarlocks attached directly on the gunwale.
  4. ^ "Women in rowing". World Rowing. 23 February 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2015. 

External links[edit]