Roy Hamilton

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Roy Hamilton
Hamilton in 1957
Hamilton in 1957
Background information
Birth nameRodothas Hamilton
Born(1929-04-16)April 16, 1929
Leesburg, Georgia, United States
DiedJuly 20, 1969(1969-07-20) (aged 40)
New Rochelle, New York, United States
GenresTraditional pop, show tunes, swing, vocal jazz, R&B, soul
Years active1947–1969
LabelsEpic, MGM, RCA

Roy Hamilton (April 16, 1929 – July 20, 1969)[1] was an American singer. By combining semi-classical technique with traditional black gospel feeling, he brought soul to Great American Songbook singing.[2]

Hamilton's greatest commercial success came from 1954 through 1961, when he was Epic Records' most prolific artist.[3] His two most influential recordings, "You'll Never Walk Alone" and "Unchained Melody", became Epic's first two number-one hits when they topped the Billboard R&B chart in March 1954 and May 1955, respectively.[1][4] Hamilton became the first solo artist in the label's history to have a US top-ten pop hit when "Unchained Melody" peaked at No. 6 in May 1955.[4]

Early life[edit]

Roy Hamilton was born Leesburg,[1] Georgia to Evelyn and Albert Hamilton, where he began singing in church choirs at the age of six. In the summer of 1943, when Hamilton was fourteen, the family migrated north to Jersey City, New Jersey in search of a better life. There, he sang with the Central Baptist Church Choir, New Jersey's most famous African American church choir. At Lincoln High School, he studied commercial art and was gifted enough to place his paintings with a number of New York City galleries.[5]

In February 1947, seventeen-year-old Hamilton took his first big step into secular music, winning a talent contest at the Apollo Theater.[5] But nothing came of it. "I couldn't get a break,"[2] Hamilton recalled. "I really had nothing different to offer. They were seeking blues singers at the time, and I didn't know any blues at all."[2] So, to support himself while he developed the different sound and singing style he wanted,[6] Hamilton worked as an electronics technician during the day, and an amateur heavyweight boxer at night, with a record of six wins and one defeat.[5]

In 1948, Hamilton joined the Searchlight Gospel Singers and also studied light opera, working with New Jersey voice coach J. Martin Rolls for more than a year.[6] Hamilton continued to perform gospel with the Searchlight Singers, in churches and at gospel concerts, until 1953 when the group broke up and each member went off in his own direction. Hamilton headed back into pop music. But this time, he felt he finally had something different to offer.[2]

In 1948, when Hamilton was 19, he married Corene Hamilton, with whom he had five children, Rodothas Jr., Allan, Carolyn, Charnette, and Tyrone. They divorced in 1960.[7] Hamilton later married Myrna Hamilton, with whom he had 2 sons, Roy Hamilton Jr. and Ray Hamilton. Both sons are actively involved in the music and entertainment industry.

Music career[edit]

Epic beginning and career rise (1953–1956)[edit]

In mid-1953, Hamilton was discovered singing in a Newark, New Jersey night club, The Caravan, by Bill Cook, who became his manager.[8] Cook was the first African American radio disc jockey and television personality on the East Coast.[9] Cook made a demo tape of Hamilton's singing and brought it to the attention of Columbia Records. Columbia was impressed enough to sign Hamilton to their rhythm and blues subsidiary, Okeh Records.[5] On November 11, 1953, Hamilton made his first recordings for the label in New York City. The session produced Rodgers and Hammerstein's "You'll Never Walk Alone" from the musical Carousel.[10] The tune, one of the few secular numbers that Hamilton knew at the time, had been his live-performance specialty since 1947.[9] But before it was released, Columbia had second thoughts and placed Hamilton with their newly-launched "pop" subsidiary label Epic.[8] In the early 1950s, there were only two black male singers who were widely accepted by white audiences as mainstream pop stars: Nat King Cole and Billy Eckstine.[11] Epic saw that same kind of "crossover" star potential in Hamilton,[5] placing a nearly full-page ad in the January 23, 1954 edition of Billboard magazine which read, "a great new voice makes news with a great song! Roy Hamilton, You’ll Never Walk Alone…"[12] In spite of poor musical backing, Hamilton's performance on "Walk Alone" is sensational[13] and is the primary reason why it topped the Billboard R&B chart for eight weeks and became a national US Top-30 hit.[14] His follow-up single, "If I Loved You", was another Rodgers and Hammerstein tune from Carousel. Although not as big a hit for Hamilton as "Walk Alone", it still reached number four on the US R&B chart.[14]

On the evening of July 24, 1954, Hamilton appeared on the bill of "Star Night", a concert package at Chicago's Soldier Field starring Perry Como, Nat King Cole and Sarah Vaughan.[15] Since he was the newcomer on the bill, Hamilton was given the least amount of time to perform: six minutes, to perform two songs. Hamilton's plan was to perform "You'll Never Walk Alone", the only song he was known for at the time, and its bouncy b-side. But Perry Como squashed that plan when he announced during afternoon rehearsal that "Walk Alone" was going to be his closing number that night. Hamilton, forced into performing a "Walk Alone" replacement on the spot, decided on "Ebb Tide", a song that had been a hit for Vic Damone a few months earlier—a song that Hamilton himself hadn't yet recorded. That evening, for his second and final number, Hamilton unveiled his gospel-tinged version of "Ebb Tide" before a Soldier Field audience of 82,000. By the time he had finished singing and exited the stage, all 82,000 people were on their feet, applauding, stomping and chanting for more. Changing in his dressing room, Hamilton had to be summoned back out on stage to quiet the crowd. He returned to the stage to witness that even some of his fellow performers—Nat Cole, Sarah Vaughan and orchestra leader Ray Anthony—had joined in the ovation.[9][16] On July 28, four days after his "Star Night" triumph, Epic Records had Hamilton record, "Ebb Tide".[10] It became his third straight hit.

On Saturday night, September 11, 1954, Hamilton made his national television debut on CBS's Stage Show, hosted by big band leaders and brothers Tommy and Jimmy Dorsey.[17] But the national television appearance that put Hamilton's career on the fast track to crossover success was the one he made on the night of March 6, 1955 when he sang "You'll Never Walk Alone" on CBS's top-rated Ed Sullivan Show. In reviewing his performance, Variety magazine summed up Hamilton's new way of singing the Great American Songbook by writing: "Hamilton made good with his single, 'You'll Never Walk Alone', which he endowed with the values of a spiritual."[18]

Ten days after the Sullivan Show appearance, Epic, in a rushed attempt to cover singer Al Hibbler's version of "Unchained Melody", set up a recording session for Hamilton. The resulting single was shipped within five days.[19] Two months later, in the May 18, 1955 issue of Down Beat magazine, Hamilton was named "Vocalist of the Year". Meanwhile, in Billboard magazine's May 21, 1955 issue, Hamilton's gospel-tinged "Unchained Melody" had taken over the top spot on the R&B chart while, on the pop chart, it had reached the number six spot. It was the second number-one R&B hit of his career as well as the first, and only, top-ten US pop hit of his career.[4]

On the heels of his "Unchained Melody" success, Hamilton recorded the following Great American Songbook singles in succession: Vincent Youmans' "Without a Song" (#77 US pop), Jimmy McHugh's "Cuban Love Song", Rodgers and Hammerstein's "Everybody's Got a Home But Me" (#42 US pop), from the musical Pipe Dream, and Frank Loesser's "Somebody Somewhere", from the musical The Most Happy Fella.[10]

Retirement and comeback (1956–1962)[edit]

In mid-1956, Hamilton, developing what was described as a "lung condition" bordering on tuberculosis, announced an indefinite retirement from show business,[10] citing both physical and mental exhaustion[20] When he resumed his career over a year later, Hamilton could no longer generate hit singles performing pop standards because, overnight, rock and roll had become the record industry's predominant commercial force. So, in late 1957, Epic coaxed Hamilton into recording "Don't Let Go", an R&B rocker produced by Otis Blackwell, the man who had written the two biggest number-one hits of Elvis Presley's career: "Don't Be Cruel" and "All Shook Up".[21] By early 1958, "Don't Let Go" had become the second US top-15 pop hit of Hamilton's career and the first top-40 hit ever recorded in stereo.[4]

In 1959, Hamilton appeared, in a cameo role, in the Filipino motion picture produced by People's Pictures Hawaiian Boy where he sings "Unchained Melody".

Hamilton's last hit record, "You Can Have Her" (the song spent 10 weeks on the Billboard Hot 100, reaching No. 12, while reaching No. 6 on Billboard's Hot R&B Sides chart.[22]), came in 1961, and was followed by the album Mr. Rock And Soul (1962). The Epic label treated Hamilton as a major star and issued sixteen albums by him.

Later years (1963–1969)[edit]

By the mid-1960s, Hamilton's career declined while recording with MGM and then RCA.

In January 1969, in Memphis, Tennessee, Hamilton made the final recordings of his career. The tracks were laid down at record producer Chips Moman's American Sound Studio, at the same time Elvis Presley was recording there.[23] Songs released from those Hamilton sessions were cover versions of James Carr's "The Dark End of the Street", Conway Twitty's "It's Only Make Believe", and Angelica , a Barry Mann and Cynthia Weil song that had been submitted to Presley, but which he then turned over to Hamilton.[24]


In early July 1969, Hamilton suffered a massive cerebral hemorrhage at his home in New Rochelle, New York.[1][25] He was taken to New Rochelle General Hospital where he lay in a coma for more than a week. On July 20, 1969, he was removed from life support and died.[25] Hamilton was 40 years old. Some connected his earlier illness that caused his retirement to his death, although a connection was never proven.[20]

In a 2017 documentary for the BBC, Hamilton’s son Roy Hamilton Jr. revealed that Elvis Presley sent Roy's wife, Myrna, a rose every day Hamilton was in the hospital. When Hamilton passed away from complications of his stroke, Presley sent Myrna flowers for the following six months.

At the time of his death, Hamilton was heavily in debt, forcing him, a week before he died, to borrow heavily on his insurance policy to pay off back taxes. This prompted his widow, Myrna, to publicly seek funds for his burial. Elvis Presley is said to have covered Hamilton’s outstanding medical bills and funeral costs. At Hamilton's funeral service, messages of condolence sent by Presley, Mahalia Jackson and B.B. King were read out to the mourners.[26][27]


Hamilton was inducted into the Georgia Music Hall of Fame in 2010.

Hamilton was Epic Records' first star,[3] giving the company its first number-one hit of any kind, "You'll Never Walk Alone", which topped the Billboard R&B chart for eight weeks in 1954.[4] A year later, he gave the label its second number-one hit of any kind when his version of "Unchained Melody" topped the Billboard R&B chart for three weeks.[4] Also, with "Unchained Melody", Hamilton became the first solo artist to deliver a top-ten pop hit for Epic.[4]

Hamilton was the singer who inspired Sam Cooke, then a gospel music star, to switch over to secular music. Hamilton was also the one to whom Cooke first submitted his early pop-song compositions.[28]

Hamilton's distinctive sound was a big influence on Elvis Presley's ballad singing.[29] As author Fred L. Worth noted, "Elvis greatly admired Hamilton's singing ability and style and performed a number of his ballads in Hamilton's style."[30] Also, The Righteous Brothers emulated Hamilton's style to create their blue-eyed soul sound. This is particularly evident in the duo's cover versions of his hits "You'll Never Walk Alone", "Ebb Tide" and "Unchained Melody".[31]

Hamilton's "You'll Never Walk Alone" disc was brought in from the US by a sailor friend of Gerry and the Pacemakers leader Gerry Marsden.[32] As a result, the band recorded a UK version of the song which became the anthem for Liverpool Football Club, sung by the crowd before every home game. The sailor friend noted that Marsden "puts very similar inflections into the song, trying to get it very similar to Roy Hamilton's version."[33]



Year Titles (A-side, B-side)
Both sides from same album except where indicated
Label & number Chart positions Album
Hot 100
US R&B[4]
1954 "You'll Never Walk Alone"
b/w "I'm Gonna Sit Right Down and Cry (Over You)"
Epic 9015 - 1 You'll Never Walk Alone
"If I Loved You"
b/w "So Let There Be Love"
Epic 9047 - 4
"Ebb Tide"
b/w "Beware"
Epic 9068 - 5 You'll Never Walk Alone
b/w "Star Of Love" (Non-album track)
Epic 9086 - 8
1955 "I Believe"
b/w "If You Are But a Dream" (from Roy Hamilton)
Epic 9092 - -
"Unchained Melody"
b/w "From Here To Eternity" (Non-album track)
Epic 9102 6 1
"Forgive This Fool"
b/w "You Wanted To Change Me"
Epic 9111 30 10
"A Little Voice"
b/w "All This Is Mine"
Epic 9118 - - Roy Hamilton
"Without a Song"
b/w "Cuban Love Song"
Epic 9125 77 -
"Everybody's Got A Home"
b/w "Take Me With You" (from Roy Hamilton)
Epic 9132 42 - Non-album track
1956 "Walk Along With Kings"
b/w "There Goes My Heart"
Epic 9147 - - The Golden Boy
"Somebody Somewhere"
b/w "Since I Fell for You" (from Roy Hamilton)
Epic 9160 - -
"I Took My Grief To Him"
b/w "Chained"
Epic 9180 - - Non-album tracks
1957 "A Simple Prayer"
b/w "A Mother's Love"
Epic 9203 - -
"So Long"
b/w "My Faith, My Hope, My Love"
Epic 9212 - 14
"To the Aisle"
b/w "That Old Feeling"
Epic 9224 - -
"(All of a Sudden) My Heart Sings"
b/w "I'm Gonna Lock You in My Heart"
Epic 9232 - -
1958 "Don't Let Go"
b/w "The Right To Love" (Non-album track)
Epic 9257 13 2 You Can Have Her
"Crazy Feelin'"
b/w "In A Dream" (Non-album track)
Epic 9268 - -
"Jungle Fever"
b/w "Lips" (Non-album track)
Epic 9274 - -
"Wait For Me"
b/w "Everything"
Epic 9282 - - Non-album tracks
"Pledging My Love"
b/w "My One and Only Love"
Epic 9294 45 - With All My Love
1959 "It's Never Too Late"
b/w "Somewhere Along the Way"
Epic 9301 - - Non-album tracks
"I Need Your Lovin'"
b/w "Blue Prelude" (Non-album track)
Epic 9307 62 14 At His Best
"Time Marches On"
b/w "Take It Easy, Joe" (Non-album track)
Epic 9323 84 -
"On My Way Back Home"
b/w "A Great Romance" (from At His Best)
Epic 9342 - - You Can Have Her
1960 "The Ten Commandments"
Original B-side: "Nobody Knows the Trouble I've Seen"
Later B-side: "Down by the Riverside"
Epic 9354 - - Spirituals
"The Clock"
b/w "I Get The Blues When It Rains" (from Have Blues Must Travel)
Epic 9390 - - Non-album track
"Nobody Knows the Trouble I've Seen"
b/w "Down by the Riverside"
Epic 9372 - - Spirituals
"I Get The Blues When It Rains"
b/w "I Let a Song Go Out of My Heart"
Epic 9373 - - Have Blues Must Travel
"Please Send Me Someone to Love"
b/w "My Story"
Epic 9374 - -
"Cheek to Cheek"
b/w "Something's Gotta Give" (from Why Fight The Feeling)
Epic 9375 - - With All My Love
"Blow, Gabriel, Blow"
b/w "Sing You Sinners"
Epic 9376 - - Come Out Swingin'
"Never Let Me Go"
b/w "A Lover's Prayer" (Non-album track)
Epic 9398 - - You Can Have Her
"Lonely Hands"
b/w "Your Love"
Epic 9407 - - Non-album tracks
1961 "You Can Have Her"
b/w "Abide With Me"
Epic 9434 12 6 You Can Have Her
"You're Gonna Need Magic"
b/w "To The One I Love" (Non-album track)
Epic 9443 80 - Roy Hamilton's Greatest Hits
"No Substitute For Love"
b/w "Please Louise"
Epic 9449 - - Non-album tracks
"There We Were"
b/w "If (They Made Me a King)"
Epic 9466 - -
1962 "Don't Come Cryin' To Me"
b/w "If Only I Had Known"
Epic 9492 - -
"I'll Come Running Back to You"
b/w "Climb Ev'ry Mountain"
Epic 9520 110 -
"I Am"
b/w "Earthquake"
Epic 9538 - -
1963 "Let Go"
b/w "You Still Love Him"
MGM 13138 129 -
"Midnight Town-Daybreak City"
b/w "Intermezzo"
MGM 13157 - -
"The Sinner"
b/w "Theme From 'The V.I.P.'s'"
MGM 13175 - -
1964 "There She Is"
b/w "The Panic Is On"
MGM 13217 - -
"Unchained Melody"
b/w "Answer Me My Love"
MGM 13247 - - Sentimental Lonely & Blue
"You Can Count On Me"
b/w "She Make Me Wanna Dance"
MGM 13291 - - Non-album tracks
1965 "Sweet Violet"
b/w "A Thousand Tears Ago"
MGM 13315 - -
"Heartache (Hurry On By)"
b/w "Ain't It The Truth" (from The Impossible Dream)
RCA 8641 - -
"Tore Up Over You"
b/w "And I Love Her"
RCA 8705 - - The Impossible Dream
1966 "The Impossible Dream (The Quest)"
b/w "She's Got A Heart" (Non-album track)
RCA 8813 - -
"Walk Hand in Hand"
b/w "Crackin' Up Over You"
RCA 8960 - - Non-album tracks
1967 "I Taught Her Everything She Knows"
b/w "Lament"
RCA 9061 - -
"So High My Love"
b/w "You Shook Me Up"
RCA 9171 - -
"Let This World Be Free"
b/w "Wait Until Dark"
Capitol 2057 - -
1969 "The Dark End of the Street"
b/w "100 Years"
AGP 113 - -
b/w "Hang-Ups"
AGP 116 - -
"It's Only Make Believe"
b/w "100 Years"
AGP 125 - -
"The Golden Boy"
b/w "You'll Never Walk Alone" (from Roy Hamilton's Greatest Hits)
Epic 10559 - - Roy Hamilton's Greatest Hits Volume 2

Studio albums[edit]

Album[35] Music arranged and conducted by Year Label
With All My Love Neal Hefti 1958 Epic
Why Fight the Feeling? Neal Hefti 1959 Epic
Come Out Swingin' Marion Evans 1959 Epic
Have Blues Must Travel Marion Evans 1959 Epic
Spirituals Chuck Sagle 1960 Epic
Soft 'n' Warm Marion Evans 1960 Epic
Only You Sammy Lowe 1961 Epic
Mr. Rock and Soul Sammy Lowe and Frank Hunter 1962 Epic
Warm Soul Marty Manning 1963 MGM
Sentimental Lonely & Blue Dick Hyman 1964 MGM

Compilation albums[edit]

Album[36] Year Label
You'll Never Walk Alone – 10" LP 1954 Epic
The Voice of Roy Hamilton – 10" LP 1955 Epic
Roy Hamilton 1956 Epic
You'll Never Walk Alone 1957 Epic
The Golden Boy 1957 Epic
Roy Hamilton at His Best 1960 Epic
You Can Have Her 1961 Epic
Roy Hamilton's Greatest Hits 1962 Epic
Roy Hamilton's Greatest Hits, Vol. 2 1963 Epic
The Impossible Dream 1966 RCA Victor


Television appearances[edit]

Date[37] Program Host Songs
September 11, 1954 Stage Show Tommy Dorsey & Jimmy Dorsey Unknown Songs
March 6, 1955 The Ed Sullivan Show Ed Sullivan "You'll Never Walk Alone" (with Ray Bloch orchestra)
May 1, 1958 American Bandstand Dick Clark Unknown Songs
June 15, 1958 The Steve Allen Show Steve Allen "Ebb Tide" (with Skitch Henderson orchestra)
June 26, 1958 American Bandstand Dick Clark Unknown Songs
October 17, 1958 American Bandstand Dick Clark Unknown Songs
January 4, 1959 The Steve Allen Show Steve Allen "Somewhere Along the Way" (with Skitch Henderson orchestra)
February 18, 1959 American Bandstand Dick Clark Unknown Songs
April 18, 1959 The Dick Clark Show Dick Clark Unknown Songs
June 8, 1961 American Bandstand Dick Clark Unknown Songs
June 16, 1961 American Bandstand Dick Clark Unknown Songs
June 22, 1961 American Bandstand Dick Clark Unknown Songs
July 26, 1961 American Bandstand Dick Clark Unknown Songs
December 20, 1961 American Bandstand Dick Clark Unknown Songs
March 23, 1964 The Mike Douglas Show Mike Douglas Unknown Songs


  • Guralnick, Peter (1999): Careless Love: The Unmaking of Elvis Presley, Little, Brown and Company, London. ISBN 0-316-64402-1
  • Guralnick, Peter (2005): Dream Boogie: The Triumph of Sam Cooke, Little, Brown and Company, New York. ISBN 0-316-01329-3


  1. ^ a b c d Doc Rock. "The 1960s". The Dead Rock Stars Club. Retrieved June 5, 2014.
  2. ^ a b c d Gilliland, John. "Show 3 – The Tribal Drum: The rise of rhythm and blues. [Part 1] – All TracksDigital Library". Retrieved March 19, 2017.
  3. ^ a b Dawson, Jim & Propes, Steve (2003). 45 RPM: The History, Heroes & Villains of a Pop Music Revolution (1st ed.). San Francisco : Backbeat Books. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-8793-0757-8
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Whitburn, Joel (2004). Top R&B/Hip-Hop Singles: 1942–2004. Record Research. p. 181.
  5. ^ a b c d e Cotten, Lee (1989). "Shake, Rattle & Roll: The Golden Age of American Rock 'n Roll Vol. 1 1952 – 1955” (1st ed.). Michigan: Pierian Press. p. 163. ISBN 978-0-8765-0246-4
  6. ^ a b Hentoff, Nat (February 9, 1955). Hamilton Booms From $5-A-Night Obscurity. "Down Beat", p. 2
  7. ^ Company, Johnson Publishing (January 3, 1963). Jet. Johnson Publishing Company.
  8. ^ a b "Biography". Retrieved June 5, 2014.
  9. ^ a b c Grendysa, Peter (April 1979). Roy Hamilton Never Walking Alone. "Goldmine", p.9
  10. ^ a b c d Grendysa, Peter (April 1979). Roy Hamilton Never Walking Alone. "Goldmine", p.13
  11. ^ Friedwald, Will (2010). "A Biographical Guide to the Great Jazz and Pop Singers" (1st ed.). New York: Pantheon Books. p. 203. ISBN 978-0-3754-2149-5
  12. ^ Music. (January 23, 1954). The Billboard, p.16.
  13. ^ Music. (January 30, 1954). The Billboard, p.32.
  14. ^ a b "Roy Hamilton". Retrieved June 5, 2014.
  15. ^ Talent Review. (August 7, 1954). The Billboard, p.45.
  16. ^ Morrison, Allan (June 1955). Roy Hamilton. Ebony, p. 34
  17. ^ Robinson, Major (September 16, 1954). Singer Roy Hamilton To Make TV Debut On CBS. "Jet", p.66
  18. ^ Jose (March 9, 1955). TV Reviews. “Variety”, p.32
  19. ^ Cotten, Lee (1989). Shake, Rattle & Roll: The Golden Age of American Rock 'n Roll Vol. 1 1952 – 1955 (1st ed.). Michigan: Pierian Press. p. 231. ISBN 978-0-8765-0246-4
  20. ^ a b "Roy Hamilton". Retrieved September 9, 2021.
  21. ^ "Elvis Australia". Otis Blackwell & Elvis Presley. July 2015. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
  22. ^ "Roy Hamilton". Retrieved September 9, 2021.
  23. ^ Jones, Roben (2010). Memphis Boys: The Story of American Studios (1st ed.). Jackson: University of Mississippi. pp. 199–218. ISBN 978-1-60473-401-0.
  24. ^ Jones, Roben (2010). Memphis Boys: The Story of American Studios (1st ed.). Jackson: University of Mississippi. p. 208. ISBN 978-1-60473-401-0.
  25. ^ a b Barbee, Bobbie (August 7, 1969). Singer Roy Hamilton To Make TV Debut On CBS. "Jet", p.57
  26. ^ 1,200 Attend Roy Hamilton Rites; Famed Singer Died Broke, in Debt. (August 2, 1969). Philadelphia Tribune, p. 20
  27. ^ Roy Hamilton Rites Lack Big Name Stars. (August 9, 1969). The New Courier, p. 2
  28. ^ Guralnick, Peter (2005): Dream Boogie: The Triumph of Sam Cooke (1st ed.). New York: Little, Brown and Company, p. 332. ISBN 978-0316-01329-1
  29. ^ Simpson, Paul (2002): The Rough Guide to Elvis (1st ed.). London: Penguin Books, p. 197. ISBN 1-84353-119-4
  30. ^ Worth, Fred L. (1988). Elvis: His Life From A to Z (1st ed.). Chicago: Contemporary Books. ISBN 978-0-5170-6634-8
  31. ^ "Righteous Brothers Discography". Peter Richmond. Retrieved April 8, 2017.
  32. ^ "Timeshift: Sailors, Ships and Stevedores (Series 16, Episode 2)". BBC iPlayer. BBC. October 26, 2016. Retrieved November 5, 2016.
  33. ^ "Cunard Yanks: the sailors who taught Britain how to rock'n'roll". The Guardian. Retrieved March 24, 2017.
  34. ^ Whitburn, Joel (2003). Top Pop Singles 1955–2002 (1st ed.). Menomonee Falls, Wisconsin: Record Research Inc. p. 299. ISBN 0-89820-155-1.
  35. ^ Larkin, Colin (1998). The Encyclopedia of Popular Music (3rd ed.). New York: Muze. pp. 2362–2363. ISBN 978-1-5615-9237-1
  36. ^ Larkin, Colin (1998). The Encyclopedia of Popular Music (3rd ed.). New York: Muze. p. 2363. ISBN 978-1-5615-9237-1
  37. ^ "Roy Hamilton". Retrieved March 13, 2017.

External links[edit]