Roy Spencer (scientist)
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Roy W. Spencer
|Alma mater||University of Michigan, University of Wisconsin–Madison|
|Awards||NASA Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal (1991),|
AMS Special Award (1996)
University of Alabama in Huntsville
|Thesis||A case study of African wave structure and energetics during Atlantic transit (1981)|
|Doctoral advisor||Verner E. Suomi|
Roy Warren Spencer (born December 20, 1955) is a meteorologist, a principal research scientist at the University of Alabama in Huntsville, and the U.S. Science Team leader for the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) on NASA's Aqua satellite. He has served as senior scientist for climate studies at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center.
Education and career
Spencer received a B.S. in atmospheric sciences from the University of Michigan in 1978 and his M.S. and Ph.D. in meteorology from the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1980 and 1982. His doctoral thesis was titled, A case study of African wave structure and energetics during Atlantic transit.
After receiving his Ph.D. in 1982, Spencer worked for two years as a research scientist in the Space Science and Engineering Center at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. He then joined NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center as a visiting scientist in 1984, where he later became senior scientist for climate studies. After leaving NASA in 2001, Spencer has been a principal research scientist at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). As well as his position at UAH, Spencer is currently the U.S. Science Team leader for the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) on NASA's Aqua satellite, a position he has held since 1994.
Spencer has been a member of several science teams: the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Space Station Accommodations Analysis Study Team, Science Steering Group for TRMM, TOVS Pathfinder Working Group, NASA Headquarters Earth Science and Applications Advisory Subcommittee, and two National Research Council (NRC) study panels.
Peer-reviewed articles on climate change
Negative cloud feedback
In 2007, Spencer and others published a paper in Geophysical Research Letters regarding negative cloud feedback in the tropics that potentially supports Richard Lindzen's Iris hypothesis, which proposes that as the tropical atmosphere warms, cirrus clouds decrease, allowing infrared heat to escape from the atmosphere to outer space. Spencer stated, "To give an idea of how strong this enhanced cooling mechanism is, if it was operating on global warming, it would reduce estimates of future warming by over 75 percent. [...] Right now, all climate models predict that clouds will amplify warming. I'm betting that if the climate models' 'clouds' were made to behave the way we see these clouds behave in nature, it would substantially reduce the amount of climate change the models predict for the coming decades."
Cloud formation and temperature change
In 2008, Spencer and William Braswell published a paper in the Journal of Climate which suggests that natural variations in how clouds form could actually be causing temperature changes, rather than the other way around, and could also lead to overestimates of how sensitive the Earth's climate is to greenhouse gas emissions. Spencer stated, "Our paper is an important step toward validating a gut instinct that many meteorologists like myself have had over the years, [...] that the climate system is dominated by stabilizing processes, rather than destabilizing processes – that is, negative feedback rather than positive feedback."
Energy lost to space as compared to climate models
In 2011, Spencer and Braswell published a paper in Remote Sensing concluding that more energy is radiated back to space and released earlier than previously thought. Spencer stated, "The satellite observations suggest there is much more energy lost to space during and after warming than the climate models show. There is a huge discrepancy between the data and the forecasts that is especially big over the oceans."
The editor-in-chief of Remote Sensing, Wolfgang Wagner, later resigned over publication of Spencer and Braswell (2011), stating, "From a purely formal point of view, there were no errors with the review process. [...] the problem I see with the paper by Spencer and Braswell is not that it declared a minority view ...but that it essentially ignored the scientific arguments of its opponents. This latter point was missed in the review process, explaining why I perceive this paper to be fundamentally flawed and therefore wrongly accepted by the journal." Wagner added he, "would also like to personally protest against how the authors and like-minded climate skeptics have much exaggerated the paper's conclusions in public statements".
First, [they] analyzed 14 models, but they plotted only six models and the particular observational data set that provided maximum support for their hypothesis. Plotting all of the models and all of the data provide a much different conclusion.
In 2006 Spencer criticized Al Gore's documentary An Inconvenient Truth, saying, "For instance, Mr. Gore claims that the Earth is now warmer than it has been in thousands of years. Yet the latest National Academies of Science (NAS) report on the subject has now admitted that all we really know is that we are warmer now than we were during the last 400 years, which is mostly made up of the 'Little Ice Age'".
In a New York Post opinion column on February 26, 2007, Spencer wrote:
Contrary to popular accounts, very few scientists in the world – possibly none – have a sufficiently thorough, "big picture" understanding of the climate system to be relied upon for a prediction of the magnitude of global warming. To the public, we all might seem like experts, but the vast majority of us work on only a small portion of the problem.
In an interview with conservative talk show host Rush Limbaugh on February 28, 2007, Spencer stated that he didn't believe "catastrophic manmade global warming" was occurring. He also criticized climate models, saying "The people that have built the climate models that predict global warming believe they have sufficient physics in those models to predict the future. I believe they don't. I believe the climate system, the weather as it is today in the real world shows a stability that they do not yet have in those climate models." Roy Spencer is also included in a film that argues against the theory of man-made global warming called The Great Global Warming Swindle.
He testified before the Waxman committee's examination of political interference with climate science on March 19, 2007.
Spencer has published two books on climate change: In 2008, Climate Confusion: How Global Warming Hysteria Leads to Bad Science, Pandering Politicians and Misguided Policies that Hurt the Poor, and in 2010, The Great Global Warming Blunder: How Mother Nature Fooled the World’s Top Climate Scientists.
Spencer is a signatory to "An Evangelical Declaration on Global Warming", which states that "We believe Earth and its ecosystems—created by God's intelligent design and infinite power and sustained by His faithful providence—are robust, resilient, self-regulating, and self-correcting, admirably suited for human flourishing, and displaying His glory. Earth's climate system is no exception. Recent global warming is one of many natural cycles of warming and cooling in geologic history." He believes that most climate change is natural in origin, the result of long-term changes in the Earth's albedo and that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions have caused some warming, but that its warming influence is small compared to natural, internal, chaotic fluctuations in global average cloud cover. This view contradicts the scientific consensus that "most of the warming observed over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities". Climatologist Patrick Michaels, also a self-professed skeptic of global warming, has defended Spencer, arguing that his religious beliefs have nothing to do with his climate change research.
On July 18, 2013 before U.S. Senator Barbara Boxer's Environment and Public Works committee, Spencer suggested the hearing title could easily be renamed "Climate Change, It's Happened Before" rather than the actual title, "Climate Change, It's Happening Now". He added "The last 2000 years of proxy reconstructed temperature variations for the Northern Hemisphere shows that the Modern Warm Period (today) is not significantly different from the Medieval Warm Period of ~1000 years ago, or the Roman Warm Period of ~2000 years ago."
In February 2014 Spencer posted on his blog that he was going to start referring to those who referred to those questioning the mainstream view of global warming (such as Spencer himself) as "climate change deniers" as "global warming Nazis", contending that "...these people are supporting policies that will kill far more people than the Nazis ever did." The Anti-Defamation League responded with a statement condemning Spencer's comparison. Shelley Rose, the ADL's Southeast Interim Regional Director, argued that the comparison of global warming advocates to Nazis was "outrageous and deeply offensive," and "This analogy is just the latest example of a troubling epidemic of comparisons to Hitler and the Holocaust." In reply, Spencer asked whether the ADL was being hypocritical. Spencer quoted syndicated columnist Ellen Goodman's famous statement that "global warming deniers are now on a par with Holocaust deniers," and said that the ADL should condemn that use of "denier." Spencer was defended by Committee for a Constructive Tomorrow adjunct policy analyst Alan Caruba, who wrote that "Dr. Spencer’s decision to call a Nazi a Nazi ignited a lot of discussion among the global warming hustlers and those whom they have been calling “deniers” for many years."
In TCS Daily, Spencer wrote, "Twenty years ago, as a PhD scientist, I intensely studied the evolution versus intelligent design controversy for about two years. And finally, despite my previous acceptance of evolutionary theory as 'fact,' I came to the realization that intelligent design, as a theory of origins, is no more religious, and no less scientific, than evolutionism. In the scientific community, I am not alone. There are many fine books out there on the subject. Curiously, most of the books are written by scientists who lost faith in evolution as adults, after they learned how to apply the analytical tools they were taught in college."
In the book The Evolution Crisis, Spencer wrote, "I finally became convinced that the theory of creation actually had a much better scientific basis than the theory of evolution, for the creation model was actually better able to explain the physical and biological complexity in the world. [...] Science has startled us with its many discoveries and advances, but it has hit a brick wall in its attempt to rid itself of the need for a creator and designer."
- 1989 – Marshall Space Flight Center Center Director's Commendation
- 1990 – Alabama House of Representatives Resolution #624
- 1991 – NASA Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal (with John Christy)
- 1996 – American Meteorological Society Special Award "for developing a global, precise record of earth's temperature from operational polar-orbiting satellites, fundamentally advancing our ability to monitor climate." (with John Christy)
- Spencer, Roy W. (June 30, 2006). "Star Search". TCS Daily.
- Spencer, Roy W. (January 16, 2005). "World warms to Kyoto, but research will save the day". USA Today.
- Spencer, Roy W. (February 26, 2007). "NOT THAT SIMPLE – GLOBAL WARMING: WHAT WE DON'T KNOW". New York Post.
- Spencer, Roy W. (May 1, 2008). "More Carbon Dioxide, Please". National Review.
- Spencer, Roy W. (2008). Climate Confusion: How Global Warming Hysteria Leads to Bad Science, Pandering Politicians and Misguided Policies that Hurt the Poor. Encounter Books. ISBN 978-1-59403-210-3.
- Spencer, Roy W. (2010). The Great Global Warming Blunder: How Mother Nature Fooled the World's Top Climate Scientists. Encounter Books. ISBN 978-1-59403-373-5.
- Spencer, Roy W. (2010). The Bad Science and Bad Policy of Obama's Global Warming Agenda. Encounter Books. ISBN 978-1-59403-482-4. Archived from the original on July 18, 2012.
- Spencer, Roy W.; Christy, John R. (1990). "Precise Monitoring of Global Temperature Trends from Satellites". Science. 247 (4950): 1558–1562. Bibcode:1990Sci...247.1558S. doi:10.1126/science.247.4950.1558. PMID 17782811.
- Spencer, Roy W.; Braswell, William D. (2007). "Cloud and radiation budget changes associated with tropical intraseasonal oscillations". Geophysical Research Letters. 34 (15): L15707. Bibcode:2007GeoRL..3415707S. doi:10.1029/2007GL029698.
- Spencer, Roy W.; Braswell, William D. (2008). "Potential Biases in Feedback Diagnosis from Observational Data: A Simple Model Demonstration". Journal of Climate. 21 (21): 5624–5628. Bibcode:2008JCli...21.5624S. doi:10.1175/2008JCLI2253.1.
- Spencer, Roy W.; Braswell, William D. (2010). "On the diagnosis of radiative feedback in the presence of unknown radiative forcing". Journal of Geophysical Research. 115 (D16): D16109. Bibcode:2010JGRD..11516109S. doi:10.1029/2009JD013371.
- Spencer, Roy W.; Braswell, William D. (2011). "On the Misdiagnosis of Surface Temperature Feedbacks from Variations in Earth's Radiant Energy Balance". Remote Sensing. 3 (8): 1603–1613. Bibcode:2011RemS....3.1603S. doi:10.3390/rs3081603.
- "ISNI 0000000122132141". isni.org. Retrieved June 21, 2016.
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- "Aqua Project Science". NASA. Archived from the original on February 16, 2013. Retrieved August 27, 2012.
- Spencer, Roy W. (March 19, 2007). "STATEMENT TO THE COMMITTEE" (PDF). United States House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 28, 2007. Retrieved March 7, 2007.
- Spencer, Roy Warren (1981). "A case study of African wave structure and energetics during Atlantic transit". University of Wisconsin–Madison. OCLC 8338410. Cite journal requires
- "Detecting Tropical Cyclones Using AMSU". NASA. Retrieved August 27, 2012.
- Spencer, Roy W. and William D. Braswell (2001). "Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Monitoring with AMSU-A: Estimation of Maximum Sustained Wind Speeds". Monthly Weather Review. 129 (6): 1518–1532. Bibcode:2001MWRv..129.1518S. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(2001)129<1518:ATCMWA>2.0.CO;2. Retrieved August 27, 2012.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- "The Marshall Institute – Staff". George C. Marshall Institute. Archived from the original on July 12, 2012. Retrieved August 27, 2012.
- "Cornwall Alliance Board of Advisors". Cornwall Alliance. Archived from the original on April 28, 2013. Retrieved April 3, 2013.
- Spencer, Roy W.; Braswell, William D.; Christy, John R.; Hnilo, Justin (2007). "Cloud and radiation budget changes associated with tropical intraseasonal oscillations" (PDF). Geophysical Research Letters. 34 (15): L15707. Bibcode:2007GeoRL..3415707S. doi:10.1029/2007GL029698.
- Milloy, Study (November 1, 2007). "Clouds Mitigate Global Warming, New Evidence Shows". Heartland Institute. Retrieved August 27, 2012.
- "Cirrus disappearance: Warming might thin heat-trapping clouds" (Press release). University of Alabama in Huntsville. August 9, 2007. Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved August 27, 2012.
- Spencer, Roy W. and William D. Braswell (2008). "Potential Biases in Feedback Diagnosis from Observational Data: A Simple Model Demonstration" (PDF). Journal of Climate. 21 (21): 5624–5628. Bibcode:2008JCli...21.5624S. doi:10.1175/2008JCLI2253.1. Retrieved August 29, 2012.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Rice, Doyle (June 18, 2008). "Global warming forecast: Partly cloudy". USA Today. Retrieved August 29, 2012.
- "Has global warming research misinterpreted cloud behavior?". PhysOrg. June 8, 2008. Retrieved August 29, 2012.
- Spencer, Roy and William Braswell (2011). "On the Misdiagnosis of Climate Feedbacks from Variations in Earth's Radiant Energy Balance". Remote Sensing. 3 (8): 1603–1613. Bibcode:2011RemS....3.1603S. doi:10.3390/rs3081603.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Orlowski, Andrew (July 29, 2011). "'Missing heat': Is global warmth vanishing into space?". The Register. Retrieved August 29, 2012.
- "Data contradict climate model predictions". UPI. July 29, 2011. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
- Horton, Daniel (July 29, 2011). "Climate models make too hot forecasts of global warming". PhysOrg. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
- Borenstein, Seth (July 29, 2011). "Skeptic's small cloud study renews climate rancor". Associated Press. Archived from the original on January 30, 2013. Retrieved August 29, 2012.
- Black, Richard (September 2, 2011). "Journal editor resigns over 'problematic' climate paper". BBC News. Retrieved August 29, 2012.
- Hickman, Leo (February 9, 2011). "Journal editor resigns over 'flawed' paper co-authored by climate sceptic". The Guardian. Retrieved August 27, 2012.
- Wagner, Wolfgang (2011). "Taking Responsibility on Publishing the Controversial Paper "On the Misdiagnosis of Surface Temperature Feedbacks from Variations in Earth's Radiant Energy Balance" by Spencer and Braswell, Remote Sens. 2011, 3(8), 1603-1613". Remote Sensing. 3 (9): 2002–2004. Bibcode:2011RemS....3.2002W. doi:10.3390/rs3092002.
- Dessler, Andrew E. (2011). "Cloud variations and the Earth's energy budget" (PDF). Geophysical Research Letters. 38 (19): n/a. Bibcode:2011GeoRL..3819701D. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.362.5742. doi:10.1029/2011GL049236. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 29, 2011. Retrieved September 7, 2011.
- Star Search by Roy Spencer, TCS Daily, June 30, 2006
- Spencer, Roy W. (February 26, 2007). "NOT THAT SIMPLE / GLOBAL WARMING: WHAT WE DON'T KNOW". New York Post. Archived from the original on July 6, 2007. Retrieved April 7, 2007.
- Global Warming Update: Facts, Science Smash the Global Warming Myth Archived March 3, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- Climate Confusion
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- "Interview With A Global Warming Skeptic: Dr. Roy Spencer" (Interview). Interviewed by Cameron J. English. Science 2.0. May 13, 2010.
- "Climate Change 2001: Working Group I: The Scientific Basis". GRID-Arendal, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2001. Retrieved December 27, 2016.
- Michaels, Patrick J. (May 9, 2012). "Guilt by Association". National Review. Retrieved August 29, 2012.
- Noon, Marita (July 21, 2013). "Why Is Obama Lying on Climate Change?" Town Hall. Archived March 12, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
- Spencer, Roy W. (February 20, 2014). "Time to push back against the global warming Nazis". Drroyspencer.com. Retrieved February 21, 2014.
- Abrams, Lindsay (February 21, 2014). "People who call climate deniers "climate deniers" should be called "Global Warming Nazis," says climate denier". Salon. Retrieved February 21, 2014.
- Gattis, Paul (February 26, 2014). "UAH climate expert Roy Spencer calls critics 'global warming Nazis'; Anti-Defamation League objects". The Birmingham News. Retrieved February 28, 2014.
- UAH climate expert Roy Spencer sharply rebukes criticism from Anti-Defamation League, The Huntsville Times (AL.com), February 28, 2014
- Caruba, Alan (March 12, 2014). "Calling the Global Warming charlatans "Nazis"". Sonoran News. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- Spencer, Roy (August 8, 2005). "Faith-Based Evolution". TCS Daily. Archived from the original on October 3, 2009. Retrieved August 29, 2012.
- Penfold, Michael (2007). The Evolution Crisis. Penfold Books. ISBN 978-1900742245. Retrieved August 29, 2012.
- Horack, John; Dooling, Dave (January 1996). "SSL 1996 Annual Report – Earth Science". NASA.
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- Official website
- Roy Spencer – NASA Profile US AMSR-E Science Team Leader
- Roy Spencer – Select Works, George C. Marshall Institute
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Roy Spencer – Satellite Evidence for Global Warming Being Driven by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation presentation at the 2009 International Conference on Climate Change
- Critique of Roy Spencer’s book The Great Global Warming Blunder by Barry Bickmore, professor of geochemistry at Brigham Young University