Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
|Type||Non-departmental public body|
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, is a non-departmental public body in the United Kingdom sponsored by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. An internationally important botanical research and education institution, it employs 1,100 staff. Its board of trustees is chaired by Dame Amelia Fawcett.
The organisation manages botanic gardens at Kew in Richmond upon Thames in southwest London, and at Wakehurst, a National Trust property in Sussex which is home to the internationally important Millennium Seed Bank, whose scientists work with partner organisations in more than 95 countries. Kew, jointly with the Forestry Commission, founded Bedgebury National Pinetum in Kent in 1923, specialising in growing conifers. In 1994 the Castle Howard Arboretum Trust, which runs the Yorkshire Arboretum, was formed as a partnership between Kew and the Castle Howard Estate.
In 2019, the organisation had 2,316,699 public visitors at Kew, and 312,813 at Wakehurst. Its 326-acre (132 ha) site at Kew has 40 historically important buildings; it became a UNESCO World Heritage Site on 3 July 2003. The collections at Kew and Wakehurst include over 27,000 taxa of living plants, 8.3 million plant and fungal herbarium specimens, and over 40,000 species in the seed bank.
The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew states that its mission is to apply scientific discovery and research to fully develop the information about and potential uses of plants and fungi.
Kew is governed by a board of trustees which comprises a chairman and eleven members. Ten members and the chairman are appointed by the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. Her Majesty the Queen appoints her own trustee on the recommendation of the Secretary of State. As of 2019[update] the Board members are:
- Dame Amelia Fawcett (Chair)
- Nick Baird
- Liam Dolan
- Catherine Dugmore
- Sarah Flannigan
- Valerie Gooding
- Krishnan Guru-Murthy
- Sue Hartley
- Ian Karet
- Jantiene Klein Roseboom van der Veer
- Michael Lear
- Sir Derek Myers
There are approximately 350 researchers working at Kew. The Director of Science is Alexandre Antonelli. Monique Simmonds is Deputy Director of Science. Mark Chase is Senior Research Professor. Phil Stevenson is the Senior Research Leader and Head of the Biological Chemistry and In Vitro Research. The group has four Research Leaders—Melanie Howes, Vis Sarasan, Moses Langat and Tom Prescott.
The scientific staff at Kew maintain a variety of plant and fungal data and digital resources, including;
Plants of the World Online
Plants of the World Online is an online database launched in March 2017 as one of nine strategic outputs with the ultimate aim being "to enable users to access information on all the world's known seed-bearing plants by 2020". It links taxonomic data with images from the collection, to provide a single point of access with information on identification, distribution, traits, conservation, molecular phylogenies and uses. In addition it serves as a backbone for global resources such as World Flora Online.
International Plant Names Index
The International Plant Names Index (IPNI) includes information from the Index Kewensis, a project which began in the 19th century to provide an "Index to the Names and Authorities of all known flowering plants and their countries". The Harvard University Herbaria and the Australian National Herbarium co-operate with Kew in the IPNI database, which was launched in its present form in 1999 to produce an authoritative source of information on botanical nomenclature including publication details of seed plants, ferns and lycophytes. It is a nomenclatural listing of all published taxonomic plant names including new species, new combinations and new names at rank of Family down to infraspecific. It provides data for other related projects including Tropicos and GBIF.
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
The World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP) is a register of accepted scientific names and synonyms of 200 selected seed plant families. WCSP is widely used and most authoritative web resources on plants use it as their basis.
World Checklist of Vascular Plants
The World Checklist of Vascular Plants (WCVP) includes all known vascular plant species (flowering plants, conifers, ferns, clubmosses and firmosses). It is derived from the WCSP and the IPNI and therefore only includes names found in those databases. It is the taxonomic database for Plants of the World Online. Since WCSP includes only selected families, WCVP will seek to complete the process.
World Checklist of Useful Plant Species
The Plant List
Kew also cooperated with the Missouri Botanical Garden and other international bodies in The Plant List (TPL). Unlike the IPNI, it provides information on which names are currently accepted. The Plant List is an Internet encyclopedia project which was launched in 2010 to compile a comprehensive list of botanical nomenclature. The Plant List has 1,064,035 scientific plant names of species rank of which 350,699 are accepted species names. In addition, the list has 642 plant families and 17,020 plant genera. It was last updated in 2013, and was superseded by World Flora Online.
World Flora Online
World Flora Online was developed as a successor to The Plant List, in 2012, aiming to include all known plants by 2020.
- Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew's two main sites:
- Botanists active at Kew Gardens
- Curtis's Botanical Magazine, an illustrated publication which began in 1787 and is published by Wiley-Blackwell for the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
- Directors of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
- Index Kewensis, a massive index of plant names started and maintained by Kew Gardens
- Joseph Dalton Hooker, who succeeded his father, William Jackson Hooker, as director in 1865
- Kew Bulletin, a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Springer Science+Business Media on behalf of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
- The Great Plant Hunt, a primary school science initiative created by Kew Gardens, commissioned and funded by the Wellcome Trust
- Kew Gardens (Leases) Act 2019, an Act of Parliament relating the Gardens
- Annual reports 2020.
- "How we work". Millennium Seed Bank. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
- England, Forestry Commission. "History of Bedgebury National Pinetum". www.forestry.gov.uk. Retrieved 15 August 2018.
- "Background". Yorkshire Arboretum. Retrieved 15 August 2018.
- "ALVA - Association of Leading Visitor Attractions". www.alva.org.uk. Retrieved 23 October 2020.
- Guinness World Records 2011. Guinness World Records. 2010. pp. 69. ISBN 978 1 904994 57 2.
- "Living Collections at Kew". kew.org.
- "Science collections at Kew". kew.org.
- RBG mission 2020.
- "Board of Trustees". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 5 November 2019.
- RBG science 2020.
- "People". London: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
- "UK and Islands – Madagascar". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
- RBG data 2020.
- POWO 2020.
- Jackson 1893, Hooker JD. Preface, in.
- Turner & Govaerts 2019.
- Neotropikey 2020.
- WCSP 2020.
- WCVP 2020.
- WCUPS 2020.
- Paton 2013.
- WFO 2020.
- The Plant List 2013.
- Jackson, Benjamin Daydon (1893). Hooker, Joseph Dalton (ed.). Index Kewensis plantarum phanerogamarum: nomina et synonym omnium generum et specierum a linnaeo usque as annum MDCCLXXXV complectans nomine recepro auctore patria unicuique planta subjectis: sumptibus beati Caroli Roberti Darwin ductu et consilio Josephi D. Hooker. 2 vols [Index Kewensis: an enumeration of the genera and species of flowering plants from the time of Linnaeus to the year 1885 inclusive together with their authors names, the works in which they were first published, their native countries and their synonyms: compiled at the expense of the late Charles Robert Darwin under the direction of Joseph D. Hooker]. Oxford: Clarendon Press. (at Biodiversity Heritage Library)
- Diazgranados, Mauricio; Allkin, Robert; Black, Nicholas; et al. (June 2020). "World Checklist of Useful Plant Species". Technical Reports. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. doi:10.5063/F1CV4G34. Cite journal requires
- Turner, Robert; Govaerts, Rafaël (19 June 2019). "Challenges of Integrating and Curating Nomenclatural and Taxonomic Data in the World Checklist of Vascular Plants". Biodiversity Information Science and Standards (Conference abstract). 3. doi:10.3897/biss.3.37226.
- "Royal Botanic Gardens Kew annual report and accounts". GOV.UK. Retrieved 1 July 2020.
- "About us". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 11 June 2020.
- "Kew Science". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 11 June 2020.
- "Data and digital resources". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 11 June 2020.
- "About the Plants of the World Online portal". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 11 June 2020.
- "Neotropikey: Neotropical Flowering Plants". Kew Science. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 12 June 2020.
- "World Checklist of Selected Plant Families". Kew Science. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 12 June 2020.
- "World Checklist of Vascular Plants". Kew Science. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
- "The Plant List". The Plant List (2013). Version 1.1. 2020. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
- Paton, Alan (2013). "What's in a name? New version of The Plant List released". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
- "World Flora Online: An Online Flora of All Known Plants". The World Flora Online Consortium. Retrieved 29 June 2020.
- A Year at Kew – BBC documentary behind the scenes at Kew Gardens
- Kew Diploma students talk about the course and their allotments which form part of the course
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