The current President is Pam Whittle and recent Past Presidents have included George Anderson MBE SHM, Professor Fred T. Last, William Dundas, and John Main. The society's Secretary is responsible for the day-to-day management of the society. The current secretary is Diane Burn. Previous secretaries include Alison Murison, Tom Mabbott, who received an MBE for services to Scottish Horticulture, John MacLennan, and Dr. John MacKay.The first Secretary was Dr. Andrew Duncan who was also involved with the formation of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. The Princess Royal is a patron of the RCHS.
The society is responsible for various awards for contributions to Scottish horticulture. These include: the Scottish Horticultural Medal, the Andrew Duncan Medal, the Queen Elizabeth, The Queen Mother Medal, the Dr Patrick Neill Medal, and Certificates of Merit. The Society also plays an active role in the Scotland in Bloom scheme, and the annual "Gardening Scotland" show. The society also played a key role in the formation of the Scottish Gardeners Forum which provides a support mechanism for Scottish based horticultural societies by providing assistance with public liability insurance as well as speakers & judges lists