Royal Caribbean International

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Royal Caribbean International
Formerly
Royal Caribbean Cruise Line
Subsidiary
Industry
Founded1968 (1968) in Norway
HeadquartersMiami, Florida, US
Key people
Michael Bayley (President & CEO)
ServicesCruises
ParentRoyal Caribbean Cruises Ltd.
Websiteroyalcaribbean.com
Footnotes / references
[1][2]

Royal Caribbean International (RCI), previously known as Royal Caribbean Cruise Line (RCCL), is a cruise line brand founded in 1968 in Norway and organised as a wholly owned subsidiary of Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. (RCCL) since 1997. Based in Miami, Florida, United States, it is the largest cruise line by revenue and second largest by passengers counts. In 2018, Royal Caribbean International controlled 19.2% of the worldwide cruise market by passengers and 14.0% by revenue.[3] It also operates many of the world's largest ships; as of July 2019, the line operates twenty-six ships, including the four largest cruise ships in the world, and has six additional ships on order.

Company and brand history[edit]

Royal Caribbean's first ship, Song of Norway

Royal Caribbean Cruise Line was founded in 1968 by three Norwegian shipping companies: Anders Wilhelmsen & Company, I.M. Skaugen & Company, and Gotaas Larsen. The newly created line put its first ship, the Song of Norway, into service two years later. A year later, the line added the Nordic Prince to the fleet and in 1972 it added the Sun Viking. In 1978, Song of Norway became Royal Caribbean's first passenger ship to be lengthened. This was accomplished via the insertion of an 85-foot (26 m) section to the vessel's severed center. Following the success of this work, Nordic Prince was also stretched in 1980. During the stretching on both ships, their sterns were modified. However the Sun Viking was not stretched or modified and remained the same size and shape. Royal Caribbean received widespread global recognition when in 1982 it launched the Song of America, over twice the size of Sun Viking and at the time the third largest passenger vessel afloat (after the Norway and Queen Elizabeth 2).

Royal Caribbean's third ship, Sun Viking

In 1986, Royal Caribbean leased a coastal property in Labadie, Haiti to be used as a private destination for its guests, renamed as Labadee.[4] After a corporate restructuring in 1988, the line launched Sovereign of the Seas, the largest passenger vessel afloat at the time.[5] That same year, Royal Caribbean also merged with Admiral Cruises.[6] Two years later in 1990, Nordic Empress and Viking Serenade also entered service, while Royal Caribbean purchased a second private destination, Little Stirrup Cay, an island in the Bahamas, which they branded as CocoCay.[6]

Majesty of the Seas and Monarch of the Seas in Nassau, Bahamas

The second and third Sovereign-class cruise ships Monarch of the Seas and Majesty of the Seas were delivered in 1991 and 1992 respectively.

Royal Caribbean went public on the New York Stock Exchange in 1993. Over the next two years, the company experienced rapid growth, and it built a new corporate headquarters in Miami, Florida, and replaced the Nordic Prince with a new vessel, the Legend of the Seas.[7]

Following these events, two new Vision-class vessels entered service, the Splendour of the Seas and Grandeur of the Seas. In 1996, the company contracted with Finland's Aker Finnyards for the construction of 130,000-ton vessels and, in 1997, the line's oldest ship, Song of Norway, was sold and two new Vision-class ships entered service, Rhapsody of the Seas and Enchantment of the Seas.

Reorganisation and formation of Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd.[edit]

In 1997, it merged with the Greek cruise line Celebrity Cruises and changed its name from Royal Caribbean Cruise Line to Royal Caribbean International. The next year marked a transition to a more "strictly modern line", when the last of the company's older vessels, Song of America and Sun Viking, were retired. In 1998, Vision of the Seas came into service, the last of the Vision-class ships.

In 1999, the Voyager of the Seas, the line's newest and world's largest cruise ship entered service with much attention from the news media. Two years later, the line took delivery of a second Voyager-class ship, Explorer of the Seas, and the first of a new Radiance class of more environmentally friendly[clarification needed] cruise liners, Radiance of the Seas.

In 2000, Royal Caribbean operated a series of land-and-sea-based "cruise tours" in Alaska, featuring glass-domed train cars to scenic destinations within the state and Canada. Over the next two years, they also introduced cruise tours to destinations throughout Europe.[8]

The Voyager-class Navigator of the Seas and the Radiance-class Brilliance of the Seas were put into service in 2002. Mariner of the Seas and Serenade of the Seas, another pair of Voyager and Radiance-class ships, were introduced the next year, and rock-climbing walls were made a feature of every Royal Caribbean ship that year. A fourth Radiance-class ship, Jewel of the Seas, followed in 2004, and the line's Nordic Empress was reconditioned and re-christened as Empress of the Seas, which was later sold to Pullmantur Cruises in 2008. In 2005, Enchantment of the Seas underwent a massive renovation including enlarging the ship with a 74-foot (23 m) midsection.

Construction commenced on Freedom of the Seas, the line's newest ship, at Aker Finnyards in 2005, and the vessel launched the next year as the largest passenger vessel in the world. Freedom of the Seas's sister ship, Liberty of the Seas, was launched in 2007, and Independence of the Seas was delivered in 2008.

U.S. headquarters in Miami, Florida

An even larger class, the Oasis class, featuring Oasis of the Seas and Allure of the Seas, was launched in 2009 and 2010, guaranteeing Royal Caribbean the ship size lead for years to come. In December 2012, Royal Caribbean announced that they had ordered a third Oasis-class cruise ship from STX France, which would be larger than the previous ships in the class.[9] In March 2014, Royal Caribbean announced that they had ordered a fourth Oasis-Class ship from STX France.[10]

In February 2013, Royal Caribbean announced the first two ships of their newest Quantum class, Quantum of the Seas and Anthem of the Seas, which were being built at the Meyer Werft shipyard.[11][12][13] In May of that year, Royal Caribbean announced that they had signed a contract for a third Quantum-class ship for delivery in mid-2016.[14]

In September 2014, Royal Caribbean announced that the third Quantum-class ship would be named Ovation of the Seas,[15] and in February 2015 they announced that the third Oasis-class ship would be named Harmony of the Seas.[16]

In March 2015, Royal Caribbean announced that they had agreed to sell Splendour of the Seas to TUI Cruises in the second quarter of 2016.[17]

In June 2016, Royal Caribbean announced that they had agreed to sell Legend of the Seas to Thomson Cruises in the second quarter of 2017.[18]

The company lobbies in various jurisdictions in which it operates. In the United States of America, lobbying expenditure records are held by the Senate Office of Public Records.[19] In South Australia, the company is represented by lobbying company Richardson Coutts Pty Ltd.[20]

In 2017, Royal Caribbean agreed to use Port Everglades as a preferred berth for its Oasis class ships.[21] The new agreement extended the past contract with Port Everglades until 2026, contingent upon a $100 million remodeling of Cruise Terminal 25, and approved by the Broward County Board of County Commissioners.[21]

On March 15, 2018, Royal Caribbean announced that they will conduct a huge renovation for their private island, Coco Cay, which is halfway done with parts opening in December 2018 and early to late 2019 with its first opening in May 2019 and its official opening with everything completed by November or December 2019.

In July 2019 Royal Caribbean with the help of Northern Irish marine outfitter MJM Marine, successfully forced the closure of Titanic ship builder Harland & Wolff - Belfast.

Fleet[edit]

Current fleet[edit]

All ships under Royal Caribbean have names ending with the phrase "of the Seas", a theme that began in 1987 with Sovereign of the Seas, which was delivered that same year.

Empress class[edit]

The Empress class is a single-ship class consisting solely of Empress of the Seas. The ship was originally a newbuild ordered by Admiral Cruises and slated to enter service as Future Seas, but became part of the Royal Caribbean fleet when Admiral Cruises merged with Royal Caribbean in 1988, while the ship was still under construction. It was eventually completed in 1990 as Nordic Empress, and was renamed Empress of the Seas in 2004. It was transferred to Pullmantur Cruises in 2008[22] as Empress and served there until 2016, when it was transferred back to Royal Caribbean and refitted to continue service with its earlier owner as Empress of the Seas again.[23]

Ship Year
built
Gross
tonnage
Berths Notes Ship image
Double Maximum
Empress of the Seas 1990 48,563 1,840 Sailed for Pullmantur Cruises as Empress from 2008 to 2016.
Empress of the Seas in Grand Cayman May 30, 2016 (cropped).jpg

Sovereign class[edit]

At approximately 73,000 GT, these were described as the first "mega-ships" in the industry (with the exception of the SS Norway, an ocean liner converted into a cruise ship) built at the Chantiers de l'Atlantique shipyard in Saint-Nazaire, France. The first one, Sovereign of the Seas, was launched in 1988. The Sovereign-class ships were the first cruise ships to have an open atrium area.[24] Like larger Royal Caribbean ships, the Sovereign-class ships have pools, open bars and lounges inside, and grand theaters.

Both Sovereign of the Seas and Monarch of the Seas were transferred to the fleet of Pullmantur Cruises in October 2008 and April 2013, respectively.[25][26][27] Plans to transfer Majesty of the Seas to Pullmantur in 2016 were announced in November 2014, but Royal Caribbean reversed those plans in July 2015, instead stating that Majesty of the Seas would stay with Royal Caribbean International.[28]

Ship Year
built
Gross
tonnage
Berths Notes Ship image
Double Maximum
Majesty of the Seas 1992 74,007[29] 2,350[30] 2,767[30]
MSMajestyOfTheSeasEdit1.JPG

Vision class[edit]

The Vision class consists of three pairs of sister ships. Legend and Splendour, built at Chantiers de l'Atlantique, Saint-Nazaire, France have a gross tonnage of approximately 70,000. Grandeur and Enchantment were built at Kvaerner Masa-Yards, Helsinki, Finland and had an original tonnage of approximately 73,000 GT. The final pair, Rhapsody and Vision were also built at Chantiers de l'Atlantique, and have a tonnage of 78,000 GT. In 2005, a 74-foot (23 m) midsection was added to Enchantment of the Seas, bringing its tonnage to over 80,000 GT. All ships of this class feature over 2 acres (8,100 m2) of glass. Royal Caribbean sold both Splendour of the Seas and Legend of the Seas to Marella Cruises. Splendour of the Seas last sailed for Royal Caribbean on April 4, 2016, and the final Legend of the Seas sailing for Royal Caribbean left port on March 13, 2017.[31][32] In October 2019, RCI announced that the Grandeur of the Seas will be leaving the fleet after it's last scheduled sailing on March 21, 2021 transferring to Pullmantur Cruises[33].

Ship Year
built
Gross
tonnage
Berths Notes Ship image
Double Maximum
Grandeur of the Seas 1996 73,817[29] 1,992[34] 2,440[34] On October 16, 2019, it was announced Grandeur of the Seas would be transferred to Pullmantur Cruises in the Spring of 2021.
Grandeur of the Seas (cropped).jpg
Rhapsody of the Seas 1997 78,491[29] 1,998[35] 2,416[35]
Rhapsody of the Seas - Skagway, AK (cropped).jpg
Enchantment of the Seas 1997 82,910[29] 2,252[36] 2,730[36]
Enchantment of the Seas.jpg
Vision of the Seas 1998 78,340[29] 2,050[37] 2,514[37]
Vision of the Seas departing Tallinn 19 August 2013 (cropped).JPG

Voyager class[edit]

The sixth largest passenger ships at sea (Royal Caribbean's own Oasis, Quantum and Freedom classes, Norwegian Cruise Line's Norwegian Epic and Cunard's Queen Mary 2), the Voyager-class ships were the largest class of cruise ships in the world when constructed and were the first ships to have an ice rink at sea and the first to have Royal Caribbean's "Royal Promenade" mall concept, a main thoroughfare extending most of the length of the ship, flanked by bars, cafes, and shopping venues. They were built at Kvaerner Masa-Yards' (now Meyer Turku) facility in Turku, Finland. They have a gross tonnage of around 137,000 tonnes. Activity options on all five ships board include a basketball court, at least three pools, a mini-golf course, a rock wall, an ice skating rink and, originally, an inline skating track. Navigator of the Seas replaced the inline skating track with a Flowrider surf simulator in 2014, and similar changes are planned for Voyager and Explorer.[38]

Navigator of the Seas and Mariner of the Seas are second-generation Voyager-class vessels, and feature glass stateroom balconies that extend out from the superstructure of the ship and a larger Windjammer buffet area.

Ship Year
built
Gross
tonnage
Berths Notes Ship image
Double Maximum
Voyager of the Seas 1999 137,276[29] 3,114[39] 3,840[39] Refurbished in the Fall of 2019.
Voyager of the Seas in Sydney.jpg
Explorer of the Seas 2000 137,308[29] 3,114[40] 3,840[40]
Explorer of the Seas, Fremantle, 2015 (01) (cropped).JPG
Adventure of the Seas 2001 137,276[29] 3,114[41] 3,807[41]
Adventure of the Seas Wade 2012 (cropped).JPG
Navigator of the Seas 2002 139,999[42] 3,376[43] 4,000[43]
Navigator of the Seas 2014 Galveston 1 (cropped).JPG
Mariner of the Seas 2003 139,863[29] 3,114[44] 3,807[44]
Mariner of the Seas at hakata port (cropped).jpg

Radiance class[edit]

All Radiance-class ships have a gross tonnage of 90,090 and environmentally friendlier gas turbine engines. The Radiance-class ships have over 3 acres (12,000 m2) of glass, glass exterior viewing elevators, over 700 balcony staterooms, two-level glass windowed dining rooms, alternative restaurants, a retractable glass roof over a pool, an outdoor pool, as well as the first self-leveling billiard tables at sea. The Radiance class ships were constructed at Meyer Werft, Papenburg, Germany. Unlike the preceding Voyager class, these ships are built to the Panamax form factor, allowing them to pass through the Panama Canal.

Ship Year
built
Gross
tonnage
Berths Notes Ship image
Double Maximum
Radiance of the Seas 2001 90,090[29] 2,143[45] 2,466[45]
Radiance of the Seas - Juneau, AK (cropped).jpg
Brilliance of the Seas 2002 90,090[29] 2,142[46] 2,543[46]
Brilliance of the Seas in Tallinn 9 August 2012 (cropped).JPG
Serenade of the Seas 2003 90,090[29] 2,146[47] 2,476[47]
Serenade of the Seas at Grand Cayman1 (cropped).JPG
Jewel of the Seas 2004 90,090[29] 2,112[48] 2,502[48]
Jewel of the Seas G628 (cropped).jpg

Freedom class[edit]

The Freedom-class ships are lengthened versions of the second-generation Voyager-class ship, and contain a 400-foot (120 m) Royal Promenade mall running much of the length of the ship, an ice skating rink, basketball court, several pools, a mini-golf course, and a rock wall. New features on the Freedom class include the FlowRider surfing simulator, the H2O Zone kids water play area, a boxing ring, and hot tubs cantilevered over the side of the ship. At 154,407 gross tons, the Freedom-class ships were the largest ships in the world from 2006, until the debut of the Oasis class in 2009.[29]

Ship Year
built
Gross
tonnage
Berths Notes Ship image
Double Maximum
Freedom of the Seas 2006 154,407[29] 3,782[49] 4,515[49] To be refurbished for 2020
MS Freedom of the Seas in its maiden voyage (cropped).jpg
Liberty of the Seas 2007 155,889[50] 3,798[51] 4,960[51]
Liberty Of The Seas GC 12-22-16 (cropped).jpg
Independence of the Seas 2008 154,407[29] 3,634[52] 4,375[52]
MS Independence of the Seas in Southampton (cropped).JPG

Oasis class[edit]

The Oasis-class ships are the largest cruise ships ever built, having surpassed Freedom-class ships. They can accommodate up to 5,400 passengers at double occupancy and they have a maximum capacity of 6,296 passengers. Furthermore, the ships have a gross tonnage of at least 225,282 tons, and cost the line around US$1.4 billion each. The first two ships in the class, Oasis of the Seas and Allure of the Seas,[53][54] were delivered in 2009 and 2010 by STX Europe Turku Shipyard, Finland.[55] The third and fourth ships in the class, Harmony of the Seas and Symphony of the Seas were built at Chantiers de l'Atlantique in Saint-Nazaire, France.[56] Royal Caribbean International, in conjunction with USA Today, sponsored a contest to name the first two vessels.[53][57][58] On February 18th 2019 Royal Caribbean announced the order of a 6th Oasis class vessel from Chantiers de l'Atlantique for delivery in 2023 with a double occupancy of 5,714 and gross tonnage of 231,000.

Ship Year
built
Gross
tonnage
Berths Notes Ship image
Double Maximum
Oasis of the Seas 2009 225,282 5,400[59] 6,360[59] Refurbished in fall of 2019.
Oasis of the Seas (cropped).jpg
Allure of the Seas 2010 225,282 5,492[60] 6,410[60]
Allure of the Seas (ship, 2009) 001 (cropped).jpg
Harmony of the Seas 2016 226,963[61] 5,497[62] 6,687[62]
Harmony of the Seas (ship, 2016) 001 (cropped).jpg
Symphony of the Seas 2018 228,081[63] 5,518[63] 6,680[63] The largest passenger ship in the world by gross tonnage as of June 2019.
SymphonyOfTheSeas1 (cropped).jpg

Quantum class[edit]

The Quantum-class of ships debuted as the second largest class of cruise ships in the world. The Quantum-class ships were the first ships built for Royal Caribbean by Meyer Werft since the Radiance class and share many features with those ships, including indoor pools with retractable roofs, vast expanses of glass, outdoor seating in the "Windjammer" buffet, and self-leveling pool tables.[64][65] Other distinctive features of the Quantum-class include the "North Star" observation capsule mounted on the end of a 41-meter-long (135 ft) crane arm,[66] "RipCord by iFLY" a skydiving simulator,[67] the three-deck-high Two70° lounge and performance venue at the aft of the ship featuring panoramic windows that convert into projection screens,[68] and the multi-purpose SeaPlex facility which hosts activities such as basketball, roller skating, bumper cars, and a trapeze school.[69] The Quantum class was the first class designed specifically for Dynamic Dining, and feature several separate complementary dining facilities instead of a single main dining room.[70] Each venue will maintain the same menu and staff throughout the cruise.[71] Unlike the earlier Voyager, Freedom, and Oasis class, Quantum-class ships do not feature a Viking Crown Lounge or ice skating rink, and the Royal Promenade mall down the center of the ship is not featured in its traditional form.[72][73]

Four ships, Quantum of the Seas, Anthem of the Seas, Ovation of the Seas, and Spectrum of the Seas[74][75] have been built so far. A fifth ship, Odyssey of the Seas is planned for 2020.[76]

Ship Year
built
Gross
tonnage
Berths Notes Ship image
Double Maximum
Quantum of the Seas 2014 168,666[77] 4,180[77] 4,905[77]
Quantum of the Seas - Wedel 04 (cropped).jpg
Anthem of the Seas 2015 168,666[78] 4,180[78] 4,905[78]
El Crucero Anthem of The Seas en el muelle de Santa Catalina de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. (18173969071).jpg
Ovation of the Seas 2016[79] 168,666[80] 4,180[14] 4,905[14]
Ovation of the Seas - Nieuwe Maas - Port of Rotterdam (25843859904) (cropped).jpg
Spectrum of the Seas 2019 169,379 4,246[81] First Quantum Ultra Class[82] ship
SPECTRUM OF THE SEAS 20190608-2 (cropped).jpg

Future fleet[edit]

Ship Class Estimated date of completion Current status Gross
tonnage
Berths Notes Ship image
Double Maximum
Odyssey of the Seas Quantum Ultra Class 2020 Under construction as of 1 February 2019[83] 169,379 4,200 2nd Quantum Ultra-class cruise ship
Wonder of the Seas[84] Oasis class 2021 Under construction as of 24 April 2019 230,000 TBA 5th Oasis-class cruise ship[85]
TBA Icon class 2022 Agreement signed
10 October 2016
200,000 5,650 1st LNG powered Project Icon cruise ship[86]
TBA Oasis class 2023 Agreement signed
18 February 2019
231,000 5,714[87] 6th Oasis-class cruise ship[88]
TBA Icon class 2024 Agreement signed
10 October 2016
200,000 5,650 2nd LNG powered Project Icon cruise ship[86]
TBA Icon class 2025 Agreement signed
2 July 2019
200,000 5,650 3rd LNG powered Project Icon cruise ship[89]

Former fleet[edit]

Ship Class Year built Duration in service for Royal Caribbean International Current status
(as of 2018)
Gross tonnage Notes Ship image
Song of Norway Song of Norway class 1970 1970–1997 Scrapped in 2013 as the Formosa Queen.[90] 22,945
Song of Norway Vigo (cropped).jpg
Nordic Prince Song of Norway class 1971 1971–1995 Scrapped in 2015 as the Pacific[91] 23,149
Carouselship (cropped).jpg
Sun Viking Song of Norway class 1972 1972–1998 Operating as floating casino Oriental Dragon for Oceanic Group Intl. 16,607
Sun Viking at Ocean Terminal, Hong Kong (cropped).jpg
Song of America Song of America class 1982 1982–1999 Operating as the Celestyal Olympia for Celestyal Cruises 37,584
ThomsonDestiny (cropped).jpg
Viking Serenade 1982 1990–2002 (built 1982) Scrapped in 2018 as the Ocean Gala.[92] 40,171 Transferred from Royal Caribbean's subsidiary Admiral Cruises in 1990.
Viking Serenade Mexico 3 (cropped).jpg
Sovereign of the Seas Sovereign class 1987 1988–2008 Operating as the Sovereign for Pullmantur Cruises 73,192
Sovereign of the Seas Nassau Bahamas (244161813) (cropped).jpg
Monarch of the Seas Sovereign class 1991 1991–2013 Operating as the Monarch for Pullmantur Cruises 73,192
Monarch of the Seas (cropped).JPG
Splendour of the Seas Vision class 1996 1996–2016 Operating as the Marella Discovery for Marella Cruises 69,130[29][93]
Splendour of the Seas 2011 (cropped).jpg
Legend of the Seas Vision class 1995 1995–2017 Operating as the Marella Discovery 2 with Marella Cruises 69,130[29]
Legend of the Seas (1) (cropped).jpg

Private resorts[edit]

Royal Caribbean operates two privately owned resorts that are used as stops on some Caribbean and Bahamas itineraries. They are Labadee, a resort on the northern coast of Haiti, and Coco Cay, a private island in the Berry Islands region of the Bahamas. Each resort features canopies for eating, lounge chairs, palm trees, white sand beaches, and a number of activities.

The company is planning to open additional private resorts in Asia[94] and on Lelepa Island, Vanuatu.[95]

Ports of call[edit]

Royal Caribbean operates internationally and has many ports of call.

US ports[edit]

United States ports for Royal Caribbean include Port Evergaldes in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, Cape Liberty Cruise Port, Honolulu Harbor, PortMiami, the Port of Seattle, the Port of Galveston in Galveston, Texas, the Port of Los Angeles, the Port of New Orleans, the Port of San Diego, the Port of Seward in Seward, Alaska, the Port of Baltimore, the Port of Boston, Port Canaveral in Cape Canaveral, Florida, and Port Tampa Bay in Tampa, Florida.[96]

International ports[edit]

Among these are the Port of Amsterdam, the Port of Barcelona, the Port of Quebec, the Port of Shenzhen, the Port of Stockholm, the Port of Vancouver, the Port of Auckland, the Port of Beijing, the Port of Civitavecchia, the Port of Singapore, the Port of Sydney, the Port of Venice, the Port of Copenhagen, the Port of Hong Kong, the Port of Melbourne, the Port of San Juan, the Port of Shanghai, and the Port of Southampton.[96] Marmagao Port, Goa.

Awards[edit]

Recent Travel awards include

Controversies[edit]

As of 2008, Royal Caribbean had 22% of the market share in cruise line operation. Cruise line operators are criticized for using this large economic impact to cut deals with home ports, ports of call, and agencies.[99]

Norovirus outbreaks[edit]

In January 2014, an outbreak of norovirus aboard the Explorer of the Seas sickened 689 of 4,237 passengers and crew (16.3%), causing the ship to return to port two days early.[100][101] The outbreak reportedly marked the greatest number of cases of illness aboard a cruise ship in two decades,[102] barely exceeding a 2006 outbreak aboard the Carnival Cruise Lines' Carnival Liberty that sickened 679 of 3,970 passengers and crew (17.1%).[103] Royal Caribbean offered all passengers aboard that cruise a 50% refund of their cruise fare, an additional 50% (plus 10% for each day sick passengers were quarantined) of their cruise fare as a credit towards another cruise, and reimbursed extra travel expenses for guests returning home early.[104]

Docking in Haiti[edit]

In the aftermath of the 2010 Haiti earthquake, Royal Caribbean continued docking cruise ships at the Labadee resort, located approximately 60 miles from the epicenter of the earthquake, during the ongoing humanitarian crisis. Royal Caribbean vice president John Weis defended the decision, citing relief supplies delivered through the ships and proceeds from the call going towards relief efforts. The decision to continue docking was criticized nonetheless and created concern among passengers.[105][106]

George Allen Smith case[edit]

On 5 July 2005, passengers on board the Brilliance of the Seas reported what appeared to be blood on a part of the ship below the passenger balconies. After a search, George Allen Smith was discovered to be missing and thought to have fallen overboard. A criminal investigation into possible foul play was conducted, and a brief press release on the company's investor relations website announced the settlement of the case,[107] later revealed to be more than $1 million.[108]

Environmental record[edit]

In 1998 and 1999, the company was fined US$9 million because one of its ships, the Sovereign of the Seas, had repeatedly dumped oily waste into the ocean and tried to hide this using false records, including fake piping diagrams given to the US Coast Guard. Because the company was and is incorporated in Liberia, Royal Caribbean argued that this case was not in the jurisdiction of US courts. Despite their argument, they were unsuccessful.[109]

References[edit]

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  20. ^ "New registration form – South Australian register of lobbyists". 17 May 2016.
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