Royal Households of the United Kingdom
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The Royal Households of the United Kingdom are the collective departments which support members of the British Royal Family. Many members of the Royal Family who undertake public duties have separate households. They vary considerably in size, from the large Royal Household which supports the Sovereign to the household of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge and Prince Harry, with fewer than ten members. The lesser households are funded from the Civil List annuities, paid to their respective royal employers for their public duties, and all reimbursed to HM Treasury by the Queen.
In addition to the royal officials and support staff, the Sovereign's own household incorporates representatives of other estates of the Realm, including the Government, the Military, and the Church. Government whips, defence chiefs, several clerics, scientists, musicians, poets, and artists hold honorary positions within the Royal Household. In this way, the Royal Household may be seen as having a symbolic, as well as a practical, function: exemplifying the Monarchy's close relationship with other parts of the Constitution and of national life.
- 1 Historical overview
- 2 The Royal Household today
- 3 Household of Queen Elizabeth II
- 4 Household of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
- 5 Household of the Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall
- 5.1 Principal Private Secretaries
- 5.2 Private Secretaries
- 5.3 Masters of the Household
- 5.4 Deputy Masters of the Household
- 5.5 Treasurers
- 5.6 Deputy Private Secretaries
- 5.7 Assistant Private Secretaries
- 5.8 Equerries
- 5.9 Assistant Masters of the Household
- 5.10 Assistant Press Secretary
- 5.11 Communications
- 6 Household of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge and Prince Harry
- 7 Household of the Duke of York
- 8 Household of the Earl and Countess of Wessex
- 9 Household of the Princess Royal
- 10 Lesser households
- 11 Former households
- 11.1 Household of King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra
- 11.2 Household of King George V and Queen Mary
- 11.3 Household of Queen Elizabeth, The Queen Mother
- 11.3.1 Comptroller
- 11.3.2 Equerries
- 11.3.3 Ladies-in-Waiting
- 11.3.4 Ladies of the Bedchamber
- 11.3.5 Lord Chamberlain
- 11.3.6 Mistress of the Robes
- 11.3.7 Pages of Honour
- 11.3.8 Press secretary
- 11.3.9 Private secretaries
- 11.3.10 Treasurers
- 11.3.11 Women of the Bedchamber
- 11.3.12 Apothecaries
- 11.3.13 Physicians
- 11.3.14 Surgeons
- 11.3.15 Surgeon-Apothecary
- 11.3.16 Honorific positions
- 12 See also
- 13 Notes and sources
- 14 External links
The sovereign's domestics were his officers of state, and the leading dignitaries of the palace were the principal administrators of the kingdom. The royal household itself had, in its turn, grown out of an earlier and more primitive "thegnhood", and among the most eminent and powerful of the king's thegns were his "dishthegn," his "bowerthegn," and his horsethegn or staller. In Normandy at the time of the Conquest a similar arrangement, imitated from the French court, had long been established, and the Norman dukes, like their overlords the kings of France, had their seneschal or steward, their chamberlain and their constable. After the Norman Conquest, the ducal household of Normandy was reproduced in the royal household of England; and since, in obedience to the spirit of feudalism, the great offices of the first had been made hereditary, the great offices of the second were made hereditary also, and were thenceforth held by the grantees and their descendants as holder of tenure in grand serjeanty of the crown.
The consequence was that they passed out of immediate relation to the practical conduct of affairs either in both state and court or in the one or the other of them. The steward and Lord High Chamberlain of England were superseded in their political functions by the Justiciar and Treasurer of England, and in their domestic functions by the Lord Steward and Lord Chamberlain of the household. The marshal of England took the place of the constable of England in the royal palace, and was associated with him in the command of the royal armies.
The marshalship and the constableship became hereditary, and, although the Lord High Constable and Earl Marshal of England retained their military authority until a comparatively late period, the duties they had performed about the palace had been long before transferred to the master of the horse. In these circumstances the holders of the original great offices of state and the household ceased to attend the court except on occasions of extraordinary ceremony, and their representatives either by inheritance or by special appointment have ever since continued to appear at coronations and some other public solemnities, such as the State Opening of Parliament or trials by the House of Lords.
The earliest record relating to the English royal household is of the reign of Henry II and is contained in the Black Book of the Exchequer. It enumerates the various inmates of the king's palace and the daily allowances made to them at the period at which it was compiled. It affords evidence of the antiquity and relative importance of the court offices to which it refers, though it is silent as to the functions and formal subordination of the persons who filled them. In addition to this record, there are more recent but (for the most part) equally meagre, documents bearing on the constitution of the royal household, and extending, with long intervals, from the reign of Edward III to the reign of William and Mary. Among them, however, are what are known as the Black Book of the Household and the Statutes of Eltham, the first compiled in the reign of Edward IV and the second in the reign of Henry VIII from which a good deal of detailed information is available concerning the arrangements of the court in the 15th and 16th centuries.
The Statutes of Eltham were meant for the practical guidance of those who were responsible for the good order and the sufficient supply of the sovereign's household at the time they were issued. The great officers of state and the household specifically mentioned are not all of them. We have named those only whose representatives are still dignitaries of the court and functionaries of the palace. If the reader consults Hallam (Middle Ages, i. 181 seq.), Freeman (Norman Conquest, i. 91 seq., and v. 426 seq.) and Stubbs (Const. Hist. i. 343, seq.), he will be able himself to fill in the details of the outline we have given above.
But the Black Book of the Household, besides being a sort of treatise on princely magnificence generally, professes to be based on the regulations established for the governance of the court by Edward III, who, it affirms, was "the first setter of certeynties among his domesticall meyne, upon a grounded rule" and whose palace it describes as "the house of very policie and flowre of England"; and it may therefore possibly, and even probably, take us back to a period much more remote than that at which it was actually put together.
Various orders, returns and accounts of the reigns of Elizabeth, James I, Charles I, Charles II, and William and Mary throw considerable light on the organisation of particular sections of the royal household in times nearer to our own. Moreover, there were several parliamentary inquiries into the expenses of the royal household in connection with the settlement or reform of the civil list during the reigns of George III, George IV and William IV. But they add little or nothing to our knowledge of the subject in what was then its historical as distinguished from its contemporary aspects. So much, indeed, is this the case that, on the accession of Queen Victoria, Chamberlayne's Present State of England, which contains a catalogue of the officials at the court of Queen Anne, was described by Lord Melbourne the prime minister as the "only authority" which the advisers of the crown could find for their assistance in determining the appropriate constitution and dimensions of the domestic establishment of a queen regnant.
In its main outlines the existing organisation of the royal household is essentially the same as it was under the Tudors or the Plantagenets. It is divided into three principal departments, at the head of which are the lord steward, the lord chamberlain and the master of the horse, and the respective provinces of which may be generally described as "below stairs," "above stairs" and "out of doors." The duties of these officials, and the various officers under their charge are dealt with in the articles under those headings. When the reigning sovereign is a queen, the royal household is in some other respects rather differently arranged from that of a king and a queen consort.
When there is a king and a queen consort there is a separate establishment "above stairs" and "out of doors" for the queen consort. She has a Lord Chamberlain's department of her own, and all the ladies of the court from the Mistress of the Robes to the Maids of Honour are in her service. At the commencement of the reign of Queen Victoria the two establishments were combined, and on the whole considerably reduced. On the accession of Edward VII the civil list was again reconstituted; and while the household of the king and his consort became larger than during the previous reign, there was a tendency towards increased efficiency by abolishing certain offices which were either redundant or unnecessary.
The Royal Household today
The three Great Officers of the Household
The Great Officers of the Household are the Lord Chamberlain, the Lord Steward and the Master of the Horse. Nowadays only the first of these fulfils an executive function; but the other two continue to have a ceremonial role, and are to be seen particularly on State occasions.
The Lord Chamberlain
As presently arranged, the Royal Household is coordinated by the part-time Lord Chamberlain (The Earl Peel GCVO PC DL since 12 October 2006), and organised into a number of functionally separate units.
Heads of departments
The Private Secretary to the Sovereign (Sir Christopher GeidtKCB KCVO OBE since 8 September 2007), under whom works the Private Secretary's Office, but who also has control of the Press Office, the Queen's Archives, and the Defence Services Secretary's Office, serves as principal advisor to the Sovereign and the principal channel of communication between the Sovereign and his or her Governments. Besides these, he also manages the Sovereign's official programme and correspondence
The Keeper of the Privy Purse has responsibility for the Sovereign's personal finances and those to do with semi-private concerns, along with, as Treasurer to the Queen oversight of the civil list. The two positions are held together and, since 2002, they have both been held by Sir Alan Reid GCVO.
Each of these Heads of Department reports to the Lord Chamberlain, and is a member of the Lord Chamberlain's Committee.
The Royal Almonry, Ecclesiastical Household, and Medical Household are functionally separate but for accounting purposes are the responsibility of the Keeper of the Privy Purse and Treasurer to the Queen.
The Crown Equerry has day-to-day operation of the Royal Mews, and is part of the Lord Chamberlain's Office. The other Equerries have a very different role: attending and assisting the Queen in her official duties from day to day. (Historically, they too were part of the Mews, but today they are entirely separate.)
The College of Arms has been a branch of the Royal Household since its incorporation in 1484 by King Richard III. The College is a corporation of thirteen royal heralds, overseen by the Earl Marshal, a hereditary office held by the Duke of Norfolk. The College is self-supporting and receives no funds from the Crown. The College holds jurisdiction over all matters pertaining to heraldry, genealogy and pedigrees in England, Wales, Northern Ireland and in some Commonwealth realms. The officers of the College accompany the Queen on two State occasions per year: the State Opening of Parliament and the Garter Service. They also assist in the organisation of royal ceremonial occasions such as coronations and state funerals.
Certain independent and honorific posts include Master of the Queen's Music, Piper to the Sovereign, Poet Laureate, and Astronomer Royal. The Queen's Bargemaster, the Keeper of the Jewel House, the Serjeants-at-Arms and the Warden and Marker of the Swans, perform less celebrated functions.
The offices of Treasurer of the Household, Comptroller of the Household and Vice-Chamberlain of the Household are held by senior government whips in the House of Commons. In the House of Lords, the Government Chief Whip is usually appointed Captain of the Gentlemen-at-Arms and the Deputy Chief Whip as Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard, with junior whips appointed as Lords-in-Waiting and Baronesses-in-Waiting. Occasionally these officers are called upon to undertake Household duties, especially the Vice-Chamberlain, who is responsible for writing regular parliamentary reports for the Queen.
The ladies-in-waiting, who are in personal attendance on the Queen on a daily basis, are formally styled either Ladies of the Bedchamber or Women of the Bedchamber. They are notionally overseen by the Mistress of the Robes – historically the senior female member of the Royal Household, but today a ceremonial position.
The Household includes a number of honorary military appointments: the Aides-de-Camp to the Queen (who are usually very high-ranking officers of the three armed services), the two Gold Sticks and the Vice Admiral and Rear Admiral of the United Kingdom. In addition, the two corps of royal bodyguards (the Gentlemen at Arms and the Yeomen of the Guard) are part of the Household.
Gentlemen Ushers are unpaid members of the Royal Household, often retired military officers, who provide occasional assistance as marshals at royal events. The Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod is an important official in the Houses of Parliament; but technically he too is a member of the Royal Household (and acts as the Queen's messenger at the State Opening).
The royal residences (see list of British Royal Residences) in current use are cared for and maintained by the Royal Household Property Section directly from the grant-in-aid provided by Parliament, whereas Balmoral Castle and Sandringham House are privately owned and maintained. The unoccupied royal residences (including the Tower of London) are run by the Historic Royal Palaces Agency, which is self-funding.
Royal Household in Scotland
The Royal Household in Scotland includes offices of personal, honorary and state appointments.
The Great Officers of the Royal Household are:
- Lord High Constable of Scotland
- Master of the Household
- The Hereditary Keeper of Holyroodhouse (the Duke of Hamilton)
- Bearer of the Royal Banner
- Bearer of the National Flag of Scotland
- Lord Justice General
- Great Steward of Scotland
The Royal Household in Scotland also includes a number of other hereditary and non-hereditary offices:
- Master Carver
- Lord Lyon King of Arms and his heralds and pursuivants,
- Governor of Edinburgh Castle
- The Royal Company of Archers, the monarch's bodyguard
- Dean of the Thistle, an officer of the Order of the Thistle
- Dean of the Chapel Royal
- Historiographer Royal
- Her Majesty's Botanist
- The Painter and Limner
- Sculptor in Ordinary for Scotland
- Astronomer Royal for Scotland
- A number of Hereditary Keepers of Palaces and Castles:
- Falkland Palace – Ninian Crichton-Stuart
- Stirling Castle – the Earl of Mar and Kellie
- Dunstaffnage Castle – the Duke of Argyll
- Dunconnel Castle – Sir Charles Edward Maclean of Dunconnel Bt, 2nd Baronet of Strachur and Glensluain, Baron Strachur, and 16th Hereditary Keeper and Captain of Dunconnel in the Isles of The Sea.
- chaplains, physicians, surgeons, apothecaries
Household of Queen Elizabeth II
Household of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
The Household of the Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh provides the administrative support to Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. It is based at Buckingham Palace, and is headed by his Private Secretary — the Treasurer (part-time 1970–1976) was formerly the senior officer, but this post is now vacant. There are also an Equerry (a major or equivalent from any of the three armed services), and two temporary equerries (usually a Captain from the Royal Marines, and a Captain from the Grenadier Guards).
Treasurers to the Duke of Edinburgh
- 1984–1995: Sir Brian McGrath GCVO
- Acting, 1982–1984: Sir Richard Davies KCVO CBE
- 1970–1982: Lord Rupert Nevill CVO JP DL KStJ
- 1959–1970: RAdm Sir Christopher Bonham-Carter CB GCVO
- Acting, 1957–1960: Capt David Alexander RM
- 1952–1959: Lt Gen Sir Frederick Browning GCVO KBE CB DSO
Private Secretaries to the Duke of Edinburgh
- 2010—: Brigadier Archie Miller-Bakewell 
- 1993–2010: Brig Sir Miles Hunt-Davis GCVO CBE
- 1984–1992: Sir Brian McGrath GCVO
- Acting 1982–1984: Sir Richard Davies KCVO CBE
- 1976–1982: Lord Rupert Nevill CVO DL
- 1970–1976: Cdr William Willett OBE MVO DSC RN
- May–November 1970: RAdm Sir Christopher Bonham-Carter GCVO CB
- 1957–1970: James Orr CVO
- 1947–1957: Lt Cdr Michael Parker CVO AM RN
Household of the Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall
The Household of the Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall is the organised office and support system for Charles, Prince of Wales, and his consort the Duchess of Cornwall. At the time of their 2009 Annual Review the Office of the Prince of Wales had the full-time equivalent of 121 staff. The head of the Household is the Principal Private Secretary, William Nye. Senior officials include the Private Secretary, Mark Leishman; the Master of the Household, Earl of Rosslyn; the Treasurer, Leslie Ferrar; Communications Secretary, Patrick Harverson and Press Secretary, Patrick Harrison; the Director of The Prince's Charities, Sir Tom Shebbeare KCVO; and the Equerry, Maj Will Mackinlay.
In 2000 an Official Harpist to the Prince of Wales was appointed. The first holder of the office was Miss Catrin Finch. The Prince of Wales revived a tradition of having Welsh harpists by appointing Ms Finch. She was the first to receive a similar post since one was last granted in 1871 by Queen Victoria to John Thomas. In 2004 Catrin Finch was replaced by Miss Jemima Phillips, who in turn was replaced by Miss Claire Jones in 2007.
The Prince of Wales' Office is principally based at Clarence House, London, but also occupies rooms in the rest of St James's Palace. There are also offices for official staff at Highgrove House and Birkhall House, The Prince of Wales's private residences. In November 2006, The Prince of Wales bought his first home in Wales, the Llwynywormwood estate near Llandovery, Carmarthenshire, which he plans to use when he and The Duchess of Cornwall are visiting the country. The estate consists of an ex-coachhouse and is set in almost 200 acres (0.81 km2) of rolling parkland
Most of the expenses incurred in operating the office comes from The Prince of Wales's private appanage, the Duchy of Cornwall. The only significant costs met by grant-in-aid provided by the Government is for the upkeep of Clarence House, and for official travel by air and rail, and for communications support.
Details of The Prince's Senior Staff are available in his Office's Annual Reports. The following titles all have "to/of The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall" suffixed when written in full. Prior to the Prince's 2005 marriage, they were instead suffixed "to/of The Prince of Wales".
Principal Private Secretaries
- 2005–12 September 2011: Sir Michael Peat KCVO
- 12 September 2011–2015: William Nye
- 2015-present Clive Alderton
- 2009–2012: Clive Alderton, Private Secretary for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs
- 2005–2011: Manon Williams, Private Secretary for Wales (part-time)
- 2009—: Mark Leishman, LVO (as "Senior Deputy Private Secretary" January – July 2009)
- 2005–2008: Elizabeth Buchanan CVO
- 2002–2005: Sir Michael Peat KCVO
- 1996–2002: Sir Stephen Lamport KCVO
- 1991–1996: Cdr Richard Aylard CVO RN
- 1990–1991: Maj Gen Sir Christopher Airy KCVO CBE
- September 1985 – 1990: Sir John Riddell Bt CVO FRSA
- Acting 1 April–September 1985 David Roycroft
- 1979–1985: Edward Adeane CVO
- 1970–1978: Sqn Ldr Sir David Checketts KCVO
Masters of the Household
- 2014-: Cdr The Earl of Rosslyn, CVO, QPM
- 2008-2014: Wing Cdr Richard Pattle
- 2006–2008: Lt Col Sir Malcolm Ross
- 2005–2006: Kevin Knott
Deputy Masters of the Household
- 2006—2009: Andrew Farquharson
- 2012-: Andrew Wright
- 2005—2012: Leslie Ferrar
- —2005: Kevin Knott
Deputy Private Secretaries
- 2012-2014: Simon Martin
- 2008—2013: Benet Northcote
- 2006–2008: Clive Alderton
- 2005–2008: Mark Leishman
- 2005–?: Mrs Manon Williams
- 2005: James Kidner MVO
- 2002–2005: Elizabeth Buchanan LVO
- 1998–2002: Mark Bolland
- 1993–1996: Stephen Lamport
- 1990–1993: Sir Peter Westmacott KCMG LVO
- 1988–1990: David Wright LVO
- 1986–1988: Col Humphrey Mews
Assistant Private Secretaries
- ?–present: Emily Cherrington
- ?–present: Sarah Kennedy-Good
- 2008: Shilpa Sinha
- 2008–present: Sophie Densham
- 2006–2008: Anita Kumar
- 2006–present: Jonathan Hellewell
- 2005–2007: Katy Golding
- 2005–present: Joy Camm & Amanda MacManus (each part-time)
- 2004–2005: Mrs Manon Williams
- 2003–2005: Mark Leishman
- 2003–2005: James Kidner
- 2002–2005: Paul Kefford
- 1994–1998: Mrs Manon Williams
- 2013-current: Major David Bevan, Welsh Guards
- 2011–2013: Major Peter Flynn, Parachute Regiment
- 2008–2011: Major Will Mackinlay
- 2006–2008: Sqn Ldr Jayne Casebury, RAF
- 2004–2006: Wing Cdr Richard Pattle, RAF
- 2003–2004: Major Rupert Lendrum (Senior Equerry)
- 2002-2004: Lt-Cdr Alastair Graham
- 1999-2002: Lt-Cdr William Entwisle
- 1996–1999: Lt-Cdr John Lavery
- 1994–1996: Maj Patrick Tabor
- 1991–1994: Lt-Cdr Robert Fraser
- 1989–1991: Cdr Alastair Watson
- 1987–1989: Major Christopher Lavender
- 1986–1987: Lt-Col Brian Anderson
- 1984–1986: Major Jack Stenhouse
- 1982–1984: Major David Bromhead
- -1982: Major Quentin Winter, Paras
- c.79: Capt Anthony Asquith, RRW
- 1977-: Capt Christopher Haslett Elliott, RRW
- c.76-1977: Capt Alun Jones Davies, RRW
- 1972-: Lt Gilbert Kerruish, RRW
- 1970–1972: Lt Hon Nicholas Soames, 11th Hussars
- c.71: Lt David Wilson
Assistant Masters of the Household
- 2007–present: The Honourable Virginia Carington
- as "Special Assistant" until 2007
- as "Assistant Master of the Household" since 2007
Assistant Press Secretary
- Miss Eva Omaghomi
- Kristina Kyriacou, Assistant Communications Secretary to the Prince of Wales and Duchess of Cornwall
Household of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge and Prince Harry
A part-time Private Secretary to Prince William and Prince Harry (James Lowther-Pinkerton MVO MBE Irish Guards (Rtd.)) was appointed in the Household of the Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall in May 2005. In January 2009, a separate Household of Prince William and Prince Harry was established (formally "The Household of His Royal Highness Prince William of Wales and His Royal Highness Prince Henry of Wales"), headed by Lowther-Pinkerton. Following Prince William's marriage, the Household also additionally serves his wife. The Household's offices are in St James's Palace; it shares funding and much of its staff with Clarence House. The Household is now formally "The Household of Their Royal Highnesses The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge and His Royal Highness Prince Henry of Wales" and, as of 2011, had the equivalent of 7.8 full-time staff.
- Private Secretary to The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge and Prince Harry: Major James Lowther-Pinkerton MVO MBE Irish Guards (Retd.) Lowther-Pinkerton will leave his post in September 2013, but intends to spend one day a week at St James’s Palace to act as a sounding board for the much younger members of staff who will take his place.
Private Secretary to Duke of Cambridge: Miguel Head; Private Secretary to the Duchess of Cambridge: Rebecca Deacon, Private Secretary to Prince Harry :Edward Lane Fox.
- Advisor to The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge and Prince Harry: Sir David Manning GCMG CVO
- Personal Private Secretary to The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge and Prince Harry: Helen Asprey
- Communication Secretary to The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge and Prince Harry: Jason Knauf.
- Deputy Communication Secretary to The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge and Prince Harry: Nick Loughran.
- Official Spokesperson for The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge and Prince Harry: Paddy Harverson, also Communications Secretary at Clarence House
It was announced in June 2011 that the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge would temporarily move their official London residence to an apartment in Kensington Palace, a move that was completed in August of that year. The Duke and Duchess' primary residence continued to be the island of Anglesey in Wales, where the Duke served as a RAF search and rescue pilot. The couple previously shared an apartment at Clarence House with Prince Harry, which Prince Harry will retain. On 6 November 2011, it was announced that the Duke, Duchess and Prince Harry, along with the Queen and the Prince of Wales, had approved a plan that would have the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge permanently move to a larger apartment in Kensington Palace in 2013, after it is renovated. This apartment was previously occupied by the Queen's sister, Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon and her husband Antony Armstrong-Jones, Earl of Snowdon after their marriage in 1960. The apartment was retained by Princess Margaret after her divorce in 1978 and was her London residence until her death in 2002. Prince Harry will then move his official residence from Clarence House to the apartment vacated by the Duke and Duchess. In addition, once the move is complete, it is expected that their official household will also move to Kensington Palace from St James's Palace, although it is not known if the household will be split or remain shared. Until the moves are complete, their Household will remain based at St James's Palace and will continue to be shared.
In 2013, it was announced that Prince Harry had appointed former Household Cavalry captain Edward Lane Fox as his Private Secretary effective from July 2013. It was later announced in early May 2013 that the royal couple's private secretary, James Lowther-Pinkerton, intends to leave his post as Private Secretary for the private sector, and his position will be split with each member of the household receiving a Private Secretary.
Effective from September 2013: Miguel Head will become Private Secretary to the Duke of Cambridge; Rebecca Deacon assumes the role of Private Secretary to the Duchess of Cambridge and finally, Edward Lane Fox becomes Private Secretary to Prince Harry as of September 2013.
Ed Perkins left his post as Communication Secretary at the household in 2014. On 21 November 2014, the palace announced his replacement as Jason Knauf.
Household of the Duke of York
The Household of The Duke of York provides the administrative support for the Duke of York in his royal duties, along with his immediate family. From 1971 the Duke of York, then Prince Andrew (aged 11 years), had the assistance of one of The Queen's Equerries when required. The first was Sqn Ldr Peter Beer, who served until he was replaced by Maj George Broke Royal Artillery in 1974, and Lt Cdr Robert Guy RN in 1977.
It was only with the appointment in 1980 of Sqn Ldr Adam Wise, that the Prince could be said to have acquired the assistance of his own staff – although he was still shared with the Queen and Prince Edward. In 1983, Wise was promoted to Wing Commander and appointed Private Secretary to Princes Andrew and Edward, severing his link with The Royal Household. He left the Duke of York's service in 1987, when Lt Col Sean O'Dwyer was appointed – also jointly with Prince Edward.
The Duke of York is now assisted by a Private Secretary, Deputy Private Secretary, Assistant Private Secretary and Equerry. There are also an Office Assistant, and a handful of personal staff including cook and butler. The Duke of York's Office is currently based at Buckingham Palace, and the Duke has a residence at the Royal Lodge, Windsor, into which he moved during 2004, from Sunninghill Park, Ascot.
Private Secretaries to the Duke of York
- 2012–: (Mrs) Amanda Thirsk
- 2003–2012: (Maj) Alastair Watson LVO
- 2001–2003: Cdr Charlotte Manley LVO OBE RN
- 1990–2001: Capt Neil Blair CVO RN
- 1987–1990: Lt Col Sean O'Dwyer MVO DL Irish Guards (Retd.)
- 1983–1987: Wg Cdr Adam Wise LVO MBE
Assistant Private Secretaries to the Duke of York
- ?-Present: James Upsher
Household of the Earl and Countess of Wessex
The Household of the Earl and Countess of Wessex provides the administrative support to the Earl of Wessex, youngest son of the Queen, and to his wife, the Countess of Wessex. While their private residence is Bagshot Park, their office, headed by the private secretary, is based at Buckingham Palace.
Private Secretaries to the Earl of Wessex
- 2014-: Mr Tim Roberts
- 2002—2014: Brig John Smedley CVO
- 1987–2001: Lt Col Sean O'Dwyer LVO DL Irish Guards (Retd.)
- 1983–1987: Wg Cdr Adam Wise LVO MBE
Household of the Princess Royal
The Household of the Princess Royal provides the administrative support to Anne, Princess Royal, second child and only daughter of The Queen. While the Princess Royal's private residence is Gatcombe Park; her official London residence and office, headed by the Private Secretary, is based at St James's Palace.
Private Secretaries to the Princess Royal
- 2002—: Capt Nick Wright CVO RN
- 1999–2002: Col Timothy Earl OBE
- 1997–1999: Rupert McGuigan
- 1982–1997: Lt Col Sir Peter Gibbs KCVO
- 1976–1982: Maj Nicholas Lawson LVO
- 1974–1976: Maj Benjamin Herman MVO RM
Household of the Duke and Duchess of Gloucester
- Private Secretary to TRH Duke and Duchess of Gloucester at Kensington Palace: Mr Alistair Wood, LVO MBE 2004-2012
Household of the Duke and Duchess of Kent
- Private Secretary to HRH Duke of Kent, KG at Wren House, Kensington Palace: Mr Nicholas Marden
Household of Prince and Princess Michael of Kent
- Private Secretary to HRH Prince Michael of Kent, GCVO at Kensington Palace: Mr Nicholas Chance, CVO
Household of Princess Alexandra, The Hon Lady Ogilvy
- Private Secretary: Mrs Diane Duke
- Lady in Waiting: Mary Mumford, 15th Lady Herries of Terregles, DCVO
- Lady in Waiting: Mrs Peter Afia LVO
Household of King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra
King Edward VII (1841-1910) was created Prince of Wales shortly after his birth, and his household was known as the Household of the Prince of Wales from 1841. Upon his marriage in 1863, he and his wife shared the Household of the Prince and Princess of Wales until their accession as King and Queen in January 1901, but several appointments were to either the Prince or the Princess (e.g.. they each had separate Lords Chamberlain and private Secretaries). When he became King, his household was known as the Household of the Sovereign 1901-1910.
Queen Alexandra (1844-1925) received a separate household upon her husband´s accession, the Household of the Queen. From 1910, it was known as the Household of Queen Alexandra.
Main article Household of King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra
Household of King George V and Queen Mary
King George V (1865-1936) was created Duke of York in 1892, and received a separate household together with his brother. Courtiers appointed to assist the Prince George of Wales until that year had been part of his parents´ household. After his marriage to Princess Mary of Teck in 1893 they shared the Household of the Duke and Duchess of York.
On the accession of his father, King Edward VII in January 1901, George automatically inherited the dukedom of Cornwall and was known as the Duke of Cornwall and York until the following November, when he was appointed Prince of Wales. From 1901 until his accession in 1910 he and his wife shared the Household of the Prince and Princess of Wales, but several appointments were to either the Prince or the Princess.
When he became King, his household was known as the Household of the Sovereign 1910-1936.
Queen Mary (1867-1953) received a separate household upon her husband´s accession, the Household of the Queen. From 1936, it was known as the Household of Queen Mary.
Main article Household of King George V and Queen Mary
Household of Queen Elizabeth, The Queen Mother
This is an incomplete list of those who served in Queen Elizabeth's Household
- 1952–2002: Queen Elizabeth, Queen Mother's "Household of Queen Elizabeth, The Queen Mother"
- 1936–1952: The Queen's "Household of The Queen"
- 1923-1936: Included in Prince Albert, Duke of York's "Household of The Duke of York"
- 1950–1956: Capt Oliver Dawnay
- 1955–1956: Sir Martin Gilliat
- 1956–1984: Sir Francis Legh
- 1959–2002: Sir Ralph Anstruther Bt
- 1968–1970: Richard Jenkins
- 1984–2002: Maj George Seymour
- 1992–1994: Edward Dawson-Damer
- 1993–2002: Sir Alastair Aird
- 1953–2002: The Rt Hon The Lord Sinclair
- 1955–?: Sir Harvey Kearsley
- 1956: Maj Raymond Seymour
- 1956–1962: Capt Oliver Dawnay
- 1958–?: Maj Sir John Griffin
- 1964–1973: Alastair Aird
- 1995–2002: Capt Ashe Windham
- 1998–2002: Nicholas Assheton
- 1955: Maj Raymond Seymour
- 1956–1958: Maj John Griffin
- 1958–1960: Capt William Richardson
- 1960–1964: Capt Alastair Aird
- 1980–1982: Capt Ashe Windham
- 1982–1984: Capt the Hon Jeremy Stopford
- 1984–1986: Capt Jamie Lowther-Pinkerton
- 1986-1988 Capt Niall Hall
- 1988-1990 Capt Giles Bassett
- ?-1994: Capt Edward Dawson-Damer
- 1994–?: Maj Colin Burgess
- 2000–2002: Capt Mark Grayson
- 1923–1926: Lady Katharine Meade
- 1926–1932: Lady Helen Graham
- 1932–1936: Lettice Bowlby
- 1985–2002: Jane Walker-Okeover
- 1990–2002: Lady Margaret Colville
- 1991–2002: Margaret Rhodes
- 1993–2002: Jennifer Gordon-Lennox
- 1929–?: Lady Annaly
Ladies of the Bedchamber
- 1937–1941: Viscountess Halifax (extra 1946–?)
- 1937–1947: Lady Nunburnholme
- 1937–1972: Countess Spencer DCVO OBE
- 1937–1994: Viscountess Hambleden GCVO (as Dowager Viscountess from 1948)
- 1945–1967: Lady Harlech (extra 1941–1945; as Dowager Lady from 1964)
- 1947–1979: The Countess of Scarbrough as Dowager Countess from 1969
- 1973–2002: Lady Grimthorpe (daughter of the above Countess of Scarborough)
- 1994–2002: The Countess of Scarbrough (daughter-in-law of the above Countess of Scarborough)
- 1937–1965: Col The Earl of Airlie KT GCVO MC
- 1965–1992: The Earl of Dalhousie KT GCVO GBE MC DL
- 1992–2002: The Earl of Crawford KT GCVO PC
Mistress of the Robes
- 1937–1964: Her Grace The Dowager Duchess of Northumberland GCVO
- 1964–1990: Her Grace The Duchess of Abercorn DCVO
- 1990–2002: Vacant
Pages of Honour
- 1962–1964: James Charteris, Lord Neidpath
- 1964–1966: John Dalrymple-Hamilton
- 1966–1967: Valentine Cecil
- 1967–1969: Richard Scott, Lord Eskdaill (later Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry)
- 1969–1971: Simon Mulholland Esq.
- 1971–1973: Michael Bowes-Lyon, Lord Glamis (later Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne)
- 1973–1974: Gilbert Clayton Esq.
- 1974–1975: Colin Campbell-Preston
- 1975–1977: Charles Bruce, Lord Bruce
- 1977–1979: Gavin Rankin Esq.
- 1979–1982: Henry Beaumont
- 1982–1984: The Hon. Maurice Roche (later Baron Fermoy)
- 1984–1986: Andrew Hope, Viscount Aithrie (later Earl of Hopetoun)
- 1987–1989: Andrew Lillingston
- 1989–1991: Richard Lumley, Viscount Lumley (later Earl of Scarbrough)
- 1991–1993: John Carew-Pole
- 1993–1995: Arthur Wellesley, Earl of Mornington
- 1995–1998: The Hon. Thomas Lumley
- 1998–1999: Harry Bengough
- 1999–2002: Andrew Matheson
- 1956–2001: Sir John Griffin
- 1937–1946: Lt Col Richard Streatfield
- 1946–1951: Maj Thomas Harvey
- 1951–1956: Capt Oliver Dawnay
- 1956–1993: Sir Martin Gilliat
- 1993–2002: Sir Alastair Aird
Assistant private secretaries
- 1953–1974: Lord Adam Gordon
- 1955–1956: Martin Gilliat
- 1956–1959: Francis Legh
- 1959–1964: Sir Ralph Anstruther Bt
- 1964–1973: Alastair Aird
- 1993–2002: Maj George Seymour
- 1937–1946: Sir Basil Brooke
- 1946–1960: Sir Arthur Penn
- 1961–1998: Sir Ralph Anstruther Bt
- 1998–2002: Nicholas Assheton
Women of the Bedchamber
- 1937–1939: Lady Helen Graham
- 1937–1960: Lady Katharine Seymour
- 1937–1961: Marion Hyde, Lady Hyde
- 1937–1944: Lettice Bowlby
- 1939–?: Lady Adelaide Peel
- 1944–1947: Lady Mary Herbert
- 1947–2001: Lady Jean Rankin
- 1951–1961: The Hon Olivia Mulholland
- 1960–1993: Lady Ruth Burke Roche, Baroness Fermoy
- 1961–1963: Lady Mary Harvey
- 1965–2002: Dame Frances Campbell-Preston
- 1981–2002: Lady Angela Oswald
Extra Women of the Bedchamber
- 1937–?: Lady Victoria Wemmys
- 1939–?: Lady Helen Graham
- 1944–?: Lettice Bowlby
- 1947–?: Lady Mary Herbert
- 1947: Lady Jean Rankin
- 1947–?: Alexandra Pelham, Lady Worsley CBE
- 1948–1951: Pamela Hore-Ruthven (later Cooper), Viscountess Ruthven of Canberra
- 1956–1960: The Dowager Lady Fermoy
- 1959–1981: Lady Elizabeth Basset
- 1960–?: Lady Katherine Seymour
Temporary Women of the Bedchamber
- 1963–1965: Lady Caroline Douglas-Home
- 1954–?: Dr. John Nigel Loring
- 1936–?: George Frederick Still
- 1936–?: Sir John Weir
- 1936–?: Henry Letheby Tidy
- 1936–?: Daniel Thomas Davies
- 1936–?: Sir Lancelot Barrington-Ward
- 1936–1946: Arthur Porritt
- 1956–?: Richard May Esq.
- Piper to the Queen Mother (1953-2002)
- Funeral directors to the Royal Household
- Finances of the British Royal Family
- Monarchy of Canada > Federal residences and royal household
Notes and sources
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Household, Royal". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. Access on 29 March 2012.
- * Society of Antiquaries of London (1790): A collection of ordinances and regulations for the government of the royal household, made in divers reigns : from King Edward III to King William and Queen Mary, also receipts in ancient cookery, accessed 11 October 2013. This contains a collection of primary sources, including the Liber Nigra of Edward IV and the Statutes of Eltham.
- "How the College of Arms works". College of Arms. Retrieved 2011-03-20.
- The Royal Household in Scotland from burkespeerage.com
- (see Appendix to the Court Circular of 2 November 2010)
- The London Gazette, 21 December 2010
- Office of The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall, Annual Review 2009
- Not including the young Princes' staff. Including their staff, there are 125.3, as listed at: The Prince of Wales – Frequently Asked Questions
- The Prince of Wales – Document Downloads
- William Nye appointed as Principal Private Secretary to Their Royal Highnesses The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall The Prince of Wales, 30 June 2011
- PoW Annual Review 2011
- The Prince of Wales – A new household...
- Blow for William and Kate as their most senior courtier Jamie Lowther-Pinkerton announces his departure, Telegraph online
- An American at the Palace: Duke and Duchess of Cambridge hire RBS spin doctor Jason Knauf, Telegraph Online, ref name="CS"/>
- BBC News – Royal wedding dress to go on show...
- BBC News – William and Kate opt for Kensington Palace home
- Prince Harry appoints a right-hand man, Telegraph Online
- "Princess Beatrice Birthday Reply". gertsroyals.blogspot.com. 6 October 2015. Retrieved 2016-03-26.
- Supplement to the London Gazette (1952) accessed 20 July 2011
- "Society of Apothecaries' Awards", British Medical Journal (July 31, 1954), p. 298 accessed 20 July 2011
- Barrier Miner, "Palace Duties"(Broken Hill, New South Wales, 2 August 1954, p.9 accessed 20 July 2012