Royal Households of the United Kingdom

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Royal Households of the United Kingdom
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom
The royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom as used outside Scotland

The Royal Households of the United Kingdom are the collective departments that support members of the British royal family. Many members of the royal family who undertake public duties have separate households. They vary considerably in size, from the large Royal Household that supports the sovereign to the household of the Prince and Princess of Wales, with fewer members.

In addition to the royal officials and support staff, the sovereign's own household incorporates representatives of other estates of the realm, including the government, the military, and the church. Government whips, defence chiefs, several clerics, scientists, musicians, poets, and artists hold honorary positions within the Royal Household. In this way, the Royal Household may be seen as having a symbolic, as well as a practical, function: exemplifying the monarchy's close relationship with other parts of the constitution and of national life.

History[edit]

The royal household grew out of the earlier "thegnhood". Among the most eminent and powerful of the king's thegns were his "dishthegn", his "bowerthegn", and his horsethegn or staller. In Normandy at the time of the Conquest a similar arrangement, borrowed from the French court, had long been established. Norman dukes, like their overlords the kings of France, had their seneschal or steward, their chamberlain and their constable. After the Norman Conquest, the ducal household of Normandy was reproduced in the royal household of England; and since, in the spirit of feudalism, the great offices of the first and second were made hereditary. Thenceforth they were held by the grantees and their descendants as a holder of tenure in grand serjeanty of the Crown.[1]

By the time of Henry I (r. 1100–1135), the royal household was divided into five departments as described in the Constitutio Domus Regis. The Chapel—led by the lord chancellor—served the king's spiritual and secretarial needs. Subordinate to the chancellor was the master of the writing office (or chancery) who supervised the clerks who wrote various government documents. The Chamber was the main financial office within the king's government and also saw to the king's personal needs. The Chamber was led by the master chamberlain (Latin magister camerarius, later called the Lord Great Chamberlain), lesser chamberlains, and other officials. The next department was the Hall, led by the stewards who probably were four in number and served in rotation. The buttery was led by the butler. The constabulary-marshalsea constituted the outdoor staff (including a large number of hunting officials) under the authority of the constables and master-marshal. These officers also supervised the knights of the royal household, who formed the backbone of the king's army. Knights of the familia militaris or military household were often young men from prominent families for whom receiving military training in the king's household was considered a great honor. Others were younger sons forced to make their own way in the world.[2]

Over time, the offices of Lord High Steward and Lord Great Chamberlain lost both their political functions, which were taken over by the Chief Justiciar and Lord High Treasurer, and their domestic functions, which were taken over by the lord steward and lord chamberlain. The marshal of England took the place of the constable of England in the royal palace and was associated with him in the command of the royal armies. The marshalship and the constableship became hereditary, and, although the Lord High Constable and Earl Marshal retained their military authority until a comparatively late period, their original duties were transferred to the master of the horse. In these circumstances the holders of the original great offices of state and the household ceased to attend court except on occasions of extraordinary ceremony, and their representatives either by inheritance or by special appointment continued to appear at coronations and some other public solemnities, such as the State Opening of Parliament or trials by the House of Lords.[1]

According to the Liber Niger Domus Regis Angliae (the Black Book of the household of Edward IV) written between 1467 and 1477, the household was divided into the Domus Regie Magnificencie (the Chamber) and the Domus Providencie (the Hall). The Domus Providencie was led by the lord steward, who was in charge of the household's finances and led the counting house (the Board of Green Cloth). Financial officers serving under the lord steward were:[3]

The lord steward's department also included the service areas (kitchens, bakehouse, buttery, laundry, woodyard, etc.) and the great hall where most of the household officers ate. The Domus Regie Magnificencie was led by the lord chamberlain. His department was responsible for the royal apartments and the people who served there:[4]

In the 15th century, the Chamber divided into two sub-departments: the great chamber and the privy chamber. The privy chamber was overseen by grooms of the chamber, led by the groom of the stool. The groom of the stool was one of the most powerful officials in the household until the office was abolished in 1837. He or she (when the monarch was female) acted as a royal gatekeeper, allowing or denying other household officials access to the monarch.[5]

In its main outlines the existing organisation of the royal household is essentially the same as it was under the Tudors or the Plantagenets. It is divided into three principal departments, at the head of which are the lord steward, the lord chamberlain and the master of the horse, and the respective provinces of which may be generally described as "below stairs", "above stairs" and "out of doors". The duties of these officials, and the various officers under their charge are dealt with in the articles under those headings. When the reigning sovereign is a queen, the royal household is in some other respects rather differently arranged from that of a king and a queen consort.[1]

Under a king and a queen consort, a separate establishment "above stairs" and "out of doors" works for the queen consort. She has a Lord Chamberlain's department of her own, and all the ladies of the court from the Mistress of the Robes to the Maids of Honour are in her service. At the commencement of the reign of Queen Victoria, the two establishments were combined, and considerably reduced. On the accession of Edward VII, the civil list was again reconstituted; while the household of the king and his consort became larger than during the previous reign, redundant or unnecessary offices were merged or abolished.[1]

The household of Elizabeth II included 1,200 employees. This was roughly the same size as Charles II's household but larger than Victoria's, whose staff numbered 921.[6]

The King and Queen Consort[edit]

Start of the new reign[edit]

Appointing a new monarch's household can take some time; in 1952 the full list of appointments to the new Queen's household was not published until almost six months after her accession to the throne.[7]

In 2022, walking in the state procession for the state funeral of Elizabeth II, the new King was followed by his Private Secretary, Principal Private Secretary, Master of the Household and two Equerries; however, since the King's new household had yet to be appointed they were gazetted, not as 'His Majesty's Household', but as the 'Household of the former Prince of Wales and Duchess of Cornwall'.[8]

On 13 September, five days after the death of his mother, Queen Elizabeth II, 100 staff who had been working for King Charles III while he was Prince of Wales were notified of potential redundancies.[9][10] This reflects the uncertain situation of members of the Royal Households at the start of each new reign: in the days following the death of King James I in 1625, the Countess of Bedford remarked 'What the King's resolution is yet for his own and his father's servants, he hath not declared (farther than the white staves, which are to remain as they were); but for the green cloth and other inferior officers both of the household and chamber, it is thought that he will employ his own and dismiss his father's, because he hath caused the latter all to be removed to Denmark House to attend the body, and lodged the former about himself at Whitehall'.[11]

As consort of the British sovereign, Queen Camilla will receive a household of her own. Traditionally, queens consort have appointed their own Lord Chamberlain and various ladies-in-waiting as part of their household.[12] This tradition was scrapped in accordance with the King's view of having a slimmed-down monarchy, and instead of ladies-in-waiting, Queen Camilla will be served by "Queen's companions", a group of six ladies that will occupy the new occasional and informal position and will not be involved in tasks such as replying to letters or developing schedules.[13] The Queen's companions are the Marchioness of Lansdowne, Jane von Westenholz, Lady Brooke, Sarah Troughton, Lady Sarah Keswick and Baroness Chisholm.[13] Major Ollie Plunket will serve as the Queen Consort's equerry.[13] Queen Elizabeth II's ladies-in-waiting will be given new roles as "ladies of the household".[13]

Present arrangements[edit]

The Household is for the time being configured as follows (according to the arrangements inherited from Elizabeth II):

Great Officers[edit]

The Great Officers of the Household are, in order of seniority, the Lord Steward, the Lord Chamberlain and the Master of the Horse.[1] Only the Lord Chamberlain fulfils an executive function; while the other two continue to have a ceremonial role, and are to be seen particularly on State occasions.

Lord Chamberlain[edit]

As currently arranged, the Royal Household is coordinated by the part-time Lord Chamberlain (Andrew Parker, Lord Parker of Minsmere GCVO KCB),[14] and organized into functionally separate units.

Heads of departments[edit]

The Private Secretary to the Sovereign (Rt Hon. Sir Edward Young KCVO since 2017), manages the Private Secretary's Office, and also controls the Press Office, the Royal Archives, and the Defence Services Secretary's Office, serves as principal advisor to the Sovereign and serves as the principal channel of communication between the Sovereign and his or her governments. Besides these, he also manages the Sovereign's official programme and correspondence.

The Keeper of the Privy Purse has responsibility for the Sovereign's personal finances and those to do with semi-private concerns, along with, as Treasurer to the King oversight of the civil list. The two positions are held together and, since 2018, they have both been held by Sir Michael Stevens KCVO.

The Master of the Household, since 2013, has been Vice Admiral Sir Tony Johnstone-Burt KCVO CB OBE and has overall responsibility for the domestic workings of the Household.

The Lord Chamberlain's Office, led by its Comptroller current Lt-Colonel Michael Vernon, is responsible for official royal occasions.

The Royal Collection Department is overseen by its Director who since February 2018 is Tim Knox.[15]

Other units[edit]

The Royal Almonry, Ecclesiastical Household, and Medical Household are functionally separate. For accounting purposes they are the responsibility of the Keeper of the Privy Purse and Treasurer to the King.[citation needed]

The Crown Equerry has day-to-day operation of the Royal Mews, and is part of the Lord Chamberlain's Office. The other equerries have a different role: attending and assisting the King in his official duties from day to day. (Historically, they too were part of the mews, but today they are entirely separate.)

The Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood is also under the Lord Chamberlain's Office, as is the office of the Marshal of the Diplomatic Corps.

The College of Arms has been a branch of the Royal Household since its incorporation in 1484 by King Richard III[16] it was directly appointed by the Sovereign on the recommendation of Earl Marshal. The college is a corporation of thirteen royal heralds, overseen by the Earl Marshal, a hereditary office held by the Duke of Norfolk. The college is self-supporting and receives no funds from the Crown. The college holds jurisdiction over all matters pertaining to heraldry, genealogy, and pedigrees in England, Wales, Northern Ireland and in some Commonwealth realms.[17]

Certain independent and honorific posts include Master of the King's Music, Piper to the Sovereign, Poet Laureate, and Astronomer Royal. The King's Bargemaster, the Keeper of the Jewel House, the Serjeants-at-Arms, and the Warden and Marker of the Swans, perform less celebrated functions.

The offices of Treasurer of the Household, Comptroller of the Household, and Vice-Chamberlain of the Household are held by senior government whips in the House of Commons. In the House of Lords, the Government Chief Whip is usually appointed Captain of the Gentlemen-at-Arms and the Deputy Chief Whip as Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard, with junior whips appointed as lords-in-waiting and baronesses-in-waiting. Occasionally these officers are called upon to undertake Household duties, especially the Vice-Chamberlain, who is responsible for writing regular parliamentary reports for the King.

If the monarch is female she has ladies-in-waiting (formally styled either ladies of the bedchamber or women of the bedchamber), some of whom are in personal attendance on a daily basis. They are overseen by the Mistress of the Robes, who traditionally was head of the female household. If the monarch is male these roles are instead attached to the Household of the Queen consort.

The Household includes a number of honorary military appointments: the aides-de-camp to the King (who are usually very high-ranking officers of the three armed services), the two Gold Sticks and the Vice Admiral and Rear Admiral of the United Kingdom. In addition, the two corps of royal bodyguards (the Gentlemen at Arms and the Yeomen of the Guard) are part of the Household.

Gentlemen ushers are unpaid members of the Royal Household, often retired military officers, who provide occasional assistance as marshals at royal events. The Lady Usher of the Black Rod is an important official in the Houses of Parliament; but technically she too is a member of the Royal Household (and acts as the King's messenger at the State Opening).

The royal residences (see list of British royal residences) in current use are cared for and maintained by the Royal Household Property Section directly from the grant-in-aid provided by Parliament,[18] whereas Balmoral Castle and Sandringham House are privately owned and maintained. The unoccupied royal residences (including the Tower of London) are run by the Historic Royal Palaces Agency, which is self-funding.

The Scottish Royal Household[edit]

The Royal Household in Scotland includes offices of personal, honorary and state appointments. Many appointments are vacant having fallen into abeyance; been abolished or returned to The Crown; merged with other positions both before and after the Union of the Crown with England; or due to lack of a clear office holder.

The Great Officers of the Royal Household, (not to be confused with the Great Officers of State of Scotland which are political and judicial appointments, or the Great Officers of the Crown of Scotland though some officers are shared) are:[19]

Ecclesiastical officers of the Ecclesiastical Household of Scotland:

The Royal Household includes a number of other hereditary and non-hereditary offices:

The Household Division, Sovereign's Body Guard, King's Guard, and ceremonial military posts and bodies

Household of the Prince and Princess of Wales[edit]

A part-time Private Secretary to Prince William and Prince Harry (James Lowther-Pinkerton MVO MBE Irish Guards (Rtd.)) was appointed in the Household of the Prince of Wales and the Princess of Wales in May 2005. In January 2009, a separate Household of Prince William and Prince Harry was established (formally "The Household of His Royal Highness Prince William of Wales and His Royal Highness Prince Henry of Wales"), headed by Lowther-Pinkerton. Following their marriages, the Household also additionally served their wives. The Household's offices are currently based in Kensington Palace, having formerly been based in St James's Palace. The Household, as of 2011, had the equivalent of 7.8 full-time staff.[21]

It was announced in June 2011 that the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge would temporarily move their official London residence to an apartment in Kensington Palace, a move that was completed in August of that year. The Duke and Duchess' primary residence continued to be the island of Anglesey in Wales, where the Duke served as an RAF search and rescue pilot. The couple previously shared an apartment at Clarence House with Prince Harry, which he retained.[22] On 6 November 2011, it was announced that the Duke, Duchess and Prince Harry, along with the Queen and the Prince of Wales, had approved a plan that would have the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge permanently move to a larger apartment in Kensington Palace in 2013, after it is renovated. This apartment was previously occupied by the Queen's sister, Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon and her husband Antony Armstrong-Jones, Earl of Snowdon after their marriage in 1960. The apartment was retained by Princess Margaret after her divorce in 1978 and was her London residence until her death in 2002. Prince Harry then moved his official residence from Clarence House to the apartment vacated by the Duke and Duchess. In addition, once the move was complete, their official household was also moved to Kensington Palace from St James's Palace, although the household remained shared.[23] Until the moves were complete, their Household remained based at St James's Palace and continued to be shared.[22]

It was later announced in early May 2013 that the royal couple's private secretary, James Lowther-Pinkerton, intended to leave his post as private secretary for the private sector, and his position was split with each member of the household receiving a private secretary. In September 2013, Miguel Head became Private Secretary to the Duke of Cambridge and Rebecca Deacon assumed the role of Private Secretary to the Duchess of Cambridge.[24] Ed Perkins left his post as communication secretary at the household in 2014. On 21 November 2014, the palace announced his replacement as Jason Knauf.[25]

List of Household staff[edit]

Private Secretary to the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge and Prince Harry
  • 2005–2013: Major James Lowther-Pinkerton LVO MBE Irish Guards (Retd.)[21][26] Lowther-Pinkerton left his post in September 2013, but intended to spend one day a week at St James's Palace to act as a sounding board for the much younger members of staff who will take his place.[24]
Private Secretary to the Duke of Cambridge
Private Secretary to the Prince of Wales
Private Secretary to the Duchess of Cambridge
  • 2013–2017: Rebecca Deacon[27]
  • 2017–2019: Catherine Quinn[32][33]
Private Secretary to the Princess of Wales
  • 2020–2022: Hannah Cockburn-Logie[34][35]
Assistant Private Secretary to the Duke of Cambridge
  • 2016–: Laura Baker
  • 2018–: Zoë Ware
Assistant Private Secretary to the Prince of Wales
  • 2021–: Georgina Riddle
Assistant Private Secretary to the Princess of Wales
  • 2017–: Natalie Barrows
Advisor to the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge
Advisor to the Prince and Princess of Wales
  • 2019–present: Jason Knauf[37]
Communication Secretary to the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge
  • –2014: Ed Perkins
  • 2014–2019: Jason Knauf[38]
  • 2019–2020: Christian Jones[38]
  • 2021: Victoria O'Byrne
Communication Secretary to the Prince and Princess of Wales
  • 2022–present: Lee Thompson[39]
Deputy Communication Secretary to the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge and Prince Harry
Digital and Social Lead to the Prince and Princess of Wales
  • 2020–present: David Watkins[41]
Official Spokesperson for the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge and Prince Harry
Equerries
  • –2020: Lt Cdr David Brannighan
  • 2020–present: Lt Cdr Rob Dixon

Household of the Princess Royal[edit]

The Household of the Princess Royal provides the administrative support to Anne, Princess Royal, the only sister of the King. While the Princess Royal's private residence is Gatcombe Park; her office, headed by the Private Secretary, is based at Buckingham Palace while her official London residence is located at St James's Palace.

Private Secretaries to the Princess Royal[edit]

  • 2019–: Charles Davies[43]
  • 2002–2019: Captain Sir Nick Wright KCVO, RN
  • 1999–2002: Colonel Timothy Earl OBE
  • 1997–1999: Rupert McGuigan
  • 1982–1997: Lieutenant Colonel Sir Peter Gibbs KCVO
  • 1976–1982: Major Nicholas Lawson LVO
  • 1974–1976: Major Benjamin Herman MVO RM

Assistant Private Secretary[edit]

  • 2010: Commander Anne Sullivan RN[44]

Office Secretary[edit]

  • ?–: Mrs Isabella Ward[44]

Extra Equerry to the Princess Royal[edit]

Household of the Earl and Countess of Wessex[edit]

The Household of the Earl and Countess of Wessex provides administrative support to the Earl of Wessex, youngest brother of the King, and to his wife, the Countess of Wessex. While their private residence is Bagshot Park, their office, headed by the private secretary, is based at Buckingham Palace.

In 1980 of Sqn Ldr Adam Wise was appointed to assist the Prince with his work – although he still shared staff with the Queen and Prince Andrew. In 1983, Wise was promoted to wing commander and appointed Private Secretary to Princes Edward and Andrew, severing his link with The Royal Household. He left in 1987, when Lt Col. Sean O'Dwyer was appointed – also jointly with Prince Andrew.

Private Secretaries to the Earl and Countess of Wessex[edit]

Private Secretary to the Earl of Wessex[edit]

  • 2019–present: Captain Andrew Aspden

Private Secretary to the Countess of Wessex[edit]

  • 2019–present: Mr. Alexander Stonor

Assistant Private Secretary to the Earl and Countess of Wessex[edit]

  • 2015–2018: Mr. Matthew Magee
  • 2018–2019: Mr. Alexander Stonor
  • 2021–present: Mr. Jason Keen

Equerry to the Earl and Countess of Wessex[edit]

Assistant Private Secretaries and Ladies-in-Waiting to the Countess of Wessex[edit]

  • 1999–present: Annabelle Galletley (Mrs. Angus Galletley)
  • 2000–present: Ms. Suzanne Lofthouse-Jackson
  • 2009–2020: Amy Mayes (Mrs. Jonathan Mayes)

Programme Co-ordinators to the Earl and Countess of Wessex[edit]

  • 2016–present: Miss. Emily Mortimore
  • 2017–present: Miss. Jess Utton
  • 2017–2022: Miss. Kelly Tschumi

Secretarial Assistant to the Earl and Countess of Wessex[edit]

  • ?–present: Ms. Jackie Phipps

Lesser households[edit]

Household of the Duke and Duchess of Gloucester[edit]

  • Private Secretary to the Duke and Duchess of Gloucester at Kensington Palace: Mr Alistair Wood, LVO MBE 2004–2012
  • Lady-in-waiting to the Duchess of Gloucester: Mrs Susan Wigley, CVO[45]

Household of the Duke and Duchess of Kent[edit]

  • Private Secretary to the Duke of Kent, KG at Wren House, Kensington Palace: Mr Nicholas Marden

Household of Princess Alexandra, The Hon Lady Ogilvy[edit]

Household of Prince and Princess Michael of Kent[edit]

  • Private Secretary to Prince Michael of Kent, GCVO at Kensington Palace: Mr Nicholas Chance, CVO (1997–2016)[46][47]

Former households[edit]

Household of King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra[edit]

King Edward VII (1841–1910) was created Prince of Wales shortly after his birth, and his household was known as the Household of the Prince of Wales from 1841. Upon his marriage in 1863, he and his wife shared the Household of the Prince and Princess of Wales until their accession as King and Queen in January 1901, but several appointments were to either the Prince or the Princess (e.g., they each had separate Lords Chamberlain and private Secretaries). When he became King, his household was known as the Household of the Sovereign 1901–1910.

Queen Alexandra (1844–1925) received a separate household upon her husband's accession, the Household of the Queen. From 1910, it was known as the Household of Queen Alexandra.

Household of King George V and Queen Mary[edit]

Prince George (1865–1936) was created Duke of York in 1892, and received a separate household together with his brother. Courtiers appointed to assist the Prince George of Wales until that year had been part of his parents' household. After his marriage to Princess Mary of Teck in 1893 they shared the Household of the Duke and Duchess of York.

On the accession of his father, King Edward VII in January 1901, George automatically inherited the dukedom of Cornwall and was known as the Duke of Cornwall and York until the following November, when he was appointed Prince of Wales. From 1901 until his accession in 1910, he and his wife shared the Household of the Prince and Princess of Wales, but several appointments were to either the Prince or the Princess.

When he became King, his household was known as the Household of the Sovereign 1910–1936.

Queen Mary (1867–1953) received a separate household upon her husband's accession, the Household of the Queen. From 1936, it was known as the Household of Queen Mary.

Household of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother[edit]

This is an incomplete list of those who served Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother.

Comptroller[edit]

Equerries[edit]

Extra Equerries[edit]
Temporary Equerries[edit]
  • 1955: Maj. Raymond Seymour
  • 1956–1958: Maj. John Griffin
  • 1958–1960: Capt. William Richardson
  • 1960–1964: Capt. Alastair Aird
  • 1980–1982: Capt. Ashe Windham
  • 1982–1984: Capt. the Hon. Jeremy Stopford
  • 1984–1986: Capt. Jamie Lowther-Pinkerton
  • 1986–1988 Capt. Niall Hall
  • 1988–1990 Capt. Giles Bassett
  • ?-1994: Capt. Edward Dawson-Damer
  • 1994–?: Maj. Colin Burgess
  • 2000–2002: Capt. Mark Grayson

Ladies-in-Waiting[edit]

  • 1923–1926: Lady Katharine Meade
  • 1926–1932: Lady Helen Graham
  • 1932–1936: Lettice Bowlby
  • 1985–2002: Jane Walker-Okeover
  • 1990–2002: Lady Margaret Colville
  • 1991–2002: Margaret Rhodes
  • 1993–2002: Jennifer Gordon-Lennox
Extra Ladies-in-Waiting[edit]
  • 1929–?: Lady Annaly

Ladies of the Bedchamber[edit]

  • 1937–1941: Viscountess Halifax (extra 1946–?)
  • 1937–1947: Lady Nunburnholme
  • 1937–1972: Countess Spencer DCVO OBE
  • 1937–1994: Viscountess Hambleden GCVO (as Dowager Viscountess from 1948)
  • 1945–1967: Lady Harlech (extra 1941–1945; as Dowager Lady from 1964)
  • 1947–1979: The Countess of Scarbrough as Dowager Countess from 1969
  • 1973–2002: Lady Grimthorpe (daughter of the above Countess of Scarbrough)
  • 1994–2002: The Countess of Scarbrough (daughter-in-law of the above Countess of Scarbrough)

Lord Chamberlain[edit]

Mistress of the Robes[edit]

Pages of Honour[edit]

Press secretary[edit]

  • 1956–2001: Sir John Griffin

Private secretaries[edit]

Assistant private secretaries[edit]

Treasurers[edit]

Women of the Bedchamber[edit]

  • 1937–1939: Lady Helen Graham
  • 1937–1960: Lady Katharine Seymour
  • 1937–1961: Marion Hyde, Lady Hyde
  • 1937–1944: Lettice Bowlby
  • 1939–?: Lady Adelaide Peel
  • 1944–1947: Lady Mary Herbert
  • 1947–2001: Lady Jean Rankin
  • 1951–1961: The Hon Olivia Mulholland
  • 1960–1993: Lady Ruth Burke Roche, Baroness Fermoy
  • 1961–1963: Lady Mary Harvey
  • 1965–2002: Dame Frances Campbell-Preston
  • 1981–2002: Lady Angela Oswald
Extra Women of the Bedchamber[edit]
Temporary Women of the Bedchamber[edit]
  • 1963–1965: Lady Caroline Douglas-Home

Apothecaries[edit]

Physicians[edit]

  • 1936–?: George Frederick Still
  • 1936–?: Sir John Weir
  • 1936–?: Henry Letheby Tidy
  • 1936–?: Daniel Thomas Davies

Surgeons[edit]

Surgeon-Apothecary[edit]

  • 1956–?: Richard May Esq.

Honorific positions[edit]

Household of Queen Elizabeth II[edit]

Household of the Duke of Edinburgh[edit]

The Household of the Duke of Edinburgh provided administrative support to Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. It was based at Buckingham Palace, and was headed by his Private Secretary—the Treasurer (part-time 1970–1976) was formerly the senior officer. An equerry (a major or equivalent from any of the three armed services), and three temporary equerries (usually a captain from the Royal Marines, a captain from the Grenadier Guards, and a captain from the Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers) were part of the household.

Treasurers[edit]

Private Secretaries[edit]

Household of the Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall[edit]

The Household of the Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall was the organised office and support system for Charles, Prince of Wales, and his consort Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall. At the time of their 2009 annual review[53] the Office of the Prince of Wales had the full-time equivalent of 121 staff.[54] The head of the Household was the Principal Private Secretary, Clive Alderton. Senior officials included the Deputy Private Secretary, a senior diplomat seconded from the Foreign & Commonwealth Office to advise The Prince on Foreign and Commonwealth affairs, Scott Furssedonn-Wood; Master of the Household, Earl of Rosslyn; the Treasurer, Andrew Wright; Communications Secretary, Julian Payne; and the Equerry, Commander Iain Kearsley RN.

In 2000, the Prince revived a tradition of having an official harpist, a role last seen under Queen Victoria. The first holder of the office was Catrin Finch, followed in 2004 by Jemima Phillips, and in 2007 by Claire Jones.

The Prince of Wales' Office was principally based at Clarence House, London, but also occupied rooms in the rest of St James's Palace. There were also offices for official staff at Highgrove House and Birkhall House, the Prince's private residences.

Most of the expenses incurred in operating the office came from the Prince's private appanage, the Duchy of Cornwall. The only significant costs met by grant-in-aid provided by the Government was for the upkeep of Clarence House, and for official travel by air and rail, and for communications support.

Details of the Prince's Senior Staff were available in his office's annual reports.[55] The following titles all have "to/of The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall" suffixed when written in full. Prior to the Prince's 2005 marriage, they were instead suffixed "to/of The Prince of Wales".

Principal Private Secretaries[edit]

Private Secretaries[edit]

Masters of the Household[edit]

Deputy Masters of the Household[edit]

  • 2006–2009: Andrew Farquharson

Treasurers[edit]

  • 2012–: Andrew Wright
  • 2005–2012: Leslie Ferrar
  • –2005: Kevin Knott

Deputy Private Secretaries[edit]

Assistant Private Secretaries[edit]

  • ?–present: Emily Cherrington[21]
  • ?–2011: Sarah Kennedy-Good[21]
  • 2008: Shilpa Sinha
  • 2008–: Sophie Densham
  • 2006–2008: Anita Kumar
  • 2006–: Jonathan Hellewell
  • 2005–2007: Katy Golding[57]
  • 2005–: Joy Camm & Amanda MacManus (each part-time)[57]
  • 2004–2005: Mrs Manon Williams
  • 2003–2005: Mark Leishman
  • 2003–2005: James Kidner
  • 2002–2005: Paul Kefford
  • 2000–2003: Nigel Baker
  • 1994–1998: Mrs Manon Williams

Equerries[edit]

  • 2020–: Lieutenant Colonel Jonathan Thompson, Royal Regiment of Scotland
  • 2018–2020: Cdr. Iain Kearsley, Royal Navy
  • 2015–2018: Maj. Harry Pilcher, Queen's Dragoon Guards
  • 2013–2015: Maj. David Bevan, Welsh Guards
  • 2011–2013: Maj. Peter Flynn, Parachute Regiment[21]
  • 2008–2011: Maj. Will Mackinlay The Royal Scots Dragoon Guards
  • 2006–2008: Sqn Ldr Jayne Casebury, RAF
  • 2004–2006: Wing Cdr Richard Pattle, RAF
  • 2003–2004: Maj. Rupert Lendrum (Senior Equerry)
  • 2002–2004: Lt Cdr Alastair Graham
  • 1999–2002: Lt Cdr William Entwisle
  • 1996–1999: Lt Cdr John Lavery
  • 1994–1996: Maj. Patrick Tabor
  • 1991–1994: Lt Cdr Robert Fraser
  • 1989–1991: Cdr Alastair Watson
  • 1987–1989: Maj. Christopher Lavender
  • 1986–1987: Lt Col. Brian Anderson
  • 1984–1986: Maj. Jack Stenhouse
  • 1982–1984: Maj. David Bromhead
  • –1982: Maj. Quentin Winter, PARA
  • c.1979: Capt. Anthony Asquith, RRW
  • 1977–: Capt. Christopher Haslett Elliott, RRW
  • 1976–1978 Capt. T P G N Ward Welsh Guards
  • c.1976–1977: Capt. Alun James Davies, RRW
  • 1972–: Lt Gilbert Kerruish, RRW
  • 1970–1972: Lt the Hon. Nicholas Soames, 11th Hussars
  • c.1971: Lt David Wilson

Assistant Masters of the Household[edit]

  • 2007–: The Honourable Virginia Carington, LVO
    • as "Special Assistant" until 2007
    • as "Assistant Master of the Household" since 2007

Communications Secretary[edit]

  • 2022: Tobyn Andreae[39]
  • 2021–2022: Simon Enright[39]
  • 2016–2021: Julian Payne

Deputy Communications Secretary[edit]

  • Eva Omaghomi

Household of the Duke and Duchess of Sussex[edit]

In 2013, it was announced that Prince Harry had appointed former Household Cavalry captain, Edward Lane Fox, as his private secretary effective July 2013.[58]

In March 2019, it was announced that the Duke and Duchess of Sussex would establish a new household for themselves, following the birth of their child in spring as well as the move of their official residence to Frogmore Cottage, with their office set to be located at Buckingham Palace.[59] Following the decision to step back from royal duties, it was announced in February 2020 that they would close their office at Buckingham Palace.[60]

List of Household staff[edit]

Private Secretary to the Duke of Sussex
  • 2013–2018: Edward Lane Fox[24]
Private Secretary to the Duke and Duchess of Sussex
  • 2018–2019: Samantha Cohen[61]
  • 2019–2020: Fiona Mcilwham[62]
Deputy Private Secretary to the Duke and Duchess of Sussex
  • 2019–2020: Heather Wong[62]
Assistant Private Secretary to the Duke of Sussex
  • 2019–2020: Rob Reader
Assistant Private Secretary to the Duchess of Sussex
  • 2018–2019: Amy Pickerill[61]
Personal Assistant to the Duchess of Sussex
  • 2018: Melissa Touabti[63]
Communication Secretary to the Duke and Duchess of Sussex
  • 2019–2020: Sara Latham[38]
Assistant Communication Secretary to the Duke and Duchess of Sussex
  • 2018: Katrina McKeever[64]
  • Marnie Gaffney[65]
Projects Manager to the Duke and Duchess of Sussex
  • 2018–2020: Clara Madden[66]
Digital Communications Lead to the Duke and Duchess of Sussex
  • 2019–2020: David Watkins[67]

Household of the Duke of York[edit]

The Household of the Duke of York provided administrative support for the royal duties of Prince Andrew, Duke of York, along with his immediate family. From 1971, Prince Andrew (then aged 11 years), had the assistance of one of the Queen's equerries when required. The first was Sqn Ldr Peter Beer, who served until he was replaced by Maj. George Broke Royal Artillery in 1974, and Lt Cdr Robert Guy RN in 1977.

It was only with the appointment in 1980 of Sqn Ldr Adam Wise, that the Prince could be said to have acquired the assistance of his own staff – although he was still shared with the Queen and Prince Edward. In 1983, Wise was promoted to wing commander and appointed Private Secretary to Princes Andrew and Edward, severing his link with The Royal Household. He left the Duke of York's service in 1987, when Lt Col. Sean O'Dwyer was appointed – also jointly with Prince Edward.

The Duke of York was assisted by a private secretary, deputy private secretary, assistant private secretary and equerry. There were an office assistant, and a handful of personal staff including cook and butler. The Duke of York's office was based at Buckingham Palace, and the Duke has a residence at the Royal Lodge, Windsor, into which he moved during 2004, from Sunninghill Park, Ascot.

In December 2022, it was reported that as a non-working member of the royal family he would no longer have an office at Buckingham Palace.[68]

Private Secretaries to the Duke of York[edit]

Assistant Private Secretaries to the Duke of York[edit]

  • ?–present: James Upsher[69]

Equerry to the Duke of York[edit]

  • 2019–: Lieutenant Commander Alex Davies, RN[70]
  • 2017–2019: Captain Edward Monckton[70]
  • 2014–2017: Lieutenant Jack Cooper RN
  • 2012–2014: Lieutenant Commander Michael Hutchinson RN
  • 2010–2012: Flight Lieutenant Charlotte Fenn RAF
  • 2008–2010: Captain Duncan Bailey ACG(SPS)
  • 2006–2008: Captain James Todd RM
  • 2004–2006: Lieutenant Caroline Clark RN

See also[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Household, Royal". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 13 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 813–814.
  2. ^ Green 1986, pp. 20–35.
  3. ^ Tinniswood 2018, pp. 7–8.
  4. ^ Tinniswood 2018, pp. 8–9.
  5. ^ Tinniswood 2018, pp. 7 & 9.
  6. ^ Tinniswood 2018, p. 3.
  7. ^ London Gazette, Supplement 39616, Page 4198, 5 August 1952.
  8. ^ "Queen's funeral: Full guide to the gun carriage and the main procession". BBC News. 19 September 2022. Retrieved 20 September 2022.
  9. ^ Ward, Victoria (13 September 2022). "Staff left 'visibly shaken' as 100 members of King's former household are made redundant". The Telegraph.
  10. ^ "King Charles's staff given redundancy notice during church service for Queen". TheGuardian.com. 13 September 2022.
  11. ^ Quoted in: Bland, Olivia (1986). The Royal Way of Death. London: Constable. p. 46.
  12. ^ "Queen Consort Camilla may axe royal tradition adored by the late Queen Elizabeth II". HELLO!. 23 September 2022. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  13. ^ a b c d Coughlan, Sean (27 November 2022). "Camilla scraps ladies-in-waiting in modernising move". BBC News. Retrieved 27 November 2022.
  14. ^ "Prince Philip: What we know about Duke of Edinburgh's funeral arrangements - codenamed Operation Forth Bridge".
  15. ^ "Appointment of a new Director of the Royal Collection". Archived from the original on 8 August 2018. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
  16. ^ "The Officers of Arms – College of Arms". college-of-arms.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 2 May 2018. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  17. ^ "How the College of Arms works". College of Arms. Archived from the original on 30 January 2012. Retrieved 20 March 2011.
  18. ^ "Sovereign Grant Act 2011". Archived from the original on 27 January 2016.
  19. ^ Chamberlayne, Edward and John Chamberlayne. Chapter V. Page 400-401. Magnae Britanniae notitia, or, The present state of Great-Britain: with divers remarks upon the ancient state thereof Archived 19 August 2020 at the Wayback Machine. Edition 25. Godwin, 1718.
  20. ^ http://176.32.230.50/argyllstest.co.uk/regimental-family/the-regular-army-balaklava-company/[dead link]
  21. ^ a b c d e f g "PoW Annual Review 2011" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 August 2011. Retrieved 22 August 2011.
  22. ^ a b "BBC News – Royal wedding dress to go on show". BBC News. 6 June 2011. Archived from the original on 3 April 2019. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
  23. ^ Peter Hunt (6 November 2011). "BBC News – William and Kate opt for Kensington Palace home". BBC News. Archived from the original on 6 December 2017. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
  24. ^ a b c "Blow for William and Kate as their most senior courtier Jamie Lowther-Pinkerton announces his departure". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
  25. ^ a b "An American at the Palace: Duke and Duchess of Cambridge hire RBS spin doctor Jason Knauf". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 29 March 2018. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
  26. ^ The Prince of Wales – A new household... Archived 25 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  27. ^ a b "Changes to the Household Office of The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge and Prince Harry". royal.uk. 26 July 2012. Archived from the original on 28 March 2018. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
  28. ^ "Prince William's new Private Secretary swaps Brexit for Royal Household – ITV News". Itv.com. 26 March 2018. Archived from the original on 28 March 2018. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
  29. ^ "Simon Case appointed as Cabinet Secretary and Head of the Civil Service" (Press release). Gov.uk. 1 September 2020. Archived from the original on 14 September 2020. Retrieved 2 September 2020. The Prime Minister has appointed Simon Case as the Cabinet Secretary and Head of the Civil Service. Simon is currently the Permanent Secretary in Number 10.
  30. ^ Proctor, Charlie (20 January 2021). "Major staffing changes underway in the Royal Household as some of the most senior aides quit". Royal Central. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
  31. ^ Proctor, Charlie (21 February 2021). "Prince William appoints David Cameron's former spokesperson as his new private secretary". Royal Central. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  32. ^ Steafel, Eleanor (1 August 2017). "Who is Catherine Quinn, the Duchess of Cambridge's new private secretary?". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 29 March 2018. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
  33. ^ McKnight, Jenni (16 November 2019). "Duchess Kate's private secretary Catherine Quinn quits after two years". Hello!. Archived from the original on 9 July 2020. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  34. ^ Petit, Stephanie (10 June 2020). "Kate Middleton Hired a New Royal Right-Hand Woman During Lockdown". People. Archived from the original on 15 June 2020. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  35. ^ Ward, Victoria (3 December 2022). "Catherine loses loyal top aide just before new role as Princess of Wales". The Telegraph. Retrieved 5 December 2022.
  36. ^ Manning, Sir David (Geoffrey). Who's Who 2018. Oxford University PRess. 1 December 2017. doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.26519.
  37. ^ "Announcement: The Household of The Duke and Duchess of Sussex". 15 March 2019. Archived from the original on 2 April 2019. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
  38. ^ a b c Rayner, Gordon (21 November 2014). "An American at the Palace: Duke and Duchess of Cambridge hire RBS spin doctor Jason Knauf". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 29 March 2018. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
  39. ^ a b c Nikkhah, Roya (2 July 2022). "Prince Charles and Camilla hire Daily Mail executive for top post". The Times. Retrieved 3 July 2022.
  40. ^ Burne James, Sam (7 July 2016). "Freuds hires Duke and Duchess of Cambridge comms man Nick Loughran". PR Week. Archived from the original on 29 March 2018. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
  41. ^ Reed, Sam (3 June 2021). "You're Not Imagining It, Will and Kate Have a Whole New Vibe on Social Media". InStyle. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
  42. ^ Harverson, Patrick Richard. Who's Who 2018. Oxford University Press. 1 December 2017. doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.44803.
  43. ^ a b Court Circular, 31 January 2019
  44. ^ a b "Gert's Royals: Princess Anne & Sir Tim – Christmas Reply (2016)". Gertsroyals.blogspot.com. 23 January 2017. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
  45. ^ "COTSWOLDS PEOPLE RECOGNISED IN QUEEN'S NEW YEAR HONOURS". Retrieved 20 May 2021.
  46. ^ "Nicholas Chance". Hawki.co. Archived from the original on 21 August 2016. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
  47. ^ Court Circular for 13 December 2016
  48. ^ Supplement to the London Gazette (1952) accessed 20 July 2011
  49. ^ "Society of Apothecaries' Awards", British Medical Journal Archived 17 October 2020 at the Wayback Machine (31 July 1954), p. 298 accessed 20 July 2011
  50. ^ Barrier Miner, "Palace Duties" Archived 17 October 2020 at the Wayback Machine Broken Hill, New South Wales, 2 August 1954, p.9 accessed 20 July 2012
  51. ^ "The London Gazette, 21 December 2010". London-gazette.co.uk. 14 December 2010. Archived from the original on 10 November 2012. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
  52. ^ (see Appendix to the Court Circular of 2 November 2010)
  53. ^ "Office of The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall, Annual Review 2009" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 January 2011. Retrieved 10 August 2009.
  54. ^ Not including the young Princes' staff. Including their staff, there are 125.3, as listed at: The Prince of Wales – Frequently Asked Questions Archived 21 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  55. ^ "The Prince of Wales – Document Downloads". Archived from the original on 2 June 2009. Retrieved 10 August 2009.
  56. ^ a b William Nye appointed as Principal Private Secretary to Their Royal Highnesses The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall Archived 31 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine The Prince of Wales, 30 June 2011
  57. ^ a b "Camilla to have three secretaries". BBC News. 5 May 2005. Archived from the original on 9 May 2016. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
  58. ^ Ward, Victoria (3 April 2013). "Prince Harry appoints a right-hand man". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 25 January 2019. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
  59. ^ Hill, Erin (14 March 2019). "Meghan Markle and Prince Harry Have Split Royal Households from Kate Middleton and Prince William". People. Archived from the original on 2 April 2019. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  60. ^ Foster, Max (14 February 2020). "Prince Harry and Meghan to close office at Buckingham Palace". CNN. Archived from the original on 28 February 2020. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  61. ^ a b "Meghan's last aide quits ahead of royal baby birth". news.com.au. 10 March 2019. Archived from the original on 12 April 2019. Retrieved 14 September 2019.
  62. ^ a b Sanchez, Chelsey (22 August 2019). "These Are All the People Who Work for Prince Harry and Meghan Markle". Harper's Bazaar. Archived from the original on 23 August 2019. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
  63. ^ Barcelona, Ainhoa (27 November 2018). "Identity of Meghan Markle's former PA revealed – and she used to work for Robbie Williams". Hello!. Archived from the original on 10 November 2019. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
  64. ^ Tominey, Camilla (13 January 2023). "The truth about the row between Meghan and Kate". The Telegraph. Retrieved 13 January 2023.
  65. ^ Stacey, Danielle (21 November 2019). "Prince Harry and Meghan Markle's staff member awarded with honour from the Queen". Hello!. Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  66. ^ Barcelona, Ainhoa (23 August 2019). "Meet Prince Harry and Meghan Markle's all-female dream team". Hello!. Archived from the original on 23 September 2019. Retrieved 23 September 2019.
  67. ^ Harper, Zach (26 August 2019). "Prince Harry and Duchess Meghan hire social media 'visionary' to join their team". Hello!. Archived from the original on 13 September 2019. Retrieved 14 September 2019.
  68. ^ "King Charles removes Prince Andrew's office from Buckingham Palace". The New Zeland Herald. 24 December 2022. Retrieved 24 December 2022.
  69. ^ "Princess Beatrice Birthday Reply". gertsroyals.blogspot.com. 6 October 2015. Archived from the original on 24 September 2016. Retrieved 26 March 2016.
  70. ^ a b Court Circular, 1 February 2019

References[edit]

External links[edit]