Royal Hungarian Honvéd

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Obverse of the Royal Hungarian Honvéd's colours
Reverse of the Royal Hungarian Honvéd's colours

The Royal Hungarian Honvéd (Hungarian: Magyar Királyi Honvédség), Royal Hungarian Honved or Royal Hungarian Landwehr (German: königlich ungarische Landwehr),[1][2][3] commonly known as the Honved, Honvéd or in Hungarian, Honvédség (a plural term designating the whole army including all the Honvéd units), was one of the four armed forces (Bewaffnete Macht or Wehrmacht) of Austria-Hungary from 1867 to 1918. The others were its counterpart the Austrian Landwehr, the Common Army and the Imperial and Royal Navy. The word "honvéd" means an enlisted private without a rank, literally "Defender of the Homeland". "Honvédség" is degree of the noun and refers to the community, institution of these soldiers.

History[edit]

Soldier of the Royal Hungarian Honvéd in parade dress

The word honvéd in Hungarian (sometimes "honved" in English sources[4][5][6]) means "defender of the homeland" and first appeared during the 1848 revolutions. At that time it was the name given to volunteers who were engaged for several weeks or a gyözelemig (i.e. "until victory") and sent to fight the Serbs and Croats. Subsequently, the bulk of the fighting was against the Empire of Austria, whereupon a number of regular imperial regiments went over to the Hungarian side. Some volunteers were attached to these existing regiments and some joined new regular regiments. Consequently, the term honvéd was used to refer to all members of the Hungarian land forces in 1848-49. The Honvéd was finally defeated by Austria with Russian assistance.

When the armed forces were re-established following the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, the Landwehr of the so-called Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen, received the Hungarian name Honvédség (pronounced "hon-véd-shég", with the é as in French), literally "homeland defence" and, in practice, a territorial army.

On 21 May 1893 the Honvéd Memorial was unveiled in Budapest in commemoration of the deeds of the Hungarian national army during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848-49. From 1919 to 1945, Honvédség was also a name given to the Royal Hungarian Army.

Structure[edit]

The Hungarian Landwehr consisted of territorial units from the Hungarian half of the Empire (called Transleithania or the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen. These territories included what is present-day Hungary, Slovakia (so-called Upper Hungary, Hungarian: Felvidék) and parts of the present-day countries of Romania, including Transylvania and Banat, Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia (Prekmurje/Üpper Mur) and Austria (Burgenland).

Usually the term Landwehr implies units of limited fighting power. This was not the case in the Hungarian Honvédség. Although weaker in numbers - there were only three battalions per infantry regiment insteald of the usual four in the Common Army - the troops were regular combat soldiers and were highly trained.

The Royal Hungarian Honvéd was divided into the Hungarian Honvédség and the Royal Croatian Home Guard (also called the Croatian-Slavonian Landwehr). The Croatian–Hungarian Settlement of 1868 granted the Croats the right to introduce Croatian as their working and command language within their units. In addition, the Croatian-Slavonian Honvéd units were subordinated to the Ban in Agram and not to the National Defence Minister in Budapest. However, both Ban and the Defence Minister were subordinated to the Prime Minister of Hungary .

Recruitment[edit]

In peacetime the officers of the Hungarian Honvédség either transferred from regular Hungarian regiments of the Common Army (K.u.K.) or graduated from the Ludovika Military Academy (a cadet school opened in 1872 specifically for the training of Honvéd officers) in Budapest. From 1869 onward the rank and file soldiers of the Honvédség were recruited as part of the general conscription process of the Common Army with individual Hungarian conscripts being allocated to specific K.u.K. or Honvéd regiments according to the numbers required. Entry to the Honvéd contingent or to the Common Army was decided by drawing lots.[7] Enlisted at the age of 21 the Honvéd soldier usually undertook 24 months of active service before passing into the reserve. The commitment for compulsory service ended at the age of 36.[8]

Landwehr districts[edit]

M.kir. I budapesti honvéd kerületi parancsnokság
  • II Landwehr DistrictSzeged
M.kir. II szegedi honvéd kerületi parancsnokság
  • III Landwehr DistrictKassa (Kaschau; now Košice, Slovakia)
M.kir. II kassai honvéd kerületi parancsnokság
  • IV Landwehr DistrictPozsony (Pressburg; now Bratislava, Slovakia)
M.kir. IV pozsonyi honvéd kerületi parancsnokság
  • V Landwehr DistrictKolozsvár (Klausenburg, now Cluj-Napoca, Romania)
M.kir. V kolozsvári honvéd kerületi parancsnokság
  • VI Landwehr DistrictZagreb (Agram)
M.kir. VI zágrábi horvát-szlavon kerületi parancsnokság

Formations and units of the Royal Hungarian Honvéd[edit]

The Royal Hungarian Honvéd was the standing army of Hungary. A part of the Honvéd was the Royal Croatian Home Guard (Kraljevsko hrvatsko domobranstvo), which consisted of 1 infantry division (out of 7 in the Honvéd) and 1 cavalry regiment (out of 10 in the Honvéd). Its order of battle at the outbreak of the First World War in 1914 was as follows:

  • 6 Landwehr districts (Distrikte)
  • 2 infantry divisions (Infanterie Truppendivisionen)
  • 2 cavalry divisions (Kavallerie Truppendivisionen)
  • 4 infantry brigades (Infanteriebrigaden)
  • 12 independent infantry brigades
  • 4 cavalry brigades (Kavalleriebrigaden)
  • 32 infantry regiments (Infanterie-Regimenter)
  • 10 regiments of hussars (Husaren-Regimenter)
  • 8 field artillery regiments (Feldkanonen Regimenter)
  • 1 horse artillery battalion (Reitende Artillerie Abteilung)

The infantry regiments of the k.u.k. army had four battalions each; the infantry regiments of the k.k. and k.u. Landwehr had three battalions each, except the 3rd Regiment of the Tiroler Landesschützen (Tyrolian State Rifles), that had also four battalions.

Medals for Valour 1914 - 1918

In 1915, units that had nicknames or honorific titles lost them by order of the War Ministry. Thereafter units were designated only by number. For instance, the k.u.k. Infanterie-Regiment (Hoch und Deutschmeister) Nr. 4 became Infanterie-Regiment No. 4 (4th Infantry Regiment).

All details relate to the year 1914:

Infantry divisions[edit]

  • 20th Honvéd Infantry DivisionNagyvárad (Großwardein)
    Commander: Feldmarschalleutnant Friedrich von Csanády
    • 39th Honvéd Infantry Brigade – Nagyvárad
      Commander: Major General Koloman Patzák
    • 40th Honvéd Infantry BrigadeSzatmárnémeti (Sathmar)
      Commanding Officer: Colonel Béla Tarnáky
  • 41st Honvéd Infantry Division – Budapest
    Commander: Feldmarschalleutnant Johann Nikić
    • 81st Honvéd Infantry Brigade – Budapest
      Commander: Major General Eugen Perneczky
    • 82nd Honvéd Infantry BrigadeVeszprém (Wesprim)
      Commander: Major General Rudolf Schamschula

Independent infantry brigades[edit]

  • 45th Honvéd Infantry BrigadeSzeged
    Commander: Major General Rudolf Seide
  • 46th Honvéd Infantry BrigadeLugos
    Commander: Major General Lehel Festl
  • 73rd Honvéd Infantry BrigadePozsony
    Commanding Officer: Colonel Paul von Nagy
  • 74th Honvéd Infantry BrigadeNyitra
    Commander: Major General Franz Cvrček
  • 75th Honvéd Infantry BrigadeKolozsvár
    Commander: Major General Karl Lippner von Nagyszentmiklós
  • 76th Honvéd Infantry BrigadeNagyszeben
    Commanding Officer: Colonel Adalbert Benke von Tardoskedd
  • 77th Honvéd Infantry BrigadeKassa
    Commanding Officer: Colonel Desiderius Molnár von Péterfalva
  • 78th Honvéd Infantry BrigadeMiskolcz
    Commander: Major General Josef Foglár
  • 79th Honvéd Infantry BrigadeBudapest
    Commander: Major General Koloman Tabajdi
  • 80th Honvéd Infantry BrigadePécs
    Commanding Officer: Colonel Johann Háber
  • 83rd Honvéd Infantry BrigadeAgram
    Commander: Major General Nikolaus Ištvanović von Ivanska
  • 84th Honvéd Infantry BrigadeOsijek
    Commanding Officer: Colonel Daniel Kolak

Cavalry divisions[edit]

  • 5th Honvéd Cavalry Division Budapest
    Commander: Feldmarschalleutnant Ernst Anton von Froreich-Szábo
    • 19th Honvéd Cavalry Brigade – Budapest
      Commander: Major General Ferdinand Graf von Bissingen und Nippenburg
    • 23rd Honvéd Cavalry BrigadeZalaegerszeg
      Commanding Officer: Colonel Baron Colbert Zech
  • 11th Honvéd Cavalry DivisionDebreczen
    Commander: Major General Julius Freiherr Nagy von Töbör-Éthe
    • 22nd Landwehr Cavalry Brigade – Szeged
      Commanding Officer: Colonel Karl Czitó
    • 24th Landwehr Cavalry Brigade – Kassa
      Commanding Officer: Colonel Ladislaus Jóny von Jamnik

Infantry regiments[edit]

I. II.
  • 1st Budapest Honvéd Infantry Regiment
    Commanding Officer: Colonel Ludwig Bartha – Bartha Lajos ezredes
  • 2nd Gyula Honvéd Infantry Regiment
    Commanding Officer: Colonel Alexander Vinzenz von Vinczfalva – Vincfalvi Vincz Sándor ezredes
  • 3rd Debreczen Honvéd Infantry Regiment
    Commander: Stephan Stadler – Stadler István ezredes
  • 4th Nagyvárad Honvéd Infantry Regiment
    Commanding Officer: Colonel Sigmund Ránffy – Ránffy Zsigmond ezredes
  • 5th Szeged Honvéd Infantry Regiment
    Commanding Officer: Colonel Desiderius Nónay – Nónay Dezső ezredes
  • 6th Szabadka Honvéd Infantry Regiment
    Commanding Officer: Colonel Rudolf Kamenszky – Kamenszky Rezső ezredes
  • 7th Versecz Honvéd Infantry Regiment
    Commanding Officer: Colonel Kornel Bernatsky – Bernatsky Kornél ezredes
  • 8th Lugos Honvéd Infantry Regiment
    Commanding Officer: Colonel Julius Létay von Nyirjes – Nyirjesi Létay Gyula ezredes
  • 9th Kassa Honvéd Infantry Regiment
    Commanding Officer: Colonel Julius Preinreich – Preinreich Gyula ezredes
  • 10th Miskolcz Honvéd Infantry Regiment
    Commanding Officer: Colonel Samuel Daubner – Daubner Samu ezredes
  • 11th Munkács Honvéd Infantry Regiment
    Commanding Officer: Colonel Rudolf Pillepić; von Lippahora – Lippahorai Pillepić Rezső ezredes
  • 12th Szatmár Honvéd Infantry Regiment
    Commanding Officer: Colonel Martin Tahy von Tahvár – Tahváry Tahy Márton ezredes
  • 13th Pozsony Honvéd Infantry Regiment
    Commanding Officer: Colonel Anton Pogány – Pogány Antal ezredes
  • 14 Nyitra LIR
    Commanding Officer: Colonel Lazarus Formanek – Formanek Lázár ezredes
  • 15th Trencsén Honvéd Infantry Regiment
    Commanding Officer: Colonel Heinrich Dormándy von Dormánd – Dormándi Dormándy Henrik ezredes
  • 16th Beszterczebánya Honvéd Infantry Regiment
    Commanding Officer: Colonel Franz Hill – Hill Ferenc ezredes
  • 17th Székesfehérvár Honvéd Infantry Regiment
    Commanding Officer: Colonel Michael Gombos – Gombos Mihály ezredes
  • 18th Sopron Honvéd Infantry Regiment
    Commanding Officer: Colonel Ludwig Brunswik von Korompa – Korompai Brunswick Lajos ezredes
  • 19th Pécs Honvéd Infantry Regiment
    Commanding Officer: Colonel Otto Kleszky – Kleszky Ottó ezredes
  • 20th Nagykanizsa Honvéd Infantry Regiment
    Commanding Officer: Colonel Georg Ritter von Szypniewski – Lovag Szypniewski György ezredes
  • 21st Kolozsvár Honvéd Infantry Regiment
    Commanding Officer: Colonel Raimund Latzin – Latzin Rajmond ezredes
  • 22nd Maros-Vásárhely Honvéd Infantry Regiment
    Commanding Officer: Colonel Árpád Schön – Schön Árpád ezredes
  • 23rd Nagyszeben Honvéd Infantry Regiment
    Commanding Officer: Colonelleutnant Desiderius Szoták – Szoták Dezső alezredes
  • 24th Brassó Honvéd Infantry Regiment
    Commanding Officer: Colonel Philipp Karleusa – Karleusa Fülöp ezredes
  • 25th Agram Honvéd Infantry Regiment
    Commanding Officer: Colonel Anton Matašić – Matašić Antal ezredes
  • 26th Károlyváros Honvéd Infantry Regiment
    Commanding Officer: Colonel Georg Petrović – Petrović György ezredes
  • 27th Sziszek Honvéd Infantry Regiment
    Commanding Officer: Colonel Alois Petković – Petković Alajos ezredes
  • 28th Eszék Honvéd Infantry Regiment
    Commanding Officer: Colonel Julius Simonović – Simonović Gyula ezredes
  • 29th Budapest Honvéd Infantry Regiment
    Commanding Officer: Colonel Josef Ehmann – Ehmann József ezredes
  • 30th Budapest Honvéd Infantry Regiment
    Commanding Officer: Colonel Rudolf Polgár – Polgár Rezső ezredes
  • 31st Veszprém Honvéd Infantry Regiment
    Commanding Officer: Colonel Eduard Weeber – Weeber Ede ezredes
  • 32nd Dés Honvéd Infantry Regiment
    Commanding Officer: Colonel Karl Parupka – Parupka Károly ezredes

Cavalry regiments[edit]

Hussar of the Honvéd with pelisse
  • 1st Budapest Honvéd Hussars
    • 19th Honvád Cavalry Brigade – 5th Honvéd Cavalry Division
    Commanding Officer: Colonel Colbert Zech von Deybach Freiherr von Hart und Sulz – Debachi Zech Colbert harti és sulzi báró, ezredes
  • 2nd Debreczen Honvéd Hussars
    • 22nd Honvéd Cavalry Brigade – 11th Honvéd Cavalry Division
    Commanding Officer: Lieutenant Colonel Johann Flór – Flór János alezredes
  • 3rd Szeged Honvéd Hussars
    • 22nd Honvéd Cavalry Brigade – 11th[9] Honvéd Cavalry Division
    Commanding Officer: Lieutenant Colonel Árpád Cserépy von Kisruszka – Kisruszkai Cserépy Árpád alezredes
  • 4th Szabadka Honvéd Hussars
    • I and II Sqns, 23rd Honvéd Infantry Division
    • III and IV Sqns, 20th Honvéd Infantry Division
    • V and VI Sqns, 41st Honvéd Infantry Division
    Commanding Officer: Lieutenant Colonel Nikolaus Jankovich von Jeszenicze – Jeszeniczai Jankovich Miklós alezredes
  • 5th Kassa Honvéd Hussars
    • 24th Honvéd Cavalry Brigade – 11th Honvéd Cavalry Division
    Commanding Officer: Colonel Paul Hegedüs – Hegedüs Pál ezredes
  • 6th Zalaegerszeg Honvéd Hussars
    • 23rd Honvéd Cavalry Brigade – 5th Honvéd Cavalry Division
    Commanding Officer: Lieutenant Colonel Ladislaus Forster von Szenterzsébet – Szenterzsébeti Forster László alezredes
  • 7th Pápa Honvéd Hussars
    • 23rd Honvéd Cavalry Brigade – 5th Honvéd Cavalry Division
    Commanding Officer: Colonel Johann Graf Lubienski – Gróf Lubienski János ezredes
  • Pécs Honvéd Hussars 8
    • 19th Honvéd Cavalry Brigade – 5th Honvéd Cavalry Division
    Commanding Officer: Lieutenant Colonel Alexius Thege von Konkoly – Konkoly Thege Elek alezredes
  • 9th Maros-Vásárhely Honvéd Hussars
    • 24th Honvéd Cavalry Brigade -1st Honvéd Cavalry Division
    Commanding Officer: Colonel Koloman Géczy von Garamszeg – Garamszegi Géczy Kálmán ezredes
  • 10th Varazdin Honvéd Hussars
    • I and II Sqns, 36th Honvéd Infantry Division
    • III and IV Sqns, 42nd Honvéd Infantry Division
    • V and VI Sqns, 13th Honvéd Infantrybrigade
    Commanding Officer: Lieutenant Colonel Alois Hauer – Hauer Alajos alezredes

Field artillery regiments[edit]

  • 1st Regiment of Artillery – 1. honvéd tábori ágyúsezred
    Garrison: Budapest – 4th Honvéd Infantry Division – I Landwehr District
    formed: 1913
    Commanding Officer: Colonel Anton Hellebronth von Tiszabeö – Tiszabeöi Hellebronth Antal ezredes
  • 2nd Regiment of Field Artillery – 2 honvéd tábori ágyúsezred
    Garrison: Nagyszeben – 23rd Honvéd Infantry Division – V Landwehr District
    formed: 1914
    Commanding Officer: Lieutenant Colonel Ladislaus Thaisz – Thaisz Lázló alezredes
  • 3rd Regiment of Field Artillery – 3 honvéd tábori ágyúsezred
    Garrison: Kassa – 39th Honvéd Infantry Division – III Landwehr District
    formed: 1914
    Commanding Officer: Lieutenant Colonel Heinrich Loidin – Loidin Henrik alezredes
  • 4th Regiment of Field Artillery – 4 honvéd tábori ágyúsezred
    Garrison: Nyitra – 37th Honvéd Infantry Division – IV Landwehr District
    formed: 1914
    Commanding Officer: Lieutenant Colonel Alexander Mattanovich – Mattanovich Sándor alezredes
  • 5th Regiment of Field Artillery – 5 honvéd tábori ágyúsezred
    Garrison: Maros-Vásarhely – 38th Honvéd Infantry Division – V Landwehr District
    formed: 1914
    Commanding Officer: Lieutenant Colonel Egon Stráner – Sztráner Jenő alezredes
  • 6th Regiment of Field Artillery – 6 honvéd tábori ágyúsezred
    Garrison: Agram – 42nd Honvéd Infantry Division – VI Landwehr District
    formed: 1914
    Commanding Officer: Lieutenant Colonel Rudolf Sekulić – Sekulić Rezső alezredes
  • 7th Regiment of Field Artillery – 7 honvéd tábori ágyúsezred
    Garrison: Hajmaskér – 41st Honvéd Infantry Division – VII Landwehr District
    formed: 1914
    Commanding Officer: Lieutenant Colonel Gustav Kapp – Capp Gusztáv alzredes
  • 8th Regiment of Field Artillery – 8th honvéd tábori ágyúsezred
    Garrison: Hajmaskér – 20th Honvéd Infantry Division – II Landwehr District
    formed: 1914
    Commanding Officer: Colonel Albert Pohl – Pohl Albert ezredes
  • 1st Honvéd Horse Artillery Division – honvéd lovastüzér osztály
    Garrison: Szeged – 11th Honvéd Cavalry Division – II Landwehr District
    formed: 1914

Museum coverage[edit]

The history of Austro-Hungarian forces is documented in detail in the Military History Museum in Vienna, which was founded by Emperor Franz Joseph I as the Imperial-Royal Court Armaments Museum (k.k. Hofwaffenmuseum). In a special display cabinet in Hall V (the Franz Joseph Hall) of the museum, several uniforms of the Imperial Royal Landwehr are displayed, a relief on the rear of the cabinet shows the territories from which the Hungarian Landwehr and the Imperial Royal Landwehr recruited.[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Austro-Hungarian Infantry, Royal Hungarian Landwehr (Honvéd) section, at www.austro-hungarian-army.co.uk. Accessed on 18 Jul 2013
  2. ^ Steed, Henry Wickham; Phillips, Walter Alison and Hannay, David (1914). A Short History of Austria-Hungary and Poland, Encyclopædia Britannica Company.
  3. ^ Ortner, M. C. and Artlieb, Erich (2003). With Drawn Sword: Austro-Hungarian Edged Weapons from 1848 to 1918. Verlag Militaria.
  4. ^ Tucker, Spencer C. (2005). World War One, Volume 1, p. 1053.
  5. ^ League of Nations (1938). Armaments yearbook; general and statistical information, League of Nations publications. p. 426.
  6. ^ JPRS Report: East Europe, Issues 23-31, Foreign Broadcast Information Service, 1992, p. 18.
  7. ^ Lucas, James. Fighting Troops of the Austro-Hungarian Army 1868-1914. p. 22. ISBN 0-946771-04-9.
  8. ^ Sagvari, Gyorgy. The Hungarian Honvéd Army. pp. 40–41. ISBN 978-3-902526-31-1.
  9. ^ "The Hungarian Landwehr (Honvéd) Cavalry as at August 1914". Retrieved 17 August 2014.
  10. ^ Johann Christoph Allmayer-Beck: Das Heeresgeschichtliche Museum Wien. Saal VI - Die k.(u.)k. Armee von 1867-1914, Vienna, 1989, p. 25.

Literature and sources[edit]

  • Allmayer-Beck, Johann Christoph and Lessing, Erich (1974). Die K.u.k. Armee. 1848–1918 ("The Imperial and Royal Army 1848-1918"), Verlag Bertelsmann, Munich, 1974, ISBN 3-570-07287-8.
  • k.u.k. Kriegsministerium Dislokation und Einteilung des k.u.k Heeres, der k.u.k. Kriegsmarine, der k.k. Landwehr und der k.u. Landwehr ("Location and Organization of the k.u.k. Army, the k.u.k. Navy, the k.k. Landwehr and the k.u. Landwehr") in Seidel's kleines Armeeschema – published by Seidel & Sohn, Vienna, 1914
  • Rest, Stefan, Ortner, M. Christian and Ilmig, Thomas (2002). Des Kaisers Rock im 1. Weltkrieg ("The Emperor's Coat in the First World War"). Verlag Militaria, Vienna. ISBN 978-3950164206
  • k.u.k. Kriegsministerium (1911/12). Adjustierungsvorschrift für das k.u.k. Heer, die k.k. Landwehr, die k.u. Landwehr, die verbundenen Einrichtungen und das Korps der Militärbeamten ("Dress Regulations for the k.u.k. Army, the k.k. Landwehr, the k.u. Landwehr, the Associated Organizations and the Corps of Military Officials"), Vienna.