The Royal Medal, also known as The Queen's Medal, is a silver-gilt medal awarded each year by the Royal Society, two for "the most important contributions to the advancement of natural knowledge" and one for "distinguished contributions in the applied sciences" made within the Commonwealth of Nations. The award was created by George IV and first awarded in 1826. Initially there were two medals awarded, both for the most important discovery within the last year, a time period which was lengthened to five years and then shortened to three. The format was supported by William IV and Victoria, who had the conditions changed in 1837 so that mathematics was a subject for which a Royal Medal could be awarded, albeit only every third year. The conditions were changed again in 1850 so that:
... the Royal Medals in each year should be awarded for the two most important contributions to the advancement of Natural Knowledge, published originally in Her Majesty's dominions within a period of not more than ten years and not less than one year of the date of the award, subject, of course, to Her Majesty's approval. ... in the award of the Royal Medals, one should be given in each of the two great divisions of Natural Knowledge.
In 1965, the system was changed to its current format, in which three Medals are awarded annually by the Monarch on the recommendation of the Royal Society Council. Because of its dual nature (covering both physical and biological science) the award winners are chosen by both the A- and B-side Award Committees. Since its establishment in 1826 the medal has been awarded 405 times.
List of recipients
Year Name Field Rationale 1826 Ivory, JamesJames Ivory Mathematics "For his Paper on Astronomical Refractions, published in the Philosophical Transactions for the year 1823; and his other valuable Papers on Mathematical Subjects." Dalton, JohnJohn Dalton Physics "For his development of the Atomic Theory and his other important labours and discoveries in Physical Science." 1827 Struve, Friedrich Georg WilhelmFriedrich Georg Wilhelm Struve Astronomy "For his Work, entitled, Catalogus Novus Stellarum Duplicium." Davy, HumphryHumphry Davy Physics "For his Bakerian Lecture, On the Relations of Electrical Changes, considered as the last link, in the order of time, of the splendid chain of Discoveries in Chemical Electricity, which has been continued for so many years of his valuable life." 1828 Encke, Johann FranzJohann Franz Encke Astronomy "For his Accurate Determination of the Orbit of a Comet of short period, as confirmed by observation." Wollaston, William HydeWilliam Hyde Wollaston Chemistry "For his communication, entitled, On a method of rendering Platina malleable, being the conclusion of a series of researches on the properties of the Metallic Bodies contained in the Ores of Platina." 1829 Bell, CharlesCharles Bell Anatomy "For his Discoveries relating to the Nervous System." Mitscherlich, EilhardEilhard Mitscherlich Chemistry "For his Discoveries relating to the Laws of Crystallization, and the Properties of Crystals." 1830 Balard, Antoine JeromeAntoine Jerome Balard Chemistry "For his Discovery of Brome." Brewster, DavidDavid Brewster Physics "For his Communications to the Royal Society on the Polarization and other Properties of Light." 1831 No award 1832 No award 1833 Candolle, Augustin Pyramus deAugustin Pyramus de Candolle Botany "For his Researches and Investigations in Vegetable Physiology, as detailed in his Work, entitled, Physiologie Vegetale." Herschel, JohnJohn Herschel Astronomy "For his Paper "on the Investigation of the Orbits of Revolving Double Stars," inserted in the Fifth Volume of the Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society." 1834 Lyell, CharlesCharles Lyell Geology "For his Work, entitled, Principles of Geology." Lubbock, John WilliamJohn William Lubbock Physics "For his Papers on the Tides published in the Philosophical Transactions." 1835 Faraday, MichaelMichael Faraday Chemistry "For his investigations and discoveries contained in the series of experimental researches in electricity published in the Philosophical Transactions, and more particularly for the seventh series, relating to the definite nature of electrochemical action." Hamilton, William RowanWilliam Rowan Hamilton Physics "For the papers published by him in the 16th and 17th volumes of the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, entitled Supplement to an Essay on the Theory of Systems of Rays, and more particularly for those investigations at the conclusion of the third and last supplement, which relate to the discovery of conic refraction." 1836 Newport, GeorgeGeorge Newport Anatomy "For his series of investigations on the anatomy and physiology of insects, contained in his two papers published in the Philosophical Transactions within the last three years." Herschel, JohnJohn Herschel Astronomy "For his paper on nebulae and clusters of stars, published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1833." 1837 Whewell, WilliamWilliam Whewell Physics "For his researches connected with the theory of the tides, communicated to the Royal Society and published in its Transactions within the last three years." 1838 Talbot, William FoxWilliam Fox Talbot Mathematics "For his papers entitled Researches in the Integral Calculus, published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1836 and 1837." Graham, ThomasThomas Graham Chemistry "For his paper entitled "Inquiries respecting the Constiitution of salts, of oxalates, nitrates, phosphates, sulphates and chlorides," published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1836." 1839 Ivory, JamesJames Ivory Mathematics "For his paper on the theory of the astronomical refractions published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1838. Part II." Barry, MartinMartin Barry Embryology "For his papers on embryology, published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1838 and 1839." 1840 Wheatstone, CharlesCharles Wheatstone Physiology "For his paper entitled Contributions to the physiology of vision, published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1838." Herschel, JohnJohn Herschel Astronomy "For his paper entitled On the chemical action of the rays of the solar spectrum on preparations of silver, and other substances, both metallic and non-metallic, and on some photogenic processes, published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1840." 1841 Hodgkinson, EatonEaton Hodgkinson Engineering "For his paper entitled Experimental researches on the strength of pillars of cast iron, published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1840." Kane, RobertRobert Kane Chemistry "For his memoir entitled the Chemical History of archil and litmus, published in the Philosophical Transactions for the year 1840." 1842 Daniell, John FredericJohn Frederic Daniell Chemistry "For his letters on the electrolysis of secondary compounds and on voltaic combinations published in the Transactions for 1840 and 1842." Bowman, WilliamWilliam Bowman Anatomy "For his paper on the structure and use of the Malpighian bodies of the kidney, with observations on the circulation through that gland, published in the Philosophical Transactions of the present year." 1843 Wheatstone, CharlesCharles Wheatstone Physics "For his paper entitled, an account of several new instruments and processes for determining the constants of a voltaic circuit, printed in the Philosophical Transactions for the present year." Forbes, James DavidJames David Forbes Physics "For his researches on the law of extinction of the solar rays in passing through the atmosphere, contained in a paper published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1842." 1844 Boole, GeorgeGeorge Boole Mathematics "For his paper on a general method in analysis, published in the Philosophical Transactions of the present year." Andrews, ThomasThomas Andrews Chemistry "For his paper on the thermal changes accompanying basic substitutions, published in the Philosophical Transactions of the present year." 1845 Airy, George BiddellGeorge Biddell Airy Astronomy "For his paper on the laws of the tides on the coast of Ireland, as inferred from an extensive series of observations made in connection with the Ordnance Survey of Ireland, published in the Philosophical Transactions for the present year." Beck, Thomas SnowThomas Snow Beck Medicine "For his paper entitled On the nerves of the uterus, which has been ordered for publication in the Philosophical Transactions." 1846 Faraday, MichaelMichael Faraday Physics "For his experimental researches in electricity, twentieth and twenty first series, on new magnetic actions, and on the magnetic conditions of all matter, inserted in the Philosophical Transactions part I. for 1845." Owen, RichardRichard Owen Biology "For his paper entitled A description of certain Belemnites preserved with a great proportion of their soft parts in the Oxford clay at Christian-Malford, Wilts, published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1844." 1847 Fownes, GeorgeGeorge Fownes Chemistry "For his papers published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1845, on the artificial formation of a vegeto-alkali, and on benzoline, published in the same volume of the Transactions" Grove, William RobertWilliam Robert Grove Physics "For his papers published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1845 and 1847, on the gas voltaic battery, and on certain phenomena of voltaic ignition" 1848 Hargreave, Charles JamesCharles James Hargreave Mathematics "For his paper on the solution of linear differential equations, published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1848." Galloway, ThomasThomas Galloway Mathematics "For his paper on the proper motion of the Solar System, published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1847" 1849 Sabine, EdwardEdward Sabine Astronomy "For his contributions to terrestrial magnetism, published in the Philosophical Transactions parts VII and VIII, and his memoir on the diurnal variation of the magnetic declination at Saint Helena, part I." Mantell, GideonGideon Mantell Geology "For his paper on the Iguanodon, published in the Philosophical Transactions for the year 1848, being a continuation of a series of papers by him on the same fossil reptile, by which he has rendered eminent services to geology." 1850 Brodie, BenjaminBenjamin Brodie Chemistry "For his investigations on the chemical nature of wax, published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1848 and 1849." Graham, ThomasThomas Graham Chemistry "For his paper on the motion of gases, published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1849." 1851 Parsons, WilliamWilliam Parsons Astronomy "For his observations on the nebulae published in the Philosophical Transactions for the year 1850." Newport, GeorgeGeorge Newport Entomology "For his paper on the impregnation of the ovum in the amphibia (first series), published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1851." 1852 Joule, James PrescottJames Prescott Joule Physics "For his paper on the mechanical equivalent of heat, printed in the Philosophical Transactions for 1850." Huxley, Thomas HenryThomas Henry Huxley Biology "For his papers on the anatomy and the affinities of the family of the Medusae, printed in the Philosophical Transactions." 1853 Darwin, CharlesCharles Darwin Natural history "For his work entitled Geological Observations on Coral Reefs, Volcanic Islands, and on South America, and his work, Fossil Circhipeda of Great Britain, Section Lepadidae, Monograph of the Circhipeda." Tyndall, JohnJohn Tyndall Physics "For his paper on diamagnetism and magne-crystallic action, published in the Philosophical Magazine in 1851. (the award of this medal was declined by Dr Tyndall)" 1854 Hofmann, August Wilhelm vonAugust Wilhelm von Hofmann Chemistry "For his researches in organic chemistry published in the Transactions of the Royal and Chemical Societies." Hooker, Joseph DaltonJoseph Dalton Hooker Botany "For his researches in various branches of science, especially in botany, as naturalist of the Antarctic expedition of Sir James Ross, and in an expedition to the eastern part of the Himalayan range; of which researches part has been published in works entitled The Antarctic Flora, and the Flora of New Zealand, and in various other communications, and part is now in course of publication." 1855 Westwood, John ObadiahJohn Obadiah Westwood Entomology "For his various monographs and papers on entomology." Hind, John RussellJohn Russell Hind Astronomy "For the discovery of ten planetoids, the computation of their orbits, and various other astronomical discoveries." 1856 Richardson, JohnJohn Richardson Natural history "For his contributions to natural history and physical geography." Thomson, WilliamWilliam Thomson Physics "For his various chemical researches relating to electricity, to the motive power of heat, and to other subjects." 1857 Frankland, EdwardEdward Frankland Chemistry "For the isolation of the organic radicals of the alcohols, and for his researches on the metallic derivatives of alcohol." Lindley, JohnJohn Lindley Botany "For his numerous researches and works on all branches of scientific botany, and especially for his vegetable kingdom, and his genera & species of Orchideae." 1858 Hancock, AlbanyAlbany Hancock Biology "For his various researches on the anatomy of the mollusca." Lassell, WilliamWilliam Lassell Astronomy "For his various astronomical discoveries and researches." 1859 Cayley, ArthurArthur Cayley Mathematics "For his mathematical papers published in the Philosophical Transactions, and in various English and foreign journals." Bentham, GeorgeGeorge Bentham Botany "For his important contributions to the advancement of systematic and descriptive botany." 1860 Waller, Augustus VolneyAugustus Volney Waller Neurophysiology "For his investigations into the anatomy and physiology of the nervous system, and for the introduction of a valuable method of conducting such investigations." Fairbairn, WilliamWilliam Fairbairn Structural engineering "For his various experimental inquiries on the properties of the materials employed in mechanical construction, contained in the Philosophical transactions, and in the publications of other scientific societies." 1861 Sylvester, James JosephJames Joseph Sylvester Mathematics "For his various memoirs and researches in mathematical science." Carpenter, William BenjaminWilliam Benjamin Carpenter Physiology "For his researches on the Foraminifera, contained in four memoirs in the Philosophical Transactions, his investigations into the structure of shell, his observations on the embryonic development of Purpura, and his various other writings in physiology and comparative anatomy" 1862 Williamson, Alexander WilliamAlexander William Williamson Chemistry "For his researches on the compound ethers, and his subsequent communications in organic chemistry." Robinson, John Thomas RomneyJohn Thomas Romney Robinson Astronomy "For the Armagh catalogue of 5345 stars, deduced from observations made at the Armagh Observatory, from the years 1820 up to 1854; for his papers on the construction of astronomical instruments in the memoirs of the Astronomical Society, and his paper on electromagnets in the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy." 1863 Gassiot, John PeterJohn Peter Gassiot Physics "For his researches on the voltaic battery and current, and on the discharge of electricity through attenuated media." Berkeley, MilesMiles Berkeley Botany "For his researches in cryptogamic botany, especially mycology." 1864 Clarke, Jacob LockhartJacob Lockhart Clarke Anatomy "For his researches on the intimate structure of the spinal cord and brain, and on the development of the spinal cord, published in five memoirs in the Philosophical Transactions and in other writings." Rue, Warren De LaWarren De La Rue Astronomy "For his observations on the total eclipse of the Sun of 1860, and for his improvements in astronomical photography." 1865 Smith, ArchibaldArchibald Smith Mathematics "For his papers in the Philosophical Transactions and elsewhere, on the magnetism of ships." Prestwich, JosephJoseph Prestwich Geology "For his numerous & valuable contributions to geological science and more especially for his papers published in the Philosophical Transactions on the general question of the excavation of river valleys, and on the superficial deposits in France and England in which the works of man are associated with the remains of extinct animals." 1866 Huggins, WilliamWilliam Huggins Astronomy "For his researches on the spectra of some of the chemical elements and on the spectra of certain of the heavenly bodies; and especially for his researches on the spectra of the nebulae, published in the Philosophical Transactions." Parker, William KitchenWilliam Kitchen Parker Anatomy "For his researches in comparative osteology, and more especially on the anatomy of the skull, as contained in papers published in the Transactions of the Zoological Society and the Philosophical Transactions." 1867 Lawes, John BennetJohn Bennet Lawes and Joseph Henry Gilbert Chemistry "For their researches in agricultural chemistry." Logan, William EdmondWilliam Edmond Logan Geology "For his geological researches in Canada, and the construction of a geological map of that colony." 1868 Wallace, Alfred RusselAlfred Russel Wallace Zoology "For his labours in practical and theoretical zoology." Salmon, GeorgeGeorge Salmon Mathematics "For his researches in analytical geometry and the theory of surfaces, published in the Philosophical Transactions, the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, and the Quarterly Journal of Mathematics." 1869 Matthiessen, AugustusAugustus Matthiessen Chemistry "For his researches on the electrical and other physical properties of metals and their alloys." Maclear, ThomasThomas Maclear Astronomy "For his measurement of an arc of the meridian at the Cape of Good Hope." 1870 Davidson, ThomasThomas Davidson Paleontology "For his works on the recent and fossil Brachiopoda, more especially his series of monographs in the publications of the Palaeontographical Society." Miller, William HallowesWilliam Hallowes Miller Mineralogy "For his researches and writings on mineralogy and crystallography, and his scientific labours in the restoration of the National Standard of Weight." 1871 Busk, GeorgeGeorge Busk Zoology "For his researches in zoology, physiology, and comparative anatomy." Stenhouse, JohnJohn Stenhouse Chemistry "For his researches on the lichens & their proximate constituents and derivatives, including Erythrite; and for his researches on the action of charcoal in purifying air." 1872 Carter, Henry JohnHenry John Carter Zoology "For his long continued and valuable researches in zoology, and more especially for his inquiries into the natural history of the Spongiadae." Anderson, ThomasThomas Anderson Chemistry "For his investigations on the organic bases of Dippells animal oil; on codeine; on the crystallized constituents of opium; on piperin and on papaverin; and for his researches in physiological and animal chemistry." 1873 Allman, George JamesGeorge James Allman Zoology "For his researches in zoology, and especially for his memoirs on the structure, development, and physiology of the gymnoblastic hydroids." Roscoe, Henry EnfieldHenry Enfield Roscoe Chemistry "For his various chemical investigations, especially fot those on the chemical action of light, and upon the element Vanadium and its combinations." 1874 Sorby, Henry CliftonHenry Clifton Sorby Geology "For his researches on Slaty cleavage and on the minute structure of minerals and rocks; for the construction of the microspectroscope, and for his researches on colouring matters." Williamson, William CrawfordWilliam Crawford Williamson Paleontology "For his contributions to zoology & palaeontology, & especially for his investigations into the structure of the fossil plants of the coal measures." 1875 Oldham, ThomasThomas Oldham Geology "For his long & important services in the science of geology, first as Professor of Geology, Trin. Col. Dub. And Director of the Geol. Survey of Ireland & chiefly for the great work which he has long conducted as superintendent of the Geol. Survey of India, also for the series of volumes of geological reports and memoirs, including the Palaeontographica Indica published under his direction." Crookes, WilliamWilliam Crookes Chemistry "For his various chemical and physical researches, more especially for his discovery of thallium, his investigation of its compounds and determination of its atomic weight; and for his discovery of the repulsion referable to radiation." 1876 Thomson, Charles WyvilleCharles Wyville Thomson Zoology "For his successful direction of the scientific investigations carried on by HMS Challenger." Froude, WilliamWilliam Froude Hydrodynamics "For his researches both theoretical and experimental on the behaviour of ships, their oscillations, their resistance, & propulsion." 1877 Abel, Frederick AugustusFrederick Augustus Abel Chemistry "For his physico-chemical researches on gun cotton & explosive agents." Heer, OswaldOswald Heer Natural History "For his numerous researches & writings on the tertiary plants of Europe, of the North Atlantic, North Asia, and North America, and for his able generalizations respecting their affinities, and their geological & climatic relations." 1878 Gunther, AlbertAlbert Gunther Zoology "For his numerous & valuable contributions to the zoology & anatomy of fishes & reptiles." Broun, John AllanJohn Allan Broun Meteorology "For his investigations during thirty five years in magnetism and meteorology & for his improvements in methods of observation." 1879 Ramsay, Andrew CrombieAndrew Crombie Ramsay Geology "For his long continued & successful labours in geology and physical geography." Perkin, William HenryWilliam Henry Perkin Chemistry "For his synthetical & other researches in organic chemistry." 1880 Noble, AndrewAndrew Noble Physics "For his researches into the action of explosives; his invention of the chronoscope; and other mathematical & physical inquiries." Lister, JosephJoseph Lister Surgery "For his contributions on various physiological & biological subjects published in the Philosophical Transactions & Proceedings of the Royal Society & elsewhere; and for his labours practical and theoretical, on questions relating to the antiseptic system of treatment in surgery." 1881 Jellett, John HewittJohn Hewitt Jellett Mathematics "For his various mathematical & physical papers, more especially for his researches in chemical optics, & his invention of the new and delicate analyser by which they were carried out." Balfour, Francis MaitlandFrancis Maitland Balfour Biology "For his numerous and important contributions to animal morphology; and more especially for his investigations respecting the origin of the urogenital organs and the cerebrospinal nerves of the Vertebrata; and for his work on the development of the Elasmobranch fishes." 1882 Strutt, JohnJohn Strutt Physics "For his various papers in mathematical and experimental physics." Flower, William HenryWilliam Henry Flower Biology "For his valuable contributions to the morphology and classification of the Mammalia and to anthropology." 1883 Hirst, Thomas ArcherThomas Archer Hirst Mathematics "For his researches in pure mathematics." Burdon-Sanderson, John ScottJohn Scott Burdon-Sanderson Physiology "For the eminent services which he has rendered to physiology and pathology, especially for his investigation of the relations of micro-organisms to disease, and his researches on the electric phenomena of plants." 1884 Darwin, GeorgeGeorge Darwin Mathematics "For his mathematical investigations on the rigidity of the Earth, and on tides." Oliver, DanielDaniel Oliver Botany "For his investigations in the classification of plants, and for the great services which he has rendered to taxonomic botany." 1885 Hughes, David EdwardDavid Edward Hughes Electrical engineering "For his electric and magnetic researches, and his invention of the microphone & the induction balance." Lankester, RayRay Lankester Zoology "For his discoveries concerning the embryology and morphology of the mollusca and his services to embryology & animal morphology in general." 1886 Tait, Peter GuthriePeter Guthrie Tait Physics "For his various mathematical and physical researches." Galton, FrancisFrancis Galton Biology "For his statistical inquiries into biological phenomena." 1887 Clarke, Alexander RossAlexander Ross Clarke Geodesy "For his comparison of standards of length and determination of the figure of the Earth." Moseley, Henry NottidgeHenry Nottidge Moseley Natural history "For his numerous researches in animal morphology, and especially his investigations." 1888 Reynolds, OsborneOsborne Reynolds Physics "For his investigations in mathematical & experimental physics, and on the application of scientific theory to engineering." Mueller, Ferdinand vonFerdinand von Mueller Geography "For his long services in Australian exploration and for his investigations of the flora of the Australian continent." 1889 Thorpe, Thomas EdwardThomas Edward Thorpe Chemistry "For his researches on fluorine compounds, and his determination of the atomic weights of titanium and gold." Gaskell, Walter HolbrookWalter Holbrook Gaskell Physiology "For his researches in cardiac physiology and his important discoveries in the anatomy and physiology of the sympathetic nervous system." 1890 Hopkinson, JohnJohn Hopkinson Physics "For his researches in magnetism and electricity." Ferrier, DavidDavid Ferrier Neurology "For his researches on the localisation of cerebral functions." 1891 Rucker, Arthur WilliamArthur William Rucker Physics "For his researches on liquid films, and his contributions to our knowledge of terrestrial magnetism." Lapworth, CharlesCharles Lapworth Geology "For his researches among the older rocks of Britain." 1892 Pritchard, CharlesCharles Pritchard Astronomy "For his work on photometry and stellar parallax." Langley, John NewportJohn Newport Langley Physiology "For his work on secreting glands, and on the nervous system." 1893 Ward, Harry MarshallHarry Marshall Ward Botany "For his researches into the life-history of fungi and schizomycetes." Schuster, ArthurArthur Schuster Botany "For his spectroscopic inquiries, and his researches on disruptive discharge through gases and on terrestrial magnetism." 1894 Thomson, Joseph JohnJoseph John Thomson Physics "For his contributions to mathematical and experimental physics especially to electrical theory." Horsley, VictorVictor Horsley Physiology "For his investigations relating to the physiology of the nervous system, and of the thyroid gland, and to their applications to the treatment of disease." 1895 Murray, JohnJohn Murray Oceanography "For his services to biological science and oceanography in connection with the "Challenger" reports, and for his original contributions to the same." Ewing, James AlfredJames Alfred Ewing Physics "For his investigations on magnetic induction in iron and other metals. 1896 Geikie, ArchibaldArchibald Geikie Geology "For his many original contributions to geology especially those upon the Old Red Sandstone of Western Europe." Boys, Charles VernonCharles Vernon Boys Physics "For his invention of Quartz Fibres and investigation of their properties, his improvement of the radio-micrometer and investigations with it, for developments in the art of instantaneous photography, and for his determination of the value of the constant of attraction." 1897 Strachey, RichardRichard Strachey Geology "For his researches in geographical, meteorological, and botanical science." Forsyth, AndrewAndrew Forsyth Mathematics "For his contributions to the progress of pure mathematics, and especially for his work in differential equations and the theory of functions." 1898 Kerr, JohnJohn Kerr Physics "For his researches on the optical effect of electrical stress and on the reflection of light at the surface of a magnetised body." Gardiner, WalterWalter Gardiner Botany "For his researches on the protoplasmic connection of the cells of vegetable tissues and on the minute histology of plants." 1899 McIntosh, William CarmichaelWilliam Carmichael McIntosh Marine biology "For his important monographs on British marine zoology and on the fishing industries." Fitzgerald, George FrancisGeorge Francis Fitzgerald Physics "For his contributions to physical science, especially in the domains of optics and electricity." 1900 Newton, AlfredAlfred Newton Ornithology "For his eminent contributions to the science of ornithology and the geographical distribution of animals." MacMahon, Percy AlexanderPercy Alexander MacMahon Mathematics "For the number and range of his contributions to mathematical science" 1901 Ayrton, William EdwardWilliam Edward Ayrton Electrical engineering "For his contributions to electrical science." Blanford, William ThomasWilliam Thomas Blanford Geology "For his work in connection with the geographical distribution of animals" 1902 Schafer, Edward AlbertEdward Albert Schafer Neurology "For his researches into the functions and minute structure of the Central Nervous System, especially with regard to the motor and sensory functions of the cortex of the brain." Lamb, HoraceHorace Lamb Applied mathematics "For his investigations in mathematical physics." 1903 Gill, DavidDavid Gill Astronomy "For his researches in solar and stellar parallax, and his energetic direction of the Royal Observatory at the Cape of Good Hope." Brown, Horace TabbererHorace Tabberer Brown Chemistry "For his work on the chemistry of the carbohydrates and on the assimilation of carbonic acid by green plants." 1904 Bruce, DavidDavid Bruce Microbiology "For his valuable researches in the pathology of Malta fever, nagana, and sleeping sickness, and especially for his discoveries as regards the exact causes of these diseases." Burnside, WilliamWilliam Burnside Mathematics "For his researches in mathematics, particularly in the theory of groups." 1905 Sherrington, Charles ScottCharles Scott Sherrington Neurophysiology "For his researches on the Central Nervous System especially in relation to reflex action." Poynting, John HenryJohn Henry Poynting Physics "For his researches in physical science, especially in connection with the constant of gravitation and the theories of electrodynamics and radiation." 1906 Greenhill, Alfred GeorgeAlfred George Greenhill Mathematics "For his contributions to mathematics, especially the elliptic functions and their applications." Scott, Dukinfield HenryDukinfield Henry Scott Botany "For his investigations and discoveries in connection with the structure and relationship of fossil plants." 1907 Hobson, Ernest WilliamErnest William Hobson Mathematics "On the ground of his investigations in mathematics." Traquair, Ramsay HeatleyRamsay Heatley Traquair Natural history "On the ground of his discoveries relating to fossil fishes." 1908 Head, HenryHenry Head Neurology "On the ground of his researches on the relations between the visceral & somatic nerves and on the functions of the different nerves." Milne, JohnJohn Milne Geology "On the ground of his work in seismology." 1909 Love, AugustusAugustus Love Mathematics "On the ground of his researches in the theory of elasticity and cognate subjects." Ross, RonaldRonald Ross Medicine "On the ground of his researches in connection with malaria." 1910 Bower, Frederick OrpenFrederick Orpen Bower Botany "On the ground of his treatise on the origin of a land flora." Joly, JohnJohn Joly Geology "On the ground of researches in physics and geology." 1911 Chrystal, GeorgeGeorge Chrystal Mathematics "On the ground of his work in mathematics and physics." Bayliss, William MaddockWilliam Maddock Bayliss Physiology "On the ground of his researches in physiology." 1912 Smith, Grafton ElliotGrafton Elliot Smith Anatomy no rationale given Hicks, William MitchinsonWilliam Mitchinson Hicks Physics "On the ground of his researches in mathematical physics." 1913 Starling, Ernest HenryErnest Henry Starling Physiology "On the ground of his contributions to the advancement of physiology." Dixon, Harold BailyHarold Baily Dixon Chemistry "On the ground of his eminence in physical chemistry, especially in connexion with explosions in gases." 1914 Brown, Ernest WilliamErnest William Brown Astronomy "For investigations in astronomy, chiefly in the lunar theory." Sollas, William JohnsonWilliam Johnson Sollas Geology "For researches in palaeontology." 1915 Larmor, JosephJoseph Larmor Mathematics "On the ground of his numerous and important contributions to mathematical and physical science." Rivers, William Halse RiversWilliam Halse Rivers Rivers Ethnology "On the ground of his important contributions to ethnography and ethnology." 1916 Macdonald, Hector MunroHector Munro Macdonald Mathematics "For his contributions to mathematical physics." Haldane, John ScottJohn Scott Haldane Physiology "For his distinguished services to chemical physiology, more especially in reference to the chemical changes in respiration." 1917 Woodward, Arthur SmithArthur Smith Woodward Palaeontology "On the ground of his researches in vertebrate palaeontology." Aitken, JohnJohn Aitken Meteorology "On the ground of his work on cloudy condensations." 1918 Fowler, AlfredAlfred Fowler Astronomy "For his distinguished researches in physical astronomy and spectroscopy." Hopkins, Frederick GowlandFrederick Gowland Hopkins Biochemistry "On the ground of his researches in chemical physiology." 1919 Jeans, James HopwoodJames Hopwood Jeans Mathematics "On the ground of his researches in applied mathematics." Farmer, John BretlandJohn Bretland Farmer Botany "On the ground of his notable work on plant and animal cytology." 1920 Hardy, Godfrey HaroldGodfrey Harold Hardy Mathematics "On the ground of his researches in pure mathematics." Bateson, WilliamWilliam Bateson Genetics "On the ground of his contributions to biological science, and especially his studies in genetics." 1921 Dyson, Frank WatsonFrank Watson Dyson Astronomy "For his researches on the distribution and movement of the stars." Blackman, FrederickFrederick Blackman Botany "For his researches on the gaseous exchange in plants & on the operation of limiting factors." 1922 Wilson, Charles Thomson ReesCharles Thomson Rees Wilson Meteorology "For his researches on condensation nuclei and atmospheric electricity." Barcroft, JosephJoseph Barcroft Physiology "For his researches in physiology and especially for his work in connection with respiration." 1923 Martin, Charles JamesCharles James Martin Physiology "For his researches on animal metabolism" Shaw, NapierNapier Shaw Meteorology "For his researches in meteorological science" 1924 Clerk, DugaldDugald Clerk Engineering "For his application of scientific principles to engineering problems." Dale, Henry HallettHenry Hallett Dale Pharmacology "For his researches in pharmacology and physiology." 1925 Seward, Albert CharlesAlbert Charles Seward Botany "For his researches on the palaeobotany of Gondwanaland." Perkin, Jr., William HenryWilliam Henry Perkin, Jr. Organic chemistry "For his work on the constitution of the alkaloids carried out during the past few years." 1926 Hill, Archibald VivianArchibald Vivian Hill Physiology "For his distinguished work on the physical and chemical aspects of muscular contraction." Hardy, William BateWilliam Bate Hardy Biochemistry "For his pioneer work on colloidal chemistry and the theory of lubrication." 1927 McLennan, John CunninghamJohn Cunningham McLennan Physics "For his researches in spectroscopy and atomic physics." Lewis, ThomasThomas Lewis Cardiology "For his researches on the vascular system, following upon his earlier work on the mammalian heart-beat." 1928 Eddington, Arthur StanleyArthur Stanley Eddington Astrophysics "For his contributions to astrophysics." Broom, RobertRobert Broom Palaeontology "For his discoveries which have shed new light on the problem of the origin of mammals." 1929 Littlewood, John EdensorJohn Edensor Littlewood Mathematics "For his work on mathematical analysis and the theory of prime numbers." Muir, RobertRobert Muir Pathology "For his contributions to the science of immunology." 1930 Marr, John EdwardJohn Edward Marr Geology "For his pioneer work in the accurate zoning of the palaeozoic rocks." Richardson, Owen WillansOwen Willans Richardson Physics "For his work on thermionics and spectroscopy." 1931 Glazebrook, RichardRichard Glazebrook Physics "For his distinguished work in experimental physics." Lang, William HenryWilliam Henry Lang Botany "For his work on the anatomy and morphology of the fern-like fossils of the Old Red Sandstone." 1932 Mellanby, EdwardEdward Mellanby Pharmacology "For his important researches on dietary factors, particularly in connexion with rickets." Robinson, RobertRobert Robinson Chemistry "For his work in many branches of organic chemistry, especially on the structure of plant products and their phytochemical synthesis." 1933 Taylor, Geoffrey IngramGeoffrey Ingram Taylor Physics "For his mathematical work in physics, geophysics and aerodynamics." Laidlaw, Patrick PlayfairPatrick Playfair Laidlaw Virology "For his work on diseases due to viruses, including that on the cause and prevention of distemper in dogs." 1934 Adrian, Edgar DouglasEdgar Douglas Adrian Electrophysiology "For his work on the physiology of nerve and its application to the problems of sensation." Chapman, SydneySydney Chapman Geophysics "For his researches in the kinetic theory of gases, in terrestrial magnetism and in the phenomena of the upper atmosphere." 1935 Harker, AlfredAlfred Harker Petrology "In recognition of his distinguished work and influence as a petrologist." Darwin, Charles GaltonCharles Galton Darwin Physics "For his researches in mathematical physics, especially in the quantum mechanics of the electron and in optics." 1936 Goodrich, Edwin StephenEdwin Stephen Goodrich Zoology "For his work on the morphology of the excretory organs of the invertebrate and for his work on the comparative anatomy and embryology of the vertebrata." Fowler, Ralph HowardRalph Howard Fowler Physics "For his work on statistical mechanics and allied departments of modern mathematical physics." 1937 Buller, Arthur Henry ReginaldArthur Henry Reginald Buller Biology "In recognition of his researches on the general biology and sexuality of the fungi." Sidgwick, Nevil VincentNevil Vincent Sidgwick Chemistry "In recognition of his distinguished work on valency and on molecular structure." 1938 Aston, Francis WilliamFrancis William Aston Physics "For his discovery of the isotopes of non-radioactive elements." Fisher, Ronald AylmerRonald Aylmer Fisher Statistics "For his important contributions to the theory and practice of statistical methods." 1939 Keilin, DavidDavid Keilin Entomology "For his contributions to biochemistry and entomology; in particular for his demonstration of the part played by cytochrome in the oxidation-reduction mechanisms of the living cell; and for his studies of the higher diptera." Dirac, PaulPaul Dirac Physics "For the leading part he had taken in the development of the new quantum mechanics." 1940 Marshall, Francis Hugh AdamFrancis Hugh Adam Marshall Physiology "For his contributions to the physiology of animal reproduction." Blackett, Patrick Maynard StuartPatrick Maynard Stuart Blackett Physics "For his studies of cosmic rays and the showers of particles which they produce, for his share in the discovery of the positive electron, for his work on mesons and many other experimental achievements." 1941 Kennaway, ErnestErnest Kennaway Pathology "For his discovery of the nature of the carcinogenic substances in coal tar and for his investigations on production of cancer by synthetic substances." Milne, Edward ArthurEdward Arthur Milne Astrophysics "For his researches on the atmospheres of the earth and the sun, on the internal constitution of the stars, and on the theory of relativity." 1942 Topley, William Whiteman CarltonWilliam Whiteman Carlton Topley Bacteriology "For his outstanding work on experimental epidemiology and immunology." Haworth, Walter NormanWalter Norman Haworth Chemistry "For his fundamental contributions to organic chemistry, particularly to the constitution of the sugars and the structure of complex polysaccharides." 1943 Bailey, Edward BattersbyEdward Battersby Bailey Geology "For his distinguished contributions to the knowledge of mountain structure and his studies on the tectonics of vulcanism." Jones, Harold SpencerHarold Spencer Jones Astronomy "For his determination of the solar parallax and of other fundamental astronomical constants." 1944 Harington, Charles RobertCharles Robert Harington Chemistry "For his work in the analysis and synthesis of thyroxine, and in immunological chemistry." Brunt, DavidDavid Brunt Meteorology "For his fundamental contributions to meteorology." 1945 Salisbury, Edward JamesEdward James Salisbury Botany "For his notable contributions to plant ecology and to the study of the British flora generally." Bernal, John DesmondJohn Desmond Bernal Crystallography "For his work on the structure of proteins and other substances by X-ray methods and for the solution of many other problems requiring a physical approach." 1946 Darlington, Cyril DeanCyril Dean Darlington Biology "For his distinguished researches in cytology and genetics." Bragg, LawrenceLawrence Bragg Physics "For his distinguished researches in the sciences of X-ray structure analysis and X-ray spectroscopy." 1947 Burnet, Frank MacfarlaneFrank Macfarlane Burnet Virology "For his distinguished work on bacteriophages, viruses and immunity; and for his contributions to the study of infectious disease as an ecological phenomenon." Hinshelwood, Cyril NormanCyril Norman Hinshelwood Chemistry "For his distinguished work on the mechanism of chemical reactions from the simplest gas phase processes to the complexities of cell division." 1948 Gray, JamesJames Gray Zoology "For his distinguished researches in cytology, ciliary movement, and particularly his anatomical and experimental studies of animal posture and locomotion." Jeffreys, HaroldHarold Jeffreys Geophysics "For his distinguished work in geophysics and his important contributions to the astronomy of the solar system. 1949 Peters, Rudolph AlbertRudolph Albert Peters Biochemistry "For his distinguished biochemical researches, in particular his investigations of (i) the biochemical role of vitamin B1 in tissue metabolism; and (ii) the mechanism of the toxic action of lewisite and other arsenical compounds." Thomson, George PagetGeorge Paget Thomson Physics "For his distinguished contributions to many branches of atomic physics, and especially for his work in establishing the wave properties of the electron." 1950 Pantin, Carl Frederick AbelCarl Frederick Abel Pantin Zoology "For his contributions to the comparative physiology of the Invertebrata, particularly his work on nerve conduction in Crustacea and Actinozoa." Appleton, EdwardEdward Appleton Physics "For his work on the ele [sic] transmission of electromagnetic waves round the earth and for his investigations of the ionic state of the upper atmosphere." 1951 Florey, HowardHoward Florey Pharmacology "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to pathology by his studies of the functions of mucin and by his work on penicillin and other antibiotics." Heilbron, IanIan Heilbron Chemistry "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to organic chemistry, notably in the field of vitamin A and polyene synthesis." 1952 Bartlett, FredericFrederic Bartlett Experimental psychology "In recognition of his creation of an experimental school of psychology which has established under his leadership an outstanding position recognized internationally as without superior." Ingold, Christopher KelkChristopher Kelk Ingold Chemistry "In recognition of his extensive theoretical and practical studies of the mechanism of organic chemical reactions and the factors influencing them; and for his analysis of the structure of benzene." 1953 Fildes, PaulPaul Fildes Microbiology "In recognition of his classical researches on growth factors for bacteria and for laying the foundation of work leading to a rational approach to chemotherapy." Mott, Nevill FrancisNevill Francis Mott Physics "In recognition of his eminent work in the field of quantum theory and particularly in the theory of metals." 1954 Krebs, Hans AdolfHans Adolf Krebs Biochemistry "In recognition of his discovery of two key reactions in animal metabolism and for his distinguished contributions to the knowledge of cell energetics." Cockcroft, JohnJohn Cockcroft Physics "In recognition of his distinguished work on nuclear and atomic physics." 1955 Wigglesworth, VincentVincent Wigglesworth Entomology "In recognition of his distinguished experimental contributions of outstanding value to many aspects of insect physiology." Todd, AlexanderAlexander Todd Biochemistry "In recognition of his distinguished work in organic chemistry." 1956 Jones, Owen ThomasOwen Thomas Jones Geology "In recognition of his distinguished studies in the Palaeozoic rocks, particularly in Wales, his work on sediments, his palaeontological researches and the application of geological knowledge to practical problems." Hodgkin, Dorothy Mary CrowfootDorothy Mary Crowfoot Hodgkin Chemistry "In recognition of her distinguished work in the elucidation of structures of penicillin, vitamin B12 and other important compounds by the methods of X-ray crystallography." 1957 Gregory, Frederick GugenheimFrederick Gugenheim Gregory Botany "In recognition of his distinguished studies in plant physiology." Hodge, William Vallance DouglasWilliam Vallance Douglas Hodge Mathematics "In recognition of his distinguished work on algebraic geometry." 1958 Hodgkin, Alan LloydAlan Lloyd Hodgkin Physiology "In recognition of his distinguished work on the mechanism of excitation and conduction in nerve and muscle." Massey, Harrie Stewart WilsonHarrie Stewart Wilson Massey Physics "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to physics, and particularly for his experimental and theoretical studies of collision phenomena in gases." 1959 Medawar, Peter BrianPeter Brian Medawar Physiology "In recognition of his distinguished contributions in the field of tissue transplantation immunity and acquired tolerance." Peierls, RudolfRudolf Peierls Physics "In recognition of his distinguished work on the theoretical foundations of high energy and nuclear physics." 1960 Cameron, RoyRoy Cameron Pathology "In recognition of his distinguished contributions in the field of cellular pathology" Lovell, BernardBernard Lovell Physics "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to radio astronomy." 1961 Clark, Wilfrid Le GrosWilfrid Le Gros Clark Physiology "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to neuroanatomy and primate morphology, which he has combined to provide new knowledge of human evolution." Powell, Cecil FrankCecil Frank Powell Physics "In recognition of his pioneering work on the development of the photographic emulsion technique in the investigation of cosmic rays and the outstanding results derived therefrom on the elementary particles in cosmic radiation." 1962 Eccles, John CarewJohn Carew Eccles Neurophysiology "In recognition of his distinguished investigations of the function of the spinal cord, particularly of the mechanisms of excitation and inhibition." Chandrasekhar, SubrahmanyanSubrahmanyan Chandrasekhar Astrophysics "In recognition of his distinguished researches in mathematical physics, particularly those related to the stability of convective motions in fluids with and without magnetic fields." 1963 Read, Herbert HaroldHerbert Harold Read Geology "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to the understanding of the processes of rock metamorphism and the origins of granite." Hill, RobertRobert Hill Biochemistry "In recognition of his distinguished work in biochemistry of plants, especially for his contributions to knowledge of photosynthesis." 1964 Brambell, FrancisFrancis Brambell Medicine "In recognition of his important contribution to our understanding of the passage of protein from maternal to foetal circulations." Lighthill, Michael JamesMichael James Lighthill Aeroacoustics "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to knowledge of the flow of compressible gases, and the mathematical theory of distributions." 1965 Husband, Henry CharlesHenry Charles Husband Engineering "In recognition of his distinguished work in many aspects of engineering, particularly for his design studies of large structures such as those exemplified in the radio telescopes at Jodrell Bank and Goonhilly Downs." Kendrew, John CowderyJohn Cowdery Kendrew Crystallography "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to the complete structural analysis of a protein molecule (myoglobin), particularly the biological aspects of this study." Lyttleton, Raymond ArthurRaymond Arthur Lyttleton Astronomy "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to astronomy, particularly for his work on the dynamical stability of galaxies." 1966 Cockerell, ChristopherChristopher Cockerell Engineering "In recognition of his pioneering invention, and major contributions to the subsequent development of hovercraft." Yates, FrankFrank Yates Statistical biology "In recognition of his profound and far-reaching contributions to the statistical methods of experimental biology." Ratcliffe, John AshworthJohn Ashworth Ratcliffe Physics "In recognition of his distinguished studies in the ionosphere and on the propagation of radio waves." 1967 Hutchinson, JosephJoseph Hutchinson Biology "In recognition of his distinguished work on the genetics and evolution of crop-plants with particular reference to cotton." Young, John ZacharyJohn Zachary Young Neurophysiology "In recognition of his outstanding researches correlating neural structure with function." Tilley, Cecil EdgarCecil Edgar Tilley Petrology "In recognition of his many distinguished contributions in all branches of retrology." 1968 Roberts, GilbertGilbert Roberts Engineering "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to civil engineering, and in particular to the design and construction of long-span suspension bridges." Morgan, Walter Thomas JamesWalter Thomas James Morgan Biochemistry "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to knowledge of the chemistry of blood-group substances, with special reference to genetical as well as immunological considerations." Atiyah, Michael FrancisMichael Francis Atiyah Mathematics "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to algebraic geometry and to the study of differential equations by the methods of algebraic topology." 1969 Oatley, Charles WilliamCharles William Oatley Electrical engineering "In recognition of his distinguished work in the wartime development of radar and latterly for the design and development of a highly successful scanning electron microscope." Sanger, FrederickFrederick Sanger Biochemistry "In recognition of his pioneer work on the sequence of amino acids in proteins and of nucleotides of ribonucleic acids." Deacon, George Edward RavenGeorge Edward Raven Deacon Oceanography "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to physical oceanography and for his leadership as director of the National Institute of Oceanography." 1970 Baker, John FleetwoodJohn Fleetwood Baker Engineering "In recognition of his fundamental and applied work on the plastic behaviour and design of framed structures which is now being used throughout the world." Rushton, William Albert HughWilliam Albert Hugh Rushton Physiology "In recognition of his distinguished work on the visual pigments in the living eye and on chemical and nervous adaptation in the retina." Dunham, Kingsley CharlesKingsley Charles Dunham Geology "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to pure and applied geology, and especially in the field of metallic ore deposits." 1971 Kent, Percy EdwardPercy Edward Kent Geology "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to oil and gas exploration and the geology of oil and gas fields." Perutz, MaxMax Perutz Biology "In recognition of his pioneering work on the molecular biology and structure of proteins." Herzberg, GerhardGerhard Herzberg Physics "In recognition of his distinguished experimental researches in atomic and molecular spectroscopy and its applications in chemistry, physics and astronomy." 1972 Lewis, Wilfrid BennettWilfrid Bennett Lewis Nuclear physics "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to the science and technology of heavy water reactors for power generation." Crick, FrancisFrancis Crick Biology "In recognition of his elucidation of the structure of DNA and his continuing contribution to molecular biology." Barton, DerekDerek Barton Chemistry "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to organic chemistry, especially his theories on the conformation of organic molecules and his syntheses of natural products." 1973 Abraham, Edward PenleyEdward Penley Abraham Biology "In recognition of his outstanding work on the isolation, characterization and development of the cephalosporin group of antibiotics." Porter, Rodney RobertRodney Robert Porter Biology "In recognition of his penetrating investigations on the structure of immunoglobulins." Ryle, MartinMartin Ryle Astronomy "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to radioastronomy." 1974 Brenner, SydneySydney Brenner Biology "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to molecular biology concerning the nature of the genetic code and its expression during development." Edwards, GeorgeGeorge Edwards Engineering "In recognition of his many contributions to aeronautical engineering, particularly in the realization of supersonic aircraft." Hoyle, FredFred Hoyle Physics "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to theoretical physics and cosmology." 1975 Wallis, BarnesBarnes Wallis Engineering "In recognition of the originality of his ideas and the determination with which he has pursued them." Phillips, David ChiltonDavid Chilton Phillips Biology "In recognition of his solution of the three-dimensional structure of an enzyme and his outstanding contributions to the techniques of x-ray crystallography." Bullard, EdwardEdward Bullard Geophysics "In recognition of his distinction as a world leader in geophysics, especially the generation of the earths magnetic field, the origin of the oceans and continental drift." 1976 Walsh, AlanAlan Walsh Physics "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to emission and infra-red spectroscopy and his origination of the atomic absorption method of quantitative analysis." Gowans, James LearmonthJames Learmonth Gowans Medicine "In recognition of his distinguished research in the field of immunology, especially as regards the recirculation and immunological role of lymphocytes" Cornforth, John WarcupJohn Warcup Cornforth Chemistry "In recognition of his fundamental contribution to the stereochemical unravelling of the biosynthesis of squalene and cholesterol from acetate and mevalonate." 1977 Adams, John BertramJohn Bertram Adams Physics "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to the design and operation of high-energy particle accelerators." Huxley, Hugh EsmorHugh Esmor Huxley Biology "In recognition of his distinguished research on the structure of muscle and on the molecular mechanisms of contraction." Hirsch, PeterPeter Hirsch Materials science "In recognition of his distinguished studies of defects in crystals and especially of his elucidation of the process of work hardening." 1978 Kilburn, TomTom Kilburn Engineering "In recognition of his outstanding individual and continuing contribution to the development of computer hardware in the United Kingdom over the last thirty years." Gregory, Roderic AlfredRoderic Alfred Gregory Biology "In recognition of his distinguished studies of the biological activity of peptide hormones in relation to their structure." Salam, AbdusAbdus Salam Physics "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to the physics of elementary particles with special reference to the unification of the electromagnetic and weak interactions." 1979 Cosslett, Vernon EllisVernon Ellis Cosslett Physics "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to the design and development of the X-ray microscope, the scanning electron microprobe analyser, the high voltage and ultrahigh resolution (2.5A) electron microscopes and their applications in many disciplines." Kosterlitz, Hans WalterHans Walter Kosterlitz Biology "In recognition of his distinguished work on narcotics leading to the discovery in 1975 of the enkephalins." Frank, CharlesCharles Frank Physics "In recognition of his outstanding original contributions to the theory of crystal growth, dislocations, phase transformations and polymers, with wide applications in physics, chemistry and geology." 1980 Wild, John PaulJohn Paul Wild Astronomy "In recognition of his conception of the basic principles of the Interscan aircraft instrument landing system and the guidance of its development to a successful conclusion." Harris, HenryHenry Harris Medicine "In recognition of his development of cell fusion for the study of somatic-cell genetics and differentiation including the genetic control of malignancy." Wilkinson, DenysDenys Wilkinson Physics "In recognition of his highly original research in nuclear physics and of his outstanding contributions on giant resonances, radiative widths, second-class beta decay and the fundamental symmetries of nuclear interactions and also on instrumentation." 1981 Riley, RalphRalph Riley Genetics "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to understanding the genetics of wheat and the development of new methods of producing improved varieties." Vogt, Marthe LouiseMarthe Louise Vogt Neuroscience "In recognition of her important contributions to synaptic biochemistry and pharmacology which are fundamental to modern neuropharmacology." Wilkinson, GeoffreyGeoffrey Wilkinson Chemistry "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to preparative inorganic chemistry and in particular to the synthesis and application of organometallic compounds." 1982 Milstein, CésarCésar Milstein Biochemistry "In recognition of his fundamental contribution to understanding the structure and genetic control of immunoglobulins; his hybridoma technique for producing monoclonal antibodies has revolutionized the potential practical applications of immunology." Hawthorne, WilliamWilliam Hawthorne Engineering "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to engineering thermodynamics and fluid mechanics, and particularly the internal aerodynamics of turbomachines." Dalitz, Richard HenryRichard Henry Dalitz Physics "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to particle physics, particularly in relation to the properties of strange particles." 1983 Bradley, Daniel JosephDaniel Joseph Bradley Physics "In recognition of his development of the techniques of generating ultra-short light pulses from lasers, and of picosecond streak cameras." Feldberg, Wilhelm SiegmundWilhelm Siegmund Feldberg Biology "In recognition of his contributions to elucidating the nature of chemical synaptic transmission in nervous systems and the regulating effects of hormones in peripheral systems." Kingman, JohnJohn Kingman Mathematics "In recognition of his distinguished researches on queuing theory, on regenerative phenomena, and on mathematical genetics." 1984 Cullen, Alexander LambAlexander Lamb Cullen Electrical engineering "In recognition of his many distinguished contributions to microwave engineering, both theoretical and experimental, and in particular for research on microwave antennae." Lyon, MaryMary Lyon Genetics "In recognition of her distinguished contributions to the discovery of X-chromosome inactivation as a mechanism of gene dosage compensation." Battersby, AlanAlan Battersby Chemistry "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to the elucidation of the pathway for the biosynthesis of complex natural products." 1985 Argyris, JohnJohn Argyris Engineering "For his great contribution to the development of finite element analysis and its application to the solution of engineering problems." Gurdon, John BertrandJohn Bertrand Gurdon Biology "For his outstanding contributions to the techniques of nuclear transplantation and the use of the amphibian egg for investigations on replication, transcription and translation of genes." Penrose, RogerRoger Penrose Physics "For his fundamental contributions to the theory of gravitational collapse and to other geometric aspects of theoretical physics." 1986 Ash, EricEric Ash Electrical engineering "In recognition of his outstanding researches on acoustic microscopy leading to wholly new techniques and substantial improvements in resolution of acoustic microscopes." Doll, RichardRichard Doll Physiology "In recognition of his pioneering use of statistical and epidemiological techniques to evaluate environmental factors in disease, notably that cigarette smoking causes lung cancer, heart disease and bronchitis." Richards, RexRex Richards Chemistry "In recognition of his many contributions, both theoretical and instrumental, to nuclear magnetic resonance." 1987 Born, Gustav Victor RudolfGustav Victor Rudolf Born Pharmacology "In recognition of his major contributions to the physiology, pathology and pharmacology of platelets and of his widely used methods for studying platelet function in haemostasis and thrombosis." Denton, Eric JamesEric James Denton Marine biology "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to the physiology of marine animals, to marine biology generally, and his leadership of U.K. marine science." Graham-Smith, FrancisFrancis Graham-Smith Astronomy "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to radio- and optical-astronomy." 1988 Barlow, HaroldHarold Barlow Engineering "In recognition of his distinguished research, particularly on microwaves and waveguides, and of his lasting influence as the founder of an unusually productive research school." Watkins, WinifredWinifred Watkins Biochemistry "In recognition of her fundamental contributions towards an understanding of the biochemical genetics of carbohydrate antigens on cell surfaces and in secreted glycoproteins." Batchelor, GeorgeGeorge Batchelor Mathematics "In recognition of his distinguished work on the theory of turbulence and turbulent diffusion, and the theory of microhydrodynamics and colloidal suspensions." 1989 Vane, JohnJohn Vane Pharmacology "In recognition of his development of techniques to detect and monitor substances in the blood that regulate the circulation, and their application to the treatment of vascular and ischaemic conditions." Weatherall, DavidDavid Weatherall Medicine "In recognition of his pioneering work on the clinical and molecular basis of the thalassaemias, and fundamental contributions to the unravelling of their heterogeneity." Polanyi, John CharlesJohn Charles Polanyi Chemistry "In recognition of his pioneering work on the electromagnetic radiation emitted from chemical charges, leading to the basis of the chemical laser process." 1990 Zienkiewicz, Olgierd CecilOlgierd Cecil Zienkiewicz Engineering "In recognition of his pioneering development of the finite element method as a general procedure of solving problems of engineering physics and for demonstrating its success in applications to stress analysis, fluid mechanics, electromagnetics and many other situations." McLaren, AnneAnne McLaren Developmental biology "In recognition of her distinguished research on mammalian embryology, particularly for providing much of the scientific basis for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, and for analysing sex determination in mammals." Berry, MichaelMichael Berry Physics "In recognition of his deep and innovatory researches in classical and quantum physics, especially the discovery of the "Berry phase"." 1991 Mason, JohnJohn Mason Physics "In recognition of his distinguished research on cloud physics and, as Director-General of the Meteorological Office, his broadening and strengthening of research in meteorology in the UK." Berridge, MichaelMichael Berridge Biology "In recognition of his discovery that inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate functions as a second messenger to mobilize calcium." McKenzie, DanDan McKenzie Geophysics "In recognition of his seminal role in developing a quantitative understanding of a wide range of geophysical and geological processes, including plate tectonics, mantle convection, continental deformation and melt segregation." 1992 Tabor, DavidDavid Tabor Physics "for his seminal contributions to the basic study of friction and wear between solids, of considerable relevance to the design of machines." Epstein, AnthonyAnthony Epstein Medicine "distinguished for the isolation of the Epstein-Barr virus which is closely associated with Burkitts lymphoma." Donaldson, SimonSimon Donaldson Mathematics "distinguished for his work which has revolutionized our understanding of four-dimensional geometry." 1993 Hill, RodneyRodney Hill Applied mathematics "for his outstanding contribution to the theoretical mechanics of solids, and especially the plasticity of solids." Barlow, HoraceHorace Barlow Neuroscience "for his outstanding and original contributions to electrophysiological, computational and psychophysical study of visual sensation and perception." Heine, VolkerVolker Heine Physics "In recognition of his contributions to solid state theory, in particular the bonding and structure of solids." 1994 Moncada, SalvadorSalvador Moncada Pharmacology "for his contributions to pharmacology and the discovery of basic mechanisms of signal transmission relevant to drug action." Mansfield, EricEric Mansfield Aeronautics "for his many fundamental and analytical contributions to our knowledge of advanced aeronautical structures, and more recently to the biological sciences." Chandrasekhar, SivaramakrishnaSivaramakrishna Chandrasekhar Physics "his many new discoveries in the understanding of liquid crystals, for a synthesis of the subject of his seminal book, "The invention of discotic liquid crystals", and for elucidating their remarkable properties." 1995 Metcalf, DonaldDonald Metcalf Medicine "In recognition of his discovery of colony stimulating factors which regulate the growth and differentiation of normal hematopoietic and leukemic cells." Nurse, PaulPaul Nurse Biochemistry "In recognition of his work on the control of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells by his discovery of the identity and function of genes that regulate the key control points in the process of cell proliferation." Williams, Robert J PRobert J P Williams Chemistry "In recognition of his contributions in clearly presenting the role of inorganic elements in biological systems." 1996 Hinde, RobertRobert Hinde Zoology "In recognition of his contributions to the field of animal behaviour and the dominant influence it achieved on the emerging field of ethology." Heslop-Harrison, JackJack Heslop-Harrison Botany "In recognition of his pioneering work in plant reproductive biology, in particular the areas of taxonomy and ecology, whole plant physiology, development of sub-cellular systems in somatic and reproductive cells, pollen/stigma interactions and acto/myosin transport systems within the pollen tube." Wiles, AndrewAndrew Wiles Mathematics "In recognition of his achievements in number theory, in particular Fermats Last Theorem and his achievements in algebraic number theory particularly the celebrated main conjecture on cyclotomic fields." 1997 Eglinton, GeoffreyGeoffrey Eglinton Chemistry "In recognition of his contribution to our understanding of the way in which chemicals move from the living biosphere to the fossil geosphere, in particular the origin, genesis, maturation and migration of oil which has had great repercussions on the petroleum industry." Smith, John MaynardJohn Maynard Smith Biology "In recognition of his theoretical contributions to evolutionary biology, combining mathematics and biology to develop a sound understanding in such fields as population dynamics, paleobiology, ethology, behavioural ecology, bacteriology and genetics." Perkins, Donald HillDonald Hill Perkins Physics "In recognition of his contributions to experimental particle physics, in particular the elucidation of the structure of the nucleon on the basis of observations of neutrino interactions, the quark substructure of the nucleon, and production of the first quantitative evidence for the validity of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD)." 1998 Southern, EdwinEdwin Southern Biochemistry "In recognition of his development of the method of transferring spatial patterns of DNA fragments from the electrophoretic separation medium to membranes on which the hybridisation could occur known as southern blotting, now a fundamental technique in molecular biology." Miledi, RicardoRicardo Miledi Neuroscience "In recognition of his many important discoveries in cellular and molecular physiology which have greatly advanced our knowledge of synaptic transmission in the nervous system and of long-term effects of trophic interaction between neurones and effector cells." Bradley, Donald CharltonDonald Charlton Bradley Chemistry "In recognition of his pioneering work on the molecular chemistry of metal-alkoxides and metal-amides, their synthesis, structure and bonding, and for his studies of their conversions to metal-oxides and metal-nitrides, processes which now find common place applications in materials science, especially in the fields of microelectronics and chemical vapour deposition." 1999 Davidson, John FrankJohn Frank Davidson Chemistry "In recognition of his distinguished work over many years in chemical engineering, including fluid flow, process dynamics, gas absorption and fluidization technology which has been concerned with real problems of industrial significance." Wall, Patrick DavidPatrick David Wall Neuroscience "In recognition of his fundamental contributions to our knowledge of the somatosensory system and, in particular, pain mechanisms, where his insights led to the therapeutic use of electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves, dorsal columns of the spinal cord, and brain stem for the control of pain, methods that are now in widespread use." Howie, ArchibaldArchibald Howie Physics "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to the development and application of electron microscopy of materials, and to the underlying theories of electron scattering, in particular his extensive contributions to inelastic scattering theory, his systematic high resolution microscope studies of amorphous materials, his introduction of the concept of coherence volume for hollow cone dark field imaging and his pioneering use of a high angle annular dark field detector to image small catalyst particles." 2000 Berners-Lee, TimothyTimothy Berners-Lee Computer science "In recognition of his invention and subsequent development of the World Wide Web, designing the universal resource locator (URL), an addressing system to give each Web page a unique location and the two protocols HTTP and HTML." Burnstock, GeoffreyGeoffrey Burnstock Neuroscience "In recognition of his development of new hypotheses challenging the accepted views on autonomic neurotransmission, leading to new advances in the understanding of purinergic neurotransmission." Ingold, Keith UsherwoodKeith Usherwood Ingold Chemistry "In recognition of his work in elucidating the mechanism of reactions involving free radicals." 2001 Gardner, RichardRichard Gardner Biology "In recognition of his pioneering work on microsurgery of the mouse blastocyst which laid the foundation for major advances in biological knowledge, both in developmental biology and in understanding of gene function." Horn, GabrielGabriel Horn Biology "In recognition of his work on the neurobiological mechanisms of behavioural imprinting, embracing molecular, cellular, anatomical, electrophysiological and ethological approaches to learning and memory." Edwards, SamSam Edwards Physics "In recognition of his enormous influence across a wide spectrum of physical sciences, particularly theoretical condensed matter physics." 2002 Peto, RichardRichard Peto Mathematics "In recognition of his outstanding work on the epidemiology of smoking and chronic disease." Cory, SuzanneSuzanne Cory Genetics "In recognition of her distinguished work on the molecular basis of cancer. She pioneered the use of transgenic mice to elucidate the role of various oncogenes in lymphoid malignancies." Freeman, RayRay Freeman Chemistry "In recognition of his seminal contributions to the development and understanding of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods" 2003 Skehel, JohnJohn Skehel Virology "In recognition of his pioneering research into virology. His studies and discoveries in the mechanisms by which influenza virus binds to the host cell, and in virus-cell membrane fusion have had a fundamental impact on the field." Johnson, KennethKenneth Johnson Engineering "In recognition of his outstanding work in the field of contact mechanics. His work his characterised by elegant experiments, skilful analyses and insightful explanations of observed phenomena." Shackleton, NicholasNicholas Shackleton Geology "in recognition of his seminal contributions to the fields of paleoceanography and geochemistry." 2004 Black, JamesJames Black Chemistry "In recognition of his work in both academia and industry, pioneering a new era of rational drug discovery." Jeffreys, AlecAlec Jeffreys Genetics "In recognition of his outstanding discoveries and inventions which have had major impacts on large areas of genetics. " Lewis, JackJack Lewis Chemistry "In recognition of his distinguished career in the field of inorganic chemistry over the last 50 years, mainly in the area of the transition elements." 2005 Pepper, MichaelMichael Pepper Physics "In recognition of his work which has had the highest level of influence in condensed matter physics and has resulted in the creation of the modern field of semiconductor nanostructures." Pawson, AnthonyAnthony Pawson Biology "In recognition of his discoveries which have revealed the principles underlying cell signalling, and have been pivotal in understanding pathological states such as cancer." Fisher, MichaelMichael Fisher Physics "In recognition of his seminal contributions to wetting transitions, dislocation melting and criticality of ionic solutions and many other topics in Statistical Mechanics." 2006 Baulcombe, DavidDavid Baulcombe Botany "In recognition of his profoundly significant recent discoveries for not only plants but for all of biology and for medicine." Hunt, TimTim Hunt Biochemistry "discovering a key aspect of cell cycle control, the protein cyclin which is a component of cyclin dependent kinases, demonstrating his ability to grasp the significance of the result outside his immediate sphere of interest." Pendry, JohnJohn Pendry Physics "In recognition of his seminal contributions in surface sciences, disordered systems, photonics and most recently in metamaterials and the concept of the perfect lens." 2007 Lindahl, TomasTomas Lindahl Medicine "making fundamental contributions to our understanding of DNA repair. His achievements stand out for their great originality, breadth and lasting influence." Hilsum, CyrilCyril Hilsum Physics "In recognition of his many outstanding contributions and for continuing to use his prodigious talents on behalf of industry, government and academy to this day." Feast, JamesJames Feast Chemistry "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to chemical synthesis with far reaching implications, particularly for the field of functional polymeric materials." 2008 Hedges, RobertRobert Hedges Archaeology "In recognition of his contribution to the rapid development of accelerator mass spectrometry and radiocarbon dating techniques." Cohen, PhilipPhilip Cohen Biochemistry "In recognition of his major contribution to our understanding of the role of protein phosphorylation in cell regulation." Fersht, AlanAlan Fersht Chemistry "In recognition of his seminal work in protein engineering, which he has developed into a fundamental tool in enzyme analysis and the problem of protein folding." 2009 Rao, ChintamaniChintamani Rao Chemistry "For his highly innovative and diverse contributions to solid-state and materials chemistry." Laskey, RonaldRonald Laskey Molecular Biology "For his pivotal contributions to our understanding of the control of DNA replication and nuclear protein transport, which has led to a novel screening method for cancer diagnosis." Dobson, ChrisChris Dobson Biophysics "For his outstanding contributions to the understanding of the mechanisms of protein folding and mis-folding, and the implications for disease." 2010 Knight, PeterPeter Knight Quantum optics "for his pioneering research and international leadership in the field of quantum optics and quantum information science." Surani, AzimAzim Surani Biology "for his pivotal contributions to the understanding of early mammalian development." Hill, AllenAllen Hill Chemistry "for his pioneering work on protein electrochemistry, which revolutionised the diagnostic testing of glucose and many other bioelectrochemical assays." 2011 Ley, StevenSteven Ley Chemistry "for his pioneering research in organic chemistry and outstanding contributions to the methodology of synthesis." Holliday, RobinRobin Holliday Molecular Biology "for his highly influential discoveries of the 'Holliday junction' structure in meiotic recombination and the function of DNA methylation at CG base pairs." Winter, GregoryGregory Winter Biophysics "for his pioneering work in protein engineering and therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, and his contributions as an inventor and entrepreneur." 2012 Kibble, TomTom Kibble Physics "for his theories of symmetry-breaking in quantum field theory, with diverse applications to elementary particle masses, vortex formation in Helium 3 and structure formation in the early universe." Murray, KennethKenneth Murray Biology "for his crucial contributions to the development of genetic engineering, to biotechnology and to the study of hepatitis viruses." Holmes, AndrewAndrew Holmes Chemistry "for his outstanding contributions to chemical synthesis at the interface between materials and biology and pioneering the field of organic electronic materials." 2013 Baxter, RodneyRodney Baxter Physics "for his remarkable exact solutions of fundamental models in statistical mechanics." Bodmer, WalterWalter Bodmer Genetics "for seminal contributions to population genetics, gene mapping and understanding of familial genetic disease." Wells, PeterPeter Wells Medical Physics "for pioneering the application of the physical and engineering sciences to the development of ultrasonics as a diagnostic and surgical tool which has revolutionised clinical practice." 2014 Tao, TerenceTerence Tao Mathematics "for his many deep and varied contributions to mathematics, including harmonic analysis, prime number theory, partial differential equations, combinatorics, computer science, statistics, representation theory, and much more." Hunter, TonyTony Hunter Biochemistry "for his discovery of tyrosine phosphorylation by src protein kinase that revolutionised our understanding of cellular signal transduction." Morris, HowardHoward Morris Biophysics "for his pioneering work in biomolecular mass spectrometry including strategy and instrument design and for outstanding entrepreneurship in biopharmaceutical characterisation." 2015 Burnell, Jocelyn BellJocelyn Bell Burnell Astronomy "for her pivotal contribution in observing, analysing & understanding pulsars, one of the most important astronomical discoveries of the 20th century." Blackburn, ElizabethElizabeth Blackburn Biology "for her work on the prediction and discovery of telomerase and the role of telomeres in protecting and maintaining the genome." Smith, Christopher LlewellynChristopher Llewellyn Smith Physics "for his major contributions to the development of the Standard Model, particularly his success in making the case for the building the LHC."
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