Royal Space Force: The Wings of Honnêamise

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Royal Space Force: The Wings of Honnêamise
Japanese theatrical release poster
Japanese name
Kanji王立宇宙軍~オネアミスの翼
Transcriptions
Revised HepburnŌritsu Uchūgun: Oneamisu no Tsubasa
Directed byHiroyuki Yamaga
Written byHiroyuki Yamaga
Produced by
  • Hirohiko Sueyoshi
  • Hiroaki Inoue
Starring
  • Leo Morimoto
  • Mitsuki Yayoi
CinematographyHiroshi Isakawa
Edited byHarutoshi Ogata
Music by
Production
companies
Distributed byToho-Towa
Release dates
  • February 19, 1987 (1987-02-19) (Los Angeles)
  • March 14, 1987 (1987-03-14) (Japan)
Running time
119 minutes
CountryJapan
LanguageJapanese
Budget¥800 million[1]
Box office¥347 million[a]

Royal Space Force: The Wings of Honnêamise (Japanese: 王立宇宙軍~オネアミスの翼, Hepburn: Ōritsu Uchūgun: Oneamisu no Tsubasa) is a 1987 Japanese animated science fiction film written and directed by Hiroyuki Yamaga, co-produced by Hiroaki Inoue and Hiroyuki Sueyoshi, and planned by Toshio Okada and Shigeru Watanabe. Ryuichi Sakamoto, later to share the Academy Award for the soundtrack to The Last Emperor, served as music director. The film's story takes place on an alternate world where a disengaged young man, Shirotsugh, inspired by an idealistic woman named Riquinni, volunteers to become the first astronaut, a decision that draws them into both public and personal conflict. The film was the debut work of anime studio Gainax, whose later television and movie series Neon Genesis Evangelion would achieve international recognition,[3] and was the first anime produced by toy and game manufacturer Bandai, eventually to become one of Japan's top anime video companies.[b]

Yamaga and Okada had become known through making amateur fan-oriented short films, particularly the Daicon III and IV Opening Animations, but their pitch for Royal Space Force argued that growing the anime industry required a shift away from works that pleased fans on a surface level but reinforced their isolation, advocating instead for a different type of anime that attempted to engage with fans as human beings who shared in the alienation issues of a larger society. The making of Royal Space Force involved a collaborative year-long design process using many creators, including some from outside the anime industry, to construct an elaborately detailed alternate world described as neither utopian nor dystopian, but "an attempt to approve existence".[5] Science fiction writer Ted Chiang, author of "Story of Your Life", the basis for the film Arrival, would later describe Royal Space Force as the single most impressive example of worldbuilding in books or film.[6]

Royal Space Force's collective approach to filmmaking, its deliberate rejection of established anime motifs, its visual complexity, and the general lack of professional experience among its staff were all factors in its chaotic production, while increasing uncertainty about the project led to what has been described as an attempt by its investors and producers to "fix" the film before release, imposing a late name change to The Wings of Honnêamise, and a lavish but deceptive publicity campaign[7] that included misleading advertising as well as a staged premiere at Mann's Chinese Theatre on February 19, 1987. Although receiving some support among domestic anime fans and the industry upon its March 14, 1987, release in Japan by Toho subsidiary Toho-Towa, including praise from Hayao Miyazaki,[8] and Mamoru Oshii,[9] the film failed to make back its costs at the box office, but eventually became profitable through home video sales.[10] Future Evangelion director Hideaki Anno would later describe the reception Royal Space Force received as having had a major impact on him both personally and as a creator.[11]

Royal Space Force did not receive an English-language commercial release until 1994, when Bandai licensed the film to Manga Entertainment. A dubbed 35 mm version toured theaters in North America and the United Kingdom, during which time it received coverage in major newspapers but highly mixed reviews. Since the mid-1990s, it has received several English-language home video releases, and various historical surveys of anime have regarded the film more positively; Yamaga has stated his belief in retrospect that the elements which made Royal Space Force unsuccessful made possible the later successes of Studio Gainax.[12][c]

Plot[edit]

In the Kingdom of Honnêamise— on a different, Earthlike world of mid-20th century technology— a young man named Shirotsugh Lhadatt recalls his middle-class upbringing and childhood dream to fly jets for the navy. His grades disqualifying him, Shirotsugh ended up instead joining the "Royal Space Force," a tiny unit with poor morale whose commander, General Khaidenn, dreams of human spaceflight, yet is barely capable of launching unmanned satellites. One night, Shirotsugh encounters a woman named Riquinni who is preaching in the red-light district. Riquinni Nonderaiko, who lives with a sullen little girl named Manna, surprises him by suggesting that humanity could find peace through space travel. Inspired, Shirotsugh volunteers for a last-ditch project to keep the Space Force from being disbanded: send the first astronaut into orbit.

Riquinni gives Shirotsugh scriptures to study, but becomes upset when he touches her and angry when he suggests she should "compromise" with God. Riquinni feels such compromise is to blame for the evils of the world, but Shirotsugh suggests it has made it easier to live in. The General arranges a shady deal to help finance his project, and tells a cheering crowd that the orbital capsule will be a "space warship". Soon after, Riquinni's cottage is foreclosed upon and demolished; not wishing to expose Manna— whose mother was constantly abused by her husband— to any more conflicts, she rejects the outraged Shirotsugh's offer to get her a lawyer. He begins to read Riquinni's scriptures, which assert that humanity is cursed to violence for having stolen fire.

A test explosion that kills the chief rocket engineer is suggested to be the work of radicals, and Shirotsugh confounds his friends by sympathizing with protestors who say the mission is a waste of federal funding. The launch site is suddenly moved to the Kingdom's southern border, which will assist in reaching orbit but is also adjacent to a territory occupied by their international rival, the distant Republic. The General learns to his shock that his superiors see the rocket only as a useful provocation; unknown to the Kingdom, the Republic plans to buy time to get their forces into position by assassinating Shirotsugh.

Increasingly disenchanted, Shirotsugh goes AWOL, giving his money to the homeless and joining Riquinni's ministry, but is troubled by Manna's continued silence and seeing the money Riquinni keeps. He turns away when she reads from her scriptures that one’s own efforts at truth and good will fail, and one can only pray. That night, he sexually assaults her; when he hesitates momentarily, she knocks him unconscious. Next morning, a repentant Shirotsugh is bewildered when Riquinni maintains he did nothing, apologizing for having hit “a wonderful person like you". Reuniting with his best friend Marty, Shirotsugh asks whether one might be the villain in one's own life's story, not its hero. Marty replies with the view that people exist because they serve purposes for one another. The Republic's assassin strikes— Shirotsugh attempts to flee, but eventually fights back, killing the assassin. The General confides in the wounded astronaut afterwards that he once wanted to be a historian and not a soldier, but found history harder to confront, because it taught him human nature would not change.

At the launch site, the crew finishes assembling the rocket even as both sides prepare for the expected attack. Without informing his superiors, the General decides to launch early by trimming safety procedures, to which Shirotsugh agrees. When the Republic's forces invade to seize the rocket by force, an evacuation is ordered, but Shirotsugh rallies the crew to proceed with the countdown. The combined ground-air assault ceases with the rocket's unexpected launch, and the Republic forces withdraw. From orbit, Shirotsugh makes a radio broadcast, uncertain if anyone is listening: although humans have brought ruin to each new frontier, he asks nevertheless to give thanks for this moment, praying for forgiveness and guidance. As the capsule crosses into the dayside, a montage of visions suggests Shirotsugh's childhood and the passage of history; far below, Riquinni, preaching where he first met her, is the only one to look up as the snow begins to fall, and the camera draws back, past the ship and its world, to the stars.

Cast[edit]

Character Japanese[14] English[15]
Shirotsugh Lhadatt Leo Morimoto David A. Thomas
Riquinni Nonderaiko Mitsuki Yayoi Heidi Lenhart
Manna Nonderaiko Aya Murata Wendee Lee
Marty Tohn Kazuyuki Sogabe Bryan Cranston
General Khaidenn Minoru Uchida Steve Bulen
Dr. Gnomm Chikao Ōtsuka Michael Forest
Kharock Masato Hirano Tom Konkle
Yanalan Bin Shimada Richard Epcar
Darigan Hiroshi Izawa Stephen Apostolina
Domorhot Hirotaka Suzuoki Jan Rabson
Tchallichammi Kouji Totani Christopher de Groot
Majaho Masahiro Anzai Tony Pope
Nekkerout Yoshito Yasuhara Dan Woren
Prof. Ronta Ryūji Saikachi Steve Blum

Production[edit]

The film had a budget of ¥800 million, at the time equivalent to $5,531,000 (equivalent to $14,000,000 in 2022), making it the most expensive anime film up until then. It surpassed the budget records of Hayao Miyazaki's Castle of Cagliostro (1979) and Castle in the Sky (1986).

Development[edit]

Royal Space Force developed out of an anime proposal presented to Shigeru Watanabe of Bandai in September 1984 by Hiroyuki Yamaga and Toshio Okada[16] from Daicon Film, an amateur film studio active in the early 1980s associated with students at the Osaka University of Arts and science fiction fandom in the Kansai region.[17] Okada had first met Watanabe in August 1983 at a convention for tokusatsu fans in Tokyo at which Daicon Film screened their live-action short The Return of Ultraman and ran a sales booth for Daicon's related fan merchandise company, General Products.[18][d] In a 1998 interview, Yamaga asserted that the success of the company was an impetus that led to the creation of Gainax and the Royal Space Force proposal, as Okada had co-founded General Products with Yasuhiro Takeda but Takeda was now managing it well on his own, leaving Okada to feel he had nothing to do. "I approached Okada, who was feeling a bit down. I was thinking every day about how [Daicon Film's] Sadamoto and Maeda[e] are great geniuses. Of course, Anno is a genius, as is Akai. To have one genius in your group is incredible enough, but here we have four of them. I told [Okada] that he would be a fool not to take action. I said that we should do something. We had sacrificed quite a lot for the sake of our independent films as students--we had dropped out of school, we'd lost jobs. So there had always been a desire within us all to see those sacrifices pay off at some point."[22]

Watanabe had been involved with product planning for Bandai's "Real Hobby Series" figurines.[23] The position had also led Watanabe into Bandai's then-new home video label Emotion, where he helped to develop Mamoru Oshii's Dallos. Released at the end of 1983, Dallos would become the first anime original video animation (OVA),[24] an industry event later described as the beginning of a new "third medium" for anime beyond film or television, offering the prospect of "a medium in which [anime] could 'grow up,' allowing the more mature thematic experiments of creators".[25] Okada and Yamaga's pitch to Watanabe had followed the recognition Daicon Film received earlier that year in Animage magazine through a special secondary Anime Grand Prix award given to their 8 mm short Daicon IV Opening Animation.[f][g] Their September 1984 proposal gave the outline for an anime to be entitled Royal Space Force, to be produced under the heading of a new, professional studio to be named Gainax.[28] The proposal listed five initial core staff for the anime.[29] Four had been previously associated with Daicon Film: Yamaga was to be the anime's concept creator and director and Okada its producer,[h] Yoshiyuki Sadamoto its chief character designer, and Hideaki Anno its chief mechanical designer. The fifth, Kenichi Sonoda, listed as responsible for the anime's settei (model sheets, drawn up to give the key animators their guides as to how the objects and people to be animated should look) had previously assisted with product development at General Products.[23][i]

Writing[edit]

The Royal Space Force proposal, subheaded "Project Intentions: A New Wave in a Time of Lost Collaborative Illusions,"[35] began with a self-analysis of "recent animation culture from the perspective of young people".[36][j] At the time of the proposal, Yamaga was 22 years old and had directed the opening anime films for Japan's 1981 and 1983 national science fiction conventions, Daicon III and IV,[38] which through their sale to fans on home video through General Products were themselves regarded as informal precursors of the OVA concept.[39] At age 20 and while still in college, Yamaga had been chosen by the series director of the original Macross TV series, Noboru Ishiguro, to direct episode 9 of the show, "Miss Macross," as Ishiguro wished "to aim for a work that doesn’t fit the conventional sense of anime." Yamaga commented in a contemporary Animage article that it had taken him two months to create the storyboards for "Miss Macross" and wryly remarked he'd thus already used himself up doing so; the magazine noted however that the episode was well received, and judged the creative experiment a success.[40][k]

Okada and Yamaga argued in their proposal for Royal Space Force that what prevented the anime industry from advancing beyond its current level was that it had fallen into a feedback loop with its audience, producing for them a "cul-de-sac" of cute and cool-looking anime content that had the effect of only further reinforcing the more negative and introverted tendencies of many fans,[42][l] without making a real attempt to connect with them in a more fundamental and personal way:

"In modern society, which is so information-oriented, it becomes more and more difficult even for sensational works to really connect with people, and even so, those works get forgotten quickly. Moreover, this flood of superficial information has dissolved those values and dreams people could stand upon, especially among the young, who are left frustrated and anxious. It could be said that this is the root cause of the Peter Pan syndrome, that says, 'I don't want to be an adult' ... If you look at the psychology of anime fans today, they do interact with society, and they're trying to get along well in that society, but unfortunately, they don't have the ability. So as compensatory behavior, they relinquish themselves to mecha and cute young girls. However, because these are things that don't really exist—meaning, there's no interaction in reality happening between those things and the anime fans—they soon get frustrated, and then seek out the next [anime] that will stimulate them ... If you look into this situation, what these people really want, deep down, is to get along well with reality. And what we propose is to deliver the kind of project that will make people look again at the society around them and reassess it for themselves; where they will think, 'I shouldn't give up yet on reality.'"[45][m]

The proposal described Royal Space Force as "a project to make anime fans reaffirm reality".[47] Gainax asserted that the problem was not unique to anime fans, who were only "the most representative example" of the increasing tendency of younger people not to experience reality directly, but as mediated through "the informational world".[48] "We live in a society mired in a perpetual state of information overload. And the feeling of being overwhelmed by the underwhelming isn't something limited to just young people, but everyone" ... "However, this doesn't mean that people want to live alone and without contact, but instead they want to establish a balance with the 'outside' that is psychologically comfortable for them."[49] Yamaga and Okada believed that this sensibility among some fans explained why anime often combined plots that "symbolize modern politics or society" with characters whose age and appearance was "completely incongruent with reality".[50][n] The Royal Space Force plan proposed to use the creative techniques of anime for a radically different aim, to make "the exact opposite of the 'cool,' castle-in-the-sky anime[o] that is so prevalent these days ... It's on our earth now, in this world of ours now, that we feel it's time for a project that will declare there's still something valuable and meaningful in this world."[57]

One of the "image sketch" paintings by Yoshiyuki Sadamoto and Mahiro Maeda that accompanied the original proposal for Royal Space Force.

"It is essential to pay close attention to the smallest design details of this world. It's because it is a completely different world that it must feel like reality. If you ask why such an approach—when the goal is to get anime fans to reaffirm their reality—it's because if you were to set this anime in our actual world to begin with, that's a place which right now they see as grubby and unappealing. By setting it in a completely different world, it becomes like a foreign film that attracts the attention of the audience. The objects of attraction are not mecha and cute girls, but ordinary customs and fashions. If normal things now look impressive and interesting because they've been seen through a different world, then we'll have achieved what we set out to do in the plan; we'll be able to express, 'Reality is much more interesting than you thought.'"[58]

The September 1984 proposal for Royal Space Force was unusual for an anime pitch in that it described the setting and story, but never named the main characters.[59] Okada and Yamaga requested that Maeda and Sadamoto prepare a set of over 30 "image sketches" in watercolor to support the written proposal, depicting the world to be designed for the anime.[60] That same month, Watanabe brought the pitch to Bandai company president Makoto Yamashina, who himself represented a younger corporate generation;[61] Yamashina's response to reading Gainax's proposal was, "I'm not sure what this is all about, but that's exactly why I like it."[62] Yamashina would later state in an interview with the comics and animation criticism magazine Comic Box shortly before the film's release that this viewpoint represented a "grand experiment" by Bandai in producing original content over which they could have complete ownership, and a deliberate strategy that decided to give young artists freedom in creating that content: "I'm in the toy business, and I've always been of the mind that if I understand [the appeal of a product], it won't sell. The reason is the generation gap, which is profound. Honneamise just might hit the jackpot. If so, it will overturn all the assumptions we’ve had up till now. I didn't want them to make the kind of film that we could understand. Put another way, if it was a hit and I could understand why, it wouldn't be such a big deal. I did want it to be a hit, but from the start, I wasn't aiming for a Star Wars. In trying to make it a success, it had to be purely young people's ideas and concepts; we couldn't force them to compromise. We had to let them run free with it. In the big picture, they couldn't produce this on their own, and that's where we stepped in, and managed to bring it all this way. And in that respect, I believe it was a success."[63]

Pilot film[edit]

Royal Space Force was initially planned as a 40-minute long OVA project;[64] however, resistance within Bandai to entering the filmmaking business resulted in the requirement that Gainax first submit a short "pilot film" version of Royal Space Force as a demo to determine if the project would be saleable.[65] Work on the pilot film began in December 1984;[66] in addition to the principal staff listed in the initial proposal, Mahiro Maeda worked on the pilot's layouts and settei and was one of its key animators together with Sadamoto, Anno, Hiroyuki Kitakubo, Yuji Moriyama, Fumio Iida, and Masayuki.[67] A further addition to the staff was co-producer Hiroaki Inoue, recruited as a founding member of Gainax by Okada. Inoue had already been in the anime industry for several years, beginning at Tezuka Productions.[68] Takeda noted that while a number of the other Royal Space Force personnel had worked on professional anime projects, none possessed Inoue's supervisory experience, or the contacts he had built in the process.[69] Inoue would leave Gainax after their 1988–1989 Gunbuster, but continued in the industry and would later co-produce Satoshi Kon's 1997 debut film Perfect Blue.[70]

The more "Ghiblish" look of Riquinni in the 1985 Royal Space Force pilot film; the character was depicted with an appearance and behavior noticeably different from the actual 1987 movie.

In an effort to get the project green-lit by Bandai’s executive board, Shigeru Watanabe of Bandai would show the pilot film to established anime directors Mamoru Oshii and Hayao Miyazaki,[71] both of whom expressed support.[72][73] In April 1985, Gainax formally presented the finished pilot film to a board meeting at Bandai, together with a new set of concept paintings by Sadamoto. The four-minute pilot film began with a 40-second prelude sequence of still shots of Shirotsugh's early life accompanied by audio in Russian depicting a troubled Soviet space mission, leading into the main portion of the pilot, depicting the story's basic narrative through a progression of animated scenes without dialogue or sound effects, set to the overture of Wagner's Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg.[74]

Okada addressed the board with a speech described as impassioned,[75] speaking for an hour on Gainax's analysis of the anime industry, future market trends, and the desire of the young for "a work called Royal Space Force".[76] Bandai gave interim approval to Royal Space Force as their company's first independent video production; however, the decision to make the project as a theatrical film would be subject to review at the end of 1985, once Gainax had produced a complete storyboard and settei.[77] Yamaga would later acknowledge the pilot film to have been "very Ghiblish," asserting that it had been made by Gainax with a subconscious "consensus" at first to use Hayao Miyazaki’s films as a model for success. Yamaga felt that had the actual feature-length version of Royal Space Force been like the pilot, "it would have been easier to grasp and express," yet argued his decision to change course after the pilot film and not attempt to emulate Miyazaki laid the groundwork for Gainax’s creative independence that would, in their later works, lead to success on their own terms.[78]

Screenplay[edit]

Following the presentation of the pilot film, Yamaga returned to his hometown of Niigata to begin to write the screenplay and draw up storyboards.[79] Yamaga envisioned the fictional Honnêamise kingdom where most of the events of Royal Space Force took place to have the scientific level of the 1950s combined with the atmosphere of America and Europe in the 1930s, but with characters who moved to a modern rhythm. The inspiration he sought to express in anime from Niigata was not its literal look, but rather a sense of the size and feel of the city and its envrions, including its urban geography; the relationships between its old and new parts, and between its denser core and more open spaces.[80] In August 1985, six members of the crew, Yamaga, Okada, Inoue, Sadamoto, and Anno from Gainax, accompanied by Shigeru Watanabe from Bandai, traveled to the United States for a research trip, studying postmodern architecture, aerospace history, and witnessing a launch of the Space Shuttle Discovery. Documentary footage of the trip was shot by Watanabe[81] and incorporated into a promotional film released two weeks before the Japanese premiere of Royal Space Force.[82] Yamaga made revisions to the script during the American research tour.[83]

Launch of Space Shuttle Discovery seen by Royal Space Force staff on August 27, 1985. Yamaga spoke of the impression of tremendous light and sound he received from witnessing the event.[84]
Gainax examines the F-1 engines used for the Saturn V rocket on display at the National Air and Space Museum during the August 1985 research trip to the US. From left to right: Hideaki Anno, Yoshiyuki Sadamoto, Toshio Okada, and Hiroaki Inoue. Anno remarked of his work on Royal Space Force: "My aim was to avoid the symbolic approach that has been used in previous animation, and make an effort to retain the impression of what I had actually seen and touched as much as possible...I think what I saw at NASA helped me a lot with the actual film."[85]

Noriaki Ikeda, winner of the 1986 Seiun Award for nonfiction, began a series of articles on the film's production that year for Animage. After watching a rough edit of the film, Ikeda wrote that Royal Space Force was an anime that reminded him of what the works of the American New Wave had achieved in the 1960s; perceiving in the film an effort by Gainax to create a work with their own sense of words and rhythm, employing natural body language, raw expressions, and timing, and an overall "texture" that made a closer approach to human realities.[86] Reviewing the completed film five months later, Ikeda made extensive comment on its use of dialogue, including its nuance as opposed to "the anime we're used to seeing these days, that scream their message at you," spoken lines that were independent of the main narrative, or even lines spoken inaudibly behind a music track, which gave a sense the characters existed as real human beings rather than only as roles to advance a plot.[87]

In a roundtable discussion following the film's theatrical release, Yamaga commented, "I wanted to taste the sense of liberation I could get if I recognized everything [about human nature] and included it," a view with which Okada had concurred, saying, "this is a film that acknowledges people in their every aspect".[88] Yamaga remarked, "A critic once said that none of the characters in this film understand each other. That there's no communication between the characters. He was exactly right. The characters don't understand each other at all. But throughout the film, there are moments where there are glimpses of understandings between [Shirotsugh] and the other characters ... In reality, it's okay not to understand each other. People all live their individual lives—it's not necessary to feel the same way another feels. And in fact you will never understand anybody anyway. This is how I feel about the relationships I have with the people in my life."[89]

Three years after his 1992 departure from Gainax,[90] Okada reflected on the film's screenplay: "Our goal at first was to make a very 'realistic' film. So we couldn’t have the kind of strong, dramatic construction you’d find in a Hollywood movie. [Royal Space Force] is an art film. And at the time, I thought that was very good, that this is something—an anime art film. But now when I look back, I realize ... this was a major motion picture. Bandai spent a lot of money on it. It was our big chance. Maybe if I’d given it a little stronger structure, and a little simpler story—change it a little, make it not so different—it could have met the mainstream."[91] "It’s true that there will be ten or twenty percent of the audience who can follow it as is, and say, 'Oh, it's a great film! I can understand everything! ' But eighty percent of the audience is thinking, 'I lost Shiro’s thoughts two or three times, or maybe four or five.' Those are the kind of people who will say, 'The art is great, and the animation is very good, but the story—mmmm...'"[92] Okada remarked however that the decentralized decision-making creative process at Gainax meant there were limits to how much control could be asserted through the script;[56] Akai would later comment that "the staff were young and curious, not unlike the characters in the film. If you tried to control them too much, they would have just walked out."[93]

Yamaga asserted that a "discrepancy between who [Riquinni] wanted to be and who she really was...is evident in her lifestyle and dialogue,"[94] and that "on the outside," she carries an image of Shiro as "'an extraordinary being who travels through space into this peaceful and heavenly place'... But deep down inside she knows the truth. She's not stupid."[95] The director remarked that Riquinni's actions and dialogue in the film's controversial scenes of assault and the morning after reflect the dissonances present in both her self-image and her image of Shiro, and that the scene "was very difficult to explain to the staff" as well; that she is signaling her strength to go on living according to her beliefs, and without Shiro in her life any longer.[96] "There's no simple explanation for that scene, but basically, I was depicting a human situation where two people are moving closer and closer, yet their relationship isn't progressing at all...[Shiro resorts] to violence in an attempt to close that gap, only to find that was also useless. The two of them never came to terms, never understood each other, even to the end of the movie," yet remained "in some way linked together..."[97] however, the film was not intended to depict their relationship as a romantic one.[98]

Design[edit]

In May 1985, Gainax transferred their operations to a larger studio in Takadanobaba, where the existing staff gathered in friends and acquaintances to help visualize the setting of Royal Space Force.[99] Among those joining the crew at this time were two of the film's most prolific world designers: Takashi Watabe, whose designs would include the train station, rocket factory, and Royal Space Force lecture hall[100] and Yoichi Takizawa, whose contributions included the rocket launch gantry, space capsule simulator, and rocket engine test facility.[101] Yamaga decided the alternate world depicted in the pilot film did not have the kind of different realism he was hoping to achieve in the completed work and started over again, creating a new series of "image board" paintings to visualize the look of Royal Space Force. The total worldbuilding process went on for roughly a year, and was described as a converse process between Yamaga and the team of designers; expressing his ideas into concrete terms, but also bringing their concrete skills to bear toward the expression of abstract ideas.[102] This reciprocal process influenced Yamaga's writing on the film: "My style is not 'I have a story I created, so you help me make it.' Creators come first, and this is a story I created thinking what story those creators would shine at the most."[103]

In the decade following Royal Space Force, the Sadamoto-designed Nadia La Arwall[104][105] and Rei Ayanami[106][107] would each twice win the Anime Grand Prix fan poll for favorite female character; Sadamoto's Shinji Ikari[108][109] would also win twice for favorite male character. By contrast, his male and female leads designed for Royal Space Force, Shirotsugh and Riquinni, ranked ninth and twentieth respectively for their categories in the Grand Prix poll of 1987 releases.[110] In a roundtable discussion on the film, it was pointed out that neither Shirotsugh nor Riquinni look like typical anime lead characters.[111] Yamaga remarked that one of the design changes made from the pilot film was Shirotsugh, who "used to look like a boy", but in the full-length movie "has become like a middle-aged man."[112] Sadamoto used for the final version of Shirotsugh a model reference significantly older than the 21-year old character's age,[113] the American actor Treat Williams.[114] For Manna, Yamaga referred Sadamoto to actress Tatum O'Neal as she appeared in the first half of the film Paper Moon.[115] Regarding Riquinni herself, Sadamoto commented that there seemed to be a model for her, but Yamaga did not tell him who it was.[116] In a 2018 interview session with Niigata University, Yamaga remarked, "What I see now is surprisingly the character Riquinni is nothing but me. At any rate, Shirotsugh is not me. If you ask me where I would position myself in the film, I would identify myself as Riquinni in many aspects, in terms of the way I think. I was probably someone weird [and] religious, ever since my childhood."[117]

Still image from a four-second sequence in Royal Space Force demonstrating the film's design emphasis on "ordinary" objects seen through a different world. A weather report glimpsed while the protagonist is channel surfing conveys a simultaneous impression of the Honnêamise kingdom's 1950s technology (black-and-white television using a round cathode ray tube), its physical layout, and its numeral and writing systems.

On the premise that the real world itself was a product of mixed design, Yamaga believed that the sense of alternate reality in Royal Space Force would be strengthened by inviting as many designers as possible to participate in the anime.[118] By September, the worldbuilding of Royal Space Force proceeded forward by a system where designers were free to draw and submit visual concepts based on their interpretation of Yamaga's script; the concept art would then be discussed at a daily liaison meeting between Yamaga and the other staff.[119] Yamaga used "keywords" given to the designers as a starting point, divided into what he termed "symbolic" and "non-symbolic" categories. The director sought to avoid "symbolic" premises where possible; as an example of the difference, Yamaga stated that a "symbolic" way to describe a "cup" would be to call it a "cylindrical object", whereas he preferred the designers start from "non-symbolic" terms that described a cup's function or sensory impressions from use, such as "it holds water," or "it’s cold and sweats when filled with water."[120]

Assistant director Shinji Higuchi had overall responsibility for coordinating the design work with Yamaga's intentions through overseeing the output of the designers. Although his aim was to give a unified look to the kingdom of Honnêamise as the film's main setting, Higuchi also attempted to take care to make it neither too integrated nor too disjointed, remarking that just as the present day world is made from a mixing of different cultures, this would have also been true of a past environment such as the alternate 1950s world of Honnêamise.[121] Yamaga commented that the film also portrayed the idea that different levels of technology are present in a world at the same time depending upon particular paths of development, such as the color TV in use by the Republic, or the air combat between jet and prop planes at the end, which Yamaga compared to similar engagements during the Korean War.[122]

A deliberate exception to Royal Space Force's general design approach was the rocket itself, which was adapted from a real-world Soviet model.[123] This exception was later noticed by Hayao Miyazaki, for whom it formed one of his two criticisms of the anime; he was surprised that a film which had changed even the shape of money did not make the rocket more unusual.[124] Yamaga argued that although the anime reaches its eventual conclusion through a process of different design paths, it was necessary to end the film with a rocket inspired by reality, lest the audience see it as a story about a different world that has nothing to do with them.[125] He described the rocket as also emblematic of the film's approach to mecha; despite its many mecha designs, they all play supporting roles, and even the rocket is not treated as a "lead character".[126]

Art direction[edit]

Although later noted for creating much of the aesthetic behind the influential 1995 film Ghost in the Shell,[127][128] Hiromasa Ogura in a 2012 interview named his first project as an art director, Royal Space Force, as the top work of his career.[129] Ogura had entered the anime industry in 1977 as a background painter at Kobayashi Production, where he contributed art to such films as Lupin III: The Castle of Cagliostro;[130] at the time work began on Royal Space Force, Ogura was at Studio Fuga, a backgrounds company he had co-founded in 1983. On temporary transfer to Gainax after he was recruited for the project by Okada and Inoue, Ogura recalled he did not at first realize he was working with the same amateur filmmakers who had made the Daicon opening animations.[131] Ogura oversaw a team of 16 background painters on Royal Space Force,[132] including the future art director of Spirited Away, Yōji Takeshige, then still a student attending Tama Art University.[133] A majority of the film’s background paintings were created in Gainax’s studio rather than outsourced, as Ogura felt the film’s worldview was easier for him to communicate to artists in person; as the color scheme in Royal Space Force was subdued; if a painting needed more of a bluish cast to it, he couldn't simply instruct the artist to "add more blue."[134]

Yamaga and Akai singled out this background painting as marking a turning point in Royal Space Force's art direction. Created for General Khaidenn's office, it appeared 24 minutes into the film, prior to which "we had to be very specific in asking for everything we wanted in the [paintings] ... We weren't communicating with the artists as effectively as we would have liked." However, from this scene forward, they felt the background painters "seemed to grasp what we wanted ... and started coming up with ideas of their own without [needing] specific direction."[135] Ogura had concurred in remarks published in early 1987 that he found it difficult at first to grasp the aesthetic the director intended for the film's world, joking that he would be thinking something looked "cool," but that Yamaga would respond by saying that cool wasn't precisely what he intended it to be, leaving Ogura to ponder the difference.[136]

Toshio Okada described the aesthetics of the world in which Royal Space Force takes place as having been shaped by three main artists: first, its major color elements (blue and brown) were determined by Sadamoto; then its architectural styles and artistic outlook were designed by [Takashi] Watabe, and finally Ogura gave it "a sense of life" through depicting its light, shadow, and air. It was noted also that the film's world displays different layers of time in its designs; the main motifs being Art Deco, but with older Art Nouveau and newer postmodern elements also present.[137] Ogura commented that although the film depicted a different world, "there's nothing that you'd call sci-fi stuff, it's everyday, normal life like our own surroundings. I wanted to express that messy impression." He laid particular emphasis on attempting to suggest the visual texture of the world's architecture and interior design; following Watabe’s detailed notes, Ogura worked to convey in his paintings such aspects as the woodwork motifs prominent in the Space Force headquarters, or by contrast the metallic elements in the room where the Republic minister Nereddon tastes wine.[138] Watabe and Ogura would collaborate again in 1995 on Ghost in the Shell.[139]

Critiquing his own work on Royal Space Force, Ogura expressed a wish that he had been able to convey more emphasis on the effects of light and shadow in addition to color, but joked that it was hard to say exactly how things would turn out until he actually painted them, something he said was true of the entire film.[140] Ogura remarked that many of his team were veterans of Sanrio's theatrical films unit, which gave him confidence in their abilities; mentioning the role of former Sanrio artist, future Gankutsuou art director Hiroshi Sasaki,[citation needed] in the visionary sequence occurring after Shirotsugh's orbiting spacecraft crosses from the world's nightside to its dayside, referred to in production as its "image scene."[141] Akai discusses the involvement as well in this sequence of the future director of Gankutsuou, Mahiro Maeda.[142] Okada judged that the image scene was the only place in the film appropriate to the talent of Maeda, whom he called a "true artist." Anime, Okada argued, was like a reactor that harnessed Maeda, whose artistic talent Okada compared to that of a nuclear blast, for the mundane purpose of boiling water; he asserted that when Maeda had worked before Royal Space Force on Castle in the Sky, not even Hayao Miyazaki had been able to employ his talent properly.[143]

The artist Nobuyuki Ohnishi, a contemporary illustrator whose work Yamaga knew from the music magazines Swing Journal and ADLIB, was picked by Yamaga to create the film’s title sequence and closing credits.[144] Yamaga believed using contributions only from artists inside the anime industry set limits on the creative potential of an anime project, and compared Ohnishi’s involvement to Ryuichi Sakamoto serving as the film’s music director or Leo Morimoto as its lead voice actor.[145] Although his illustrations used a sumi-e ink wash painting technique associated with classical East Asian art, Ohnishi preferred to use the style to depict modern subjects; Yamaga felt the method would convey an alternate perspective and suggest the film's exercise in worldbuilding included a conceptual past and future, rather than a world brought into existence only to tell one particular narrative in time. In creating the credits, Ohnishi made frequent use of photographs of real people and historical events, which he would then modify when adapting it into a painting: "exchanging and replacing the details of, for example, a European picture with Asian or Middle-Eastern elements and motifs. In this way, the credits would reflect both the cultural mixing that gives the film as a whole its appearance, and symbolize the blurring between our world and the film's world, thus serving [Royal Space Force's] function as a 'kaleidoscopic mirror.'"[146]

Animation[edit]

After the completion in December 1985 of Daicon Film's final project, Orochi Strikes Again, its director Takami Akai and special effects director Shinji Higuchi moved to Tokyo to join the production of Royal Space Force as two of its three assistant directors, alongside Shoichi Masuo.[147] At age 20, Higuchi was the very youngest of the main crew;[148] his previous creative experience had been in live-action special effects films rather than anime. As someone who did not "think like an animator," he would bring unorthodox and interesting ideas and techniques to the project.[149] Shoichi Masuo was an associate of Hideaki Anno, whom he had met when the two worked together on the 1984 Macross film.[150] Having more experience than Akai or Higuchi in anime, Masuo would explain Yamaga’s abstract directives to animators in concrete terms. Higuchi had overall charge regarding the design aspects of the settei, Masuo was in charge over the color aspects of the settei, including backgrounds, whereas Akai monitored the work as a whole as general assistant to Yamaga. These roles were not fixed, and the three did not confer on a daily basis, but rather would have meetings on how to shift their approach whenever changes in the production situation called for it.[151]

A tank is bombed from above during the climactic battle to capture the launch site, in an explosion animated by the film's special effects artist, Hideaki Anno. Hiroyuki Yamaga and Anno were film students together at the Osaka University of Arts;[152] Anno was the first animator he had ever met, and it was witnessing the "bodily sensation residing" within Anno's explosions that first made Yamaga interested in anime. Even before determining a theme for the project that became Royal Space Force, Yamaga decided the story's climax would feature "Anno's shrapnel".[153]

Masuo remarked that the animation style of Royal Space Force was generally straightforward, without the characteristic quirky techniques to create visual interest or amusement often associated with anime, but that "there's nothing else [in anime] like this where you can do proper acting and realistic mechanical movements. That's why its impression is quite cinematic...In animation, it's very difficult to do something normal. When you consider [the film], there are many scenes where the characters are just drinking tea or walking around. You don't take notice of [such actions], yet they're very difficult to draw, and I think it required a lot of challenging work for the key animators."[154] Anno, who served as the film's special effects artist, likewise remarked that two frequent criticisms of Royal Space Force were that "it could have looked more like a [typical] anime" but also contrariwise that it would have been more appropriate for it to be made in live-action. Anno felt these views failed to apprehend the advantage of using animation for filmmaking as a precise transmission of directorial intent, and the film's aim to convey a sense of reality rather than a look of live-action as such: "All I can say to people who want to see something more anime-like on their screen is that they should watch other anime."[155]

Although Royal Space Force was essentially a pre-digital animated work[156] using layers of physical cels and backgrounds painted by hand,[157] computer-assisted animation was used for certain difficult motion shots, including the contra-rotating propellers of the Honnêamise air force plane, the rotation of the space capsule while in orbit, the tilted wheel turn of the street sweeper, and the swing of the instrument needle in the launch control bunker. The motions themselves were rendered using ASCII 3D software, and then traced onto cels.[158] By contast, Ryusuke Hikawa noted that the flakes of frost falling from the rocket at liftoff, which might be assumed to be a CG effect, were done entirely by hand under the supervision of Hideaki Anno.[159]

As 1985 drew to a close, Bandai had still not formally committed to Royal Space Force as a feature-length film release, as a distributor for the movie had not yet been secured.[160] Yamaga was also late in finalizing the storyboard, which would not be completed in its entirety until June 1986.[161] However, its third, or C part was nearly finished, and the decision was made to start production there, on the reasoning that the sober tone of many scenes in the third quarter of the film required precision in expression; as there was no release date yet, it was better to work on them while the schedule was still relatively loose.[162] Higuchi remarked that because Yamaga's storyboards were minimalist, containing only the field size, the number of characters in the frame, and the placement of the dialogue, Royal Space Force was not made in a typical fashion for an anime, where the animators would be given directives to "draw this picture." Instead they were asked to "think out the performance in this scene," with meetings where the animators themselves determined how scenes would move by first physically acting them through as if they were attempting to convey it to an audience; the camera angles to be used were also decided through discussion. He described the process in retrospect as having been "a lot of fun," yet noted there were some animators who had refused to work in such a fashion, and backed away from the production.[163]

In January 1986, Toho-Towa agreed to distribute Royal Space Force as a feature film, and production assumed a more frantic pace, as the process of in-betweening, cel painting, and background painting began at this time; additional staff was recruited via advertisements placed in anime magazines.[164] The daily exchange of ideas between Yamaga and the other staff at Gainax continued during production, as the artists attempted to understand his intentions, and Yamaga requested that animation drawings, designs, and background paintings to be re-done in order to get closer to the "image in his head;" the film's artists also exchanged opinions on the images between themselves.[165] Yamaga would later say of the making of Royal Space Force, "it was like we were all swinging swords with our eyes blindfolded".[166] Akai and Yamaga remarked that since they weren't "animation purists," they altered the animation drawings, cels, and timesheets in ways that were not traditional industry practice, to the extent that "the young people who followed in our footsteps in creating anime thought that was how it was done," speculating that they may have created new traditions for anime by breaking the old on the production of Royal Space Force.[167]

Cinematography[edit]

As a pre-digital anime, the scenes in Royal Space Force were created by using a camera to photograph the animation cels and backgrounds onto movie film. A scene would typically consist of a series of separate individual shots known as "cuts," with each cut being prepared for the photographer by collecting into a bag all animation cels and background elements to be used in that particular cut.[168] Many of the scenes in the film would be realized through special techniques applied to the underlying animation; an example was the analog television screen in the Space Force barracks, created by photographing the animation cels through a clear acrylic panel cover from a fluorescent lamp.[169] Besides the technical necessity to photograph the animation, Gainax's experience in filming amateur live-action works had an influence on the construction of the animated scenes themselves. Akai and Yamaga remarked that it had not been their intent to "emulate" live-action films, but to make animation with a realism based on their experience of "look(ing) through the camera lens to see what it sees ... It's difficult to express animated films realistically. The camera doesn't really exist."[170] Another reflection of their live-action experience involved building scale models of vehicles and buildings appearing in the film as models for the animators, but also to choose which angles and viewpoints to use in scenes where the modelled objects would appear; in the figurative sense, to "decide where the cameras should be."[171]

The director of photography on Royal Space Force was Hiroshi Isakawa of Mushi Production, where the animation for the pilot film had been shot.[172] Isakawa remarked that he was originally assured photography could begin in April 1986, but received no cuts to film until August, and then "only the easy work," with Gainax putting off more difficult scenes until later. The most intense work period occurred in January 1987, with the filming completed at the end of that month; with the off-and-on nature of the task, the photography had taken three months of actual time.[173] Isakawa described the technical challenges he faced in filming Royal Space Force, with some individual cuts created by using as many as 12 photographic levels consisting of cels, superimposition layers, and sheets of paper masks designed to capture isolated areas of different colored light. Another challenging aspect involved motion, such as conveying the heavy vibrations of Marty's motorcycle, or the air force plane cockpit; whereas ordinarily such scenes would be filmed while shaking the cels and the backgrounds as a unit, Gainax insisted that the elements be shaken separately.[174]

Yamaga and Shinji Higuchi, who also served as assistant director of photography on the film,[175] had Isakawa watch The Right Stuff and showed him NASA photos as a reference for the look they wished to achieve in certain shots. To convey a sense of the visual mystery of the film's world from space, Isakawa photographed the art through masks with such tiny holes that he felt the images were hardly lit at all; he was unable to judge the light levels in advance, having to make adjustments afterwards based on examining the developed film.[176] Isakawa mentioned that he would get tired and angry after being asked to shoot five or six different takes of a cut, not seeing the necessity for it, but gave up resisting when he realized it was a work "in pursuit of perfection," and felt that the final achievement was "realistic without using the imagery of live action, a work that made full use of anime's best merits."[177]

Voice acting[edit]

The voice performances in Royal Space Force were supervised by Atsumi Tashiro of the anime studio Group TAC, who had been sound director for the highly influential 1974 TV series Space Battleship Yamato.[178] Gainax had been enthusiastic in pursuing Tashiro's involvement, even though Tashiro had not worked outside his own company in over 20 years, sending him the film’s script, followed by a personal visit from Yamaga and Okada. Despite his initial difficulty in grasping the project, Tashiro was struck by the passion and youth of the filmmakers, and felt that working with them on Royal Space Force would represent an opportunity to "revitalize" himself professionally.[179]

Yamaga remarked that he "wanted the dialogue to be natural," which he maintained was "a first in Japanese animation." Akai felt a tone had been set for Royal Space Force by the decision to cast Leo Morimoto in the lead role as Shirotsugh: "The other actors [then] knew that this was going to be a different kind of animated film."[180] Morimoto was a 43-year old veteran actor of live-action films and TV[181] but had very limited experience in anime, whereas Mitsuki Yayoi, cast as Riquinni after Gainax had heard her on the radio,[182] was a stage actor and member of the Seinenza Theater Company with some voice-over experience,[183] but who had never before played an anime role.[184] Tashiro saw the casting as a great opportunity for him, asserting that the apprehension Morimoto and Yayoi felt due to their mutual unfamiliarity with the field meant that they approached their roles as an actual encounter, with genuine emotion and reactions that were honest and fresh, a spirit that Tashiro said he had forgotten within the world of anime.[185]

Morimoto remarked during a recording session for the film in late November 1986 that Tashiro directed him not to play the role of Shirotsugh as if it were an anime, but rather to attempt the flavor of a live performance,[186] and that Yamaga had given him the same instructions. He commented that it was a difficult role for him, as unlike a live-action drama, "you can't fake the mood, you have to express yourself correctly with just your voice," and viewed his work on Royal Space Force as "scary" but "fulfilling."[187] Although evaluating the character himself as "not a great hero," at the same time he found much that was convincing in Shirotsugh's growth, feeling that it somehow came to assume the role of history's own progression: "What is to be found at the end of that maturation is gradually revealed, arriving at a magnificent place." He added he was "shocked that a 24-year old could make such a film ... I'm glad to know that [creators] like this are making their debut, and I hope that more of them do."[188]

Yayoi commented that Yamaga had described Riquinni to her as "uncompromising in her beliefs, and this could be seen as hardheadedness and causing problems or discomfort to those around her. But also that she could look upon something truly beautiful, yet not respond simply by thinking that yes, it is beautiful, but might ponder it, and wonder if it genuinely is. It's not a disability or a deliberate obstacle [in her character], but just that people around her would honestly think that this girl is a little bit weird."[189] Yayoi understood Riquinni as a "normal girl" who, to the extent she was out of step with everyday life, was not so much because she was strange on the inside, but because her relationships with the exterior world were governed by her strong will; Yayoi suggested that the film is her coming-of-age story as well.[190]

Music[edit]

In April 1986, Ryuichi Sakamoto was selected as the musical director of Royal Space Force.[191] Sakamoto was already regarded for his work in the pioneering electronic band Yellow Magic Orchestra and his soundtrack for the 1983 Nagisa Oshima film Merry Christmas, Mr. Lawrence;[192] the year following the release of Royal Space Force, Sakamoto would share the Academy Award for Best Original Score for the soundtrack to The Last Emperor. In 1986 Sakamoto was prominent also in the Japanese domestic film market for his soundtrack to its top-grossing movie of that year, Koneko Monogatari.[193] Ryusuke Hikawa commented that in fact the musical director was the only member of Royal Space Force's main staff known to the general public at the time of the film's production;[194] Yamaga recalled that asking Sakamoto to do the music for Royal Space Force required a special increase of 40 million yen above its previous 360 million yen budget.[195] Sakamoto's first commercial release of music for the project occurred three months before the Japanese debut of the film itself, in the form of a 12" maxi single entitled The Wings of Honnêamise: Image Sketch,[196] containing early mixes of four key initial pieces he had composed for the film's soundtrack, referred to on Image Sketch only under the names "Prototype A", "Prototype B", "Prototype C", and "Prototype D". In its liner notes Sakamoto commented that one of the main reasons he accepted the job was that he saw a resemblance between the meticulous care he put into his music and the efforts the filmmakers were taking with Royal Space Force.[197] Yamaga wrote in Image Sketch that he saw Sakamoto as a composer who, like the other creators working on the film, rejected "fill-in-the-blank" styles and instead expressed a deep personal sensibility.[198]

Sakamoto brought into the Royal Space Force project his prior collaborators on Koneko Monogatari, musicians Koji Ueno, Yuji Nomi, and Haruo Kubota.[199] Ueno, Kubota, and Nomi took as their starting points Sakamoto's four prototypes as well as a set of "keywords" that Yamaga had given them for guidance.[200] The team worked from a "chart table" prepared by Sakamoto and sound director Atsumi Tashiro listing each scene in the film requiring music, with notes on length, the kind of music to be used, and which of the four prototypes to use as a basis for their arrangements.[201] Ueno, Kubota, and Nomi then decided which scenes in the film they would each arrange, and then made their pieces separately, neither working on them in the studio together, or with Sakamoto. After arranging a piece, they would reassemble as a group and listen to each other's work, and then go their separate ways once again to continue the process.[202] Of the 47 musical arrangements made for the film based on the chart,[203] of which 15 were later selected to be featured on The Wings of Honnêamise~Royal Space Force Original Soundtrack album released in March 1987,[204] most were developed as variations on one of Sakamoto’s original four prototypes; for example, "Prototype A" would become the basis of the film's opening credits theme. A few were created based on arrangements combining two of the four prototypes; 13 of the 47 pieces, however, were not based on any of the four, but were instead new original compositions created later in the soundtrack process by Ueno, Kubota, Nomi, or Sakamoto himself; several of these were featured on the Original Soundtrack.[205] The background music pieces not included on the Original Soundtrack would eventually be collected as a bonus feature on the 1990 Royal Space Force~The Wings of Honnêamise Memorial Box LaserDisc edition;[206] this bonus feature would also be included as an extra on the 2000 Manga Entertainment DVD.[207]

Toshio Okada remarked in 1995, "I didn't really like Sakamoto's [musical] style back then, or even now. But I know his talent, his ability to construct a strong score, and write an entire orchestration. That’s why I chose him," stating that "at that time, he was the only choice for an original movie soundtrack." Asked if he had considered Joe Hisaishi, Okada replied, "Hisaishi always writes one or two melodies, and the rest of the soundtrack is constructed around them ... But his kind of style wouldn't have worked for [Royal Space Force] ... for better or worse, the film has a very differentiated structure, and we needed a score to match that."[208] In 2018, Sakamoto’s film score for My Tyrano: Together, Forever was reported by media outlets as his first time composing for animation.[209][210] The composer remarked in an interview earlier that year that he had been in charge of the music for an anime film "35 [sic] years ago, but I didn't like it very much (so I can't say the title)."[211] Commenting on Sakamoto’s remarks, Okada recalled that the composer had been sincerely excited about creating the music for Royal Space Force early on in the project, and had studied its storyboards closely for inspiration;[212] the liner notes for the 1987 Original Soundtrack album noted a music planning meeting where the enthusiasm was so great participants ended up staying for 12 hours.[213] Okada theorized Sakamoto may have seen the exactly timed scenes as a chance to achieve a perfect sync between his music and the images; however, Okada noted, the actual length of a finished cut of animation may vary slightly, and ultimately the sound director has the prerogative to edit the music accordingly.[214] Okada believed such issues could have been resolved if he had the opportunity to speak directly with Sakamoto and make adjustments, but after a point communications became relayed through his management, Yoroshita Music.[215] The composer himself had been away from Japan during the final months of Royal Space Force's production, which overlapped with the shooting schedule of The Last Emperor.[216] Okada asserted that although Sakamoto and Yamaga themselves never came into conflict, the situation led to frustration among the film’s staff, and in particular between Yoroshita and sound director Tashiro; Tashiro eventually asked Okada to make the call as to whether he or Sakamoto would have final say on placing the music. Okada chose Tashiro, remarking that he accepted responsibility for the decision although he believed it was what soured Sakamoto on Royal Space Force, to the extent of not discussing it as part of his history as a film composer.[217]

Marketing and release[edit]

Marketing[edit]

By late 1986, signs of nervousness had appeared among sponsors and investors in the film, as "the footage of Royal Space Force neared completion … and was found to be inconveniently free of many merchandising spin-off opportunities," prompting what Jonathan Clements describes as "outrageous attempts" by its financial backers to "fix" the film that began with "prolonged arguments over a sudden perceived need to rename it."[218] The project had been pitched, developed, and approved for production under the name Royal Space Force; Okada remarked that, to Gainax, it was "its one and only title".[219] All Nippon Airways, one of the film's sponsors,[220] however desired that the title include the word "wings",[221] while Bandai favored that the title should use the form "Something of Something," on the reasoning that the last big anime hit had been called Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind.[222] As Royal Space Force "was 'not sexy enough'" and Riquinni was "conveniently female," the initial push was to use the title (The) Wings of Riquinni.[223]

Although the plan to make Royal Space Force had been known around the anime industry since mid-1985,[224] the official announcement of the film was not made until June 4, 1986, in a press conference held at the prestigious Imperial Hotel in Tokyo.[225] The announcement used Royal Space Force as the main title of the film, with (The) Wings of Riquinni as a smaller subtitle; privately, Yamaga objected strongly to the subtitle, pointing out the purpose of the film was to expand the audience's view of the world, and that he did not want a title that focused on one character; therefore, if a second title was absolutely required, he suggested it use Honnêamise after the name of the kingdom in which most of the film's events takes place.[226] As 1986 drew to a close, publicity for the film gradually relegated Royal Space Force to the status of a smaller subtitle beneath The Wings of Honnêamise.[227][228][229]

In a 2010 memoir, Okada reflected that the conflict had involved not only the film’s title, but also its length. Okada acknowledged a shorter movie could have potentially increased ticket sales by allowing the film to be shown more times per day; at the time, however, Okada had refused, arguing that the box office was not part of his job, saying in a meeting that if they wanted to cut the film by even 20 minutes, they might as well cut off Okada's arm. In retrospect, Okada felt that he had acted like a child, but that "creators are all children."[230] Bandai company president Makoto Yamashina affirmed shortly before the film's release that during a three week period he and distributor Toho-Towa had thought of cutting 20 minutes from the film: "but the process of deciding what [scenes] to cut began with conversations about why they shouldn't be cut. And afterwards, I thought, 'Ah, I get it now' and felt that I couldn't ... For the sake of the box office, it could have worked at around 100 minutes, but if we cut the film at this stage, the whole objective of the movie flies out the window, and the hundreds of millions of yen spent on it have no meaning." Yamashina told Toho he would accept responsibility if his decision meant the film was not a hit.[231]

Okada wrote of having later heard how "emotions were running high" on the Bandai side as well, to the extent of considering taking the project away from Gainax and giving it to another studio to finish, or even cancelling the film's release, despite the 360 million yen already spent on producing it. However, this would have required someone's "head to roll" at Bandai to take responsibility for the loss, which could mean Makoto Yamashina himself, who had announced Royal Space Force as his personal project durung the official press conference in June.[232] Okada noted that the person caught in the middle was Shigeru Watanabe, who had supported the project from the beginning but now found himself "forced into a very difficult position," becoming so depressed by the conflict that following the film's release, he took a year's leave of absence. Okada expressed great regret for what he described as his lack of kindness at the time toward Watanabe, but nevertheless did not regret his lack of compromise, believing that if he had given any ground, the film might have not been completed.[233]

In one of the trailers made to promote the film, the standing stone seen briefly in the movie was presented as having an iconic and supernatural role in the film's plot.[234] In the marketing push to position the film as reminiscent of Nausicaä, giveaway posters were placed in Animage, which was still serializing the Nausicaä manga at the time.[235]

Okada asserted in a 1995 interview that as Nausicaä had been "the last 'big anime hit,'" the marketing staff at Toho-Towa modeled their thinking upon it, and after realizing the film was not going to be like Nausicaä, decided to advertise it as if it was.[236] Yamashina had himself acknowledged that the film’s sales target was based on Nausicaä even though "the content of this work isn’t like Nausicaä ... No one’s ever done something like this before, so it’s a great risk in that respect."[237] In 2000, Akai recalled, "The PR department didn't really seem to understand the film. They have a tendency to make a new release interesting by making it appear similar to a film that was previously a hit."[238] Yamaga commented, "There was no precedent in advertising a film like ours at the time ... they can only compare it to something like Nausicaä. It's actually completely different." Yamaga however felt that Nausicaä "at least served as a reference when we were asked to describe our film. If it wasn't for that precedent, there would have been no reference point at all."[239] Clements remarked, "the promotions unit did everything in their power to make Honnêamise appeal to precisely the same audience as Nausicaä, even if that meant misleading advertising," citing an "insect incident" where Yoshiyuki Sadamoto was asked to draw an image of Manna’s pet bug as if it were a giant creature attacking the city in the film, in the manner of the giant ohmu in Nausicaä.[240]

The national publicity campaign for the film now being promoted under the title The Wings of Honnêamise~Royal Space Force began on New Year's Day, 1987, including full-color newspaper and magazine ads, as well as TV commercials,[241] with eventual placements in over 70 media outlets.[242] As with the "insect incident," a frequent aspect of the marketing push involved taking images from the film and presenting them as fantastical, such as a steam train from the movie relabeled as a "bio-train" in ads.[243] The film's official press kit described its story premise as: "'... Through the guidance of a lass with a pure and untainted soul, those who are awakened shall take wing and rise to Heaven, taking in hand the Honnêamise holy book' ... Shirotsugh grew up to join the Royal Space Force, as did other youths as hot blooded and energetic as he. It was then that work began on a grand project to search space for the envisioned holy book that promises eternal peace to Honnêamise."[244] The standing stone seen briefly in the story,[245] while given no particular meaning in the film itself, was repurposed into a major feature of the film's advertising, labeled as a "Symbol Tower" that shines due to what ads described as a secret telepathic link born from the "passionate love" between Shirotsugh and Riquinni.[246] The only dialogue spoken in the trailer, "Do you believe in the miracle of love?" said by Riquinni's voice actor, Mitsuki Yayoi, was not a line from the actual film, but referenced a catchphrase used in the advertising campaign.[247][248]

Release[edit]

Japanese release[edit]

Shortly before the release of the film, Makoto Yamashina stated his considerable uncertainty over how the film would be received, with the fear that "the theaters will be deserted."[249] He also however expressed anxiety over the implications for the industry if it succeeded: "If it turns out that young people today are thinking along Yamaga's lines, at that level of sophistication, it's going to be very difficult [for other filmmakers] ... It's hard for me to talk about the film like this, but regardless of whether or not it succeeds, it's a movie that I don't understand."[250] In an attempt to build publicity for the film’s March 1987 release in Japan, a world premiere event was held on February 19, 1987, at Mann's Chinese Theatre in Hollywood.[251] The one-night showing was arranged for the Japanese media, with all Tokyo TV news shows covering the premiere; Bandai paid for 200 anime industry notables to attend as well.[252] Footage from the Hollywood event was incorporated into a half-hour promotional special that aired March 8 on Nippon TV, six days before the film's release in Japan.[253] Americans invited to the showing included anime fans and several figures associated with U.S. science fiction cinema including The Terminator and Aliens actor Michael Biehn,[254] as well as Blade Runner designer Syd Mead.[255] Although referred to in Japanese publicity materials as The Wings of Honnêamise~Royal Space Force's "American prescreening,"[256] the film was shown under the name Star Quest, and presented in an English dub remarked upon by both U.S. and Japanese anime magazines covering the event for its significant differences from the original film;[257][258] in 2021 Bandai’s Ken Iyadomi recalled, "it was localized in a totally American way, and everyone hated it."[259]

The Wings of Honnêamise~Royal Space Force was released nationwide in Japan on March 14, 1987.[260] In a late spring discussion following the film's release, co-producer Hiroaki Inoue asserted that the film "put up a good fight," arguing that the average theater stay for original anime films was four weeks; in one theater, Royal Space Force had managed a seven-week engagement.[261] Takeda recalled, "Not a single theater cancelled its run, and in some locations, it actually had a longer run than initially planned ... The budget scale meant that reclaiming all the production costs[p] at the box office simply wasn't feasible."[263] Clements however presents an argument that the film was overinvested in as part of the "goldrush tensions" of Japan’s bubble economy, and that the original plan to release it as an OVA might have been more financially sensible.[264] Beginning with its 1990 Japanese laserdisc box set release, the film's main title was changed back to Royal Space Force, with The Wings of Honnêamise as a smaller subtitle.[265] Although Gainax itself was nearly bankrupted by the project, Bandai recouped its investment in September 1994, seven and a half years after its Japanese theatrical release; the film has continued to generate profit for them since.[266][267][q]

English-language release[edit]

An English-subtitled 16 mm film version of the film authorized by Bandai screened at the 1988 Worldcon; a contemporary report linked it to a possible home video version in the United States.[269] However, it was not until 1994 that the film received an actual commercial English-language release, when a new English dub, using its original Japanese theatrical release title The Wings of Honnêamise: Royal Space Force was recorded at Animaze and released by Manga Entertainment. The new English dub showed in over 20 movie theaters during 1994–95 as a 35 mm film version and was subsequently released in both dubbed and subtitled form on VHS[270] and LaserDisc.[271] Animerica, in a contemporary review, assessed the dub as "admirable in many respects," but argued that changes to the dialogue meant the subtitled version represents "a clearer presentation of the original ideas and personalities created by Hiroyuki Yamaga."[272] In a later interview however, Yamaga, while confirming he had not approved the dub script beforehand, was more ambivalent, stating that he himself had enjoyed foreign films whose translations had been changed: "What I think is that everyone has their own areas of tolerance as you shift from the original work ... It comes down to what you're willing to accept."[273]

The 2000 release by Manga Entertainment on DVD, although praised for its commentary track with Hiroyuki Yamaga and Takami Akai, was at the same time severely criticized for its poor visual quality.[274][275] In 2007, Bandai Visual released a Blu-ray/HD DVD version to mark the film's 20th anniversary; this release used the audio of the 1997 Japanese edition of the film[276] in which its sound effects were re-recorded in Dolby 5.1.[277] Although containing a 20-page booklet with essays by Hiroyuki Yamaga and Ryusuke Hikawa,[278] it lacks the commentary track of the 2000 Manga DVD release, and is now out of print. Maiden Japan re-released the movie separately on Blu-ray and DVD in 2013.[279] In August 2022, Section23 Films announced a concurrent home video release with Bandai Namco Filmworks of a 4K remaster of the film supervised by director Hiroyuki Yamaga, containing as extras the 1987 Japanese production documentary Oneamisu no Tsubasa: Ōritsu Uchūgun—Document File, a version of the pilot film with an alternate audio track, and a collection of the film’s background music.[280] The film's initial release in the United Kingdom on VHS in 1995 by Manga Entertainment was cut to remove the attempted rape scene; in a contemporary interview, BBFC examiner Imtiaz Karim indicated this was done voluntarily by Manga, so that the film, which had been certified for audiences 15 and up when shown in UK theaters, could receive the lower PG certificate when released on home video.[281] The 2015 Blu-ray and DVD UK edition of the film from Anime Limited was released uncut with a 15 certificate.[282]

Reception[edit]

Critical response in Japan[edit]

The Yomiuri Shimbun, Japan's largest daily newspaper, published a mixed review of the film the day before its Japanese premiere, characterizing the film as scattered and boring at times, and stating a certain "resentment at its lack of excitement," but concluded by expressing its admiration for the film on the grounds of its effort and expense, honest and personal vision, and for not clinging to the patterns of previous anime works.[283] A contemporary review in Kinema Junpo, Japan's oldest film journal, saw the film as not truly about the "well-worn subject" of space travel, but rather about reaching a point where "the whole Earth can be seen ... taking full advantage of the unique medium of animation," the creators "observe civilization objectively first and then disassemble it to eventually restructure it ... Stories that feature cool machines, robots, and attractive characters, with the plot unfolding while drifting through space, already reached their peak in a sense with the [1984] Macross movie. Rather than trying to go beyond Macross, I think the creators of this film believed that they could find a new horizon for anime by creating a different world in a way that draws the story closer to Earth again."[284]

Royal Space Force ranked high in major annual retrospectives awarded by the Japanese anime press. The film won the Japan Anime Award for best anime release of 1987,[285] while making two of the top ten lists in the Anime Grand Prix fan poll, as #4 anime release of the year, with Shirotsugh Lhadatt as #9 male character.[286] In 1988, Royal Space Force won the Seiun Award, Japan's oldest prize for science fiction, for Best Dramatic Presentation of the previous year.[287] At the beginning of 1989, an Animage retrospective on the first 70 years of anime film compared Royal Space Force to Isao Takahata's 1968 directorial debut The Great Adventure of Horus, Prince of the Sun as a work that, like Horus, seemed to have emerged onto the scene unrelated to any previous commercial release: "an anime movie with a different methodology and message ... It's uncertain what influence it will have on anime in the future, but what is certain is that this was a work filled with the tremendous passion of its young staff."[288]

Hayao Miyazaki praised Royal Space Force, calling it "an honest work, without any bluff or pretension ... I thought the movie is going to be a great inspiration to the young people working in this industry. They may be intensely divided over whether they like it or not, but either way it's going to serve as a stimulus."[289] Miyazaki expressed two criticisms of the film: the design of the rocket, which he saw as too conventional and reminiscent of "big science like NASA,"[290] and the fact Shirotsugh was positioned as having to rally the older members of the Space Force into not giving up on the launch, which Miyazaki found unconvincing given that they had dreamed of space travel far longer than he.[291] Yamaga did not deny that he wrote the script in a way he thought would appeal to young people,[292] but felt it very important to note the contributions of the older and younger generation to both the launch of the rocket, and to the making of the film itself.[293] Miyazaki felt that since it was young people like Yamaga who had "actively sown the seeds of improvement [in anime]" with Royal Space Force, it would have been better in the movie if the young told the old, "'Stand back, old men.'"[294] Yamaga remarked in response that the film showed a reality where neither generation of the Space Force saw their personal visions prevail, as the construction of the rocket and its launch only happened because of support from a government that had a different agenda from their own.[295] "It's not about making a leap, even though from the beginning it seems that way. More than going somewhere new in a physical sense, my aim was to show something worthy in the process."[296]

In a 1996 interview shortly after the original broadcast of Neon Genesis Evangelion, Hideaki Anno traced his preceding period of despair and sense of creative stagnation back to the commercial failure of Royal Space Force, which had "devastated" him, asserting that his own directorial debut, Gunbuster, was an ironic response to the reception Royal Space Force had received: "Right, so [instead] send into space a robot and a half-naked girl."[297] Three years earlier Mamoru Oshii had expressed the view that Anno had not yet made an anime that was truly his own as a creator, whereas he believed Yamaga had already done so on Royal Space Force. Oshii felt it therefore necessarily revealed all of Yamaga's shortcomings as well,[298] and that he "had a lot of problems" with the movie, but nevertheless felt that Royal Space Force had a certain impact on the idea of making an anime film, simply because no one had ever made one like it before: "It's the kind of work that I want to see."[299] Oshii admired most the film's "rejection of drama." " ... The more I saw it, the more I only realized that Yamaga was a man who had no intention of making drama. And I thought that was a very good thing." Oshii asserted it was not necessary for films to be based in a dramatic structure, but that they could instead be used to create a world filled with mood and ideas.[300]

Critical response internationally[edit]

Critical response to the English-dubbed version of the film during its 1994–1995 theatrical release was greatly divided, with reviews differing widely on the film's plot, themes, direction, and designs. The San Jose Mercury News gave a one-star review, writing that the film was misogynistic, lacked originality, conflict, and resolution; also perceiving in its character designs "self-loathing stereotypes" of Japanese people,[301] a view advanced as well in a negative review of the film by LA Village View.[302] The Salt Lake Tribune described it as "plodding" and "a dull piece of Japanese animation ... The filmmakers create precisely drawn images, but there's no life or passion behind them."[303] The Dallas Morning News felt that Hiroyuki Yamaga’s "trying to appeal to a broader audience" was by itself a fundamentally mistaken approach to making anime, comparing it to trying to "commercialize punk music"; the review instead recommended that audiences see "a far more representative anime, Fist of the North Star ... Fist has few of the pretensions of Wings and it's driven along with an energy its better-dressed cousin never attains."[304]

More favorable reviews tended to regard the film as unconventional while nevertheless recommending the film to audiences. The Fort Worth Star-Telegram wrote it "blends provocative ideas and visual beauty", comparing its worldbuilding to that of Blade Runner.[305] LA Weekly commented, "These strange, outsize pieces fuse and add a feeling of depth that cartoon narratives often don't obtain ... Technical brilliance aside, what gives [the film] its slow-building power is the love story—a mysterious and credible one."[306] The Washington Post viewed its two-hour length as "a bit windy" but also asserted, "Hiroyuki Yamaga's The Wings of Honnêamise is a spectacular example of Japanimation, ambitious and daring in its seamless melding of color, depth and detail."[307] Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times gave the film three stars out of four, praising Yamaga's visual imagination and remarked on the director's "offbeat dramatic style," recommending "If you're curious about anime, The Wings of Honnêamise ... is a good place to start."[308] In the United Kingdom, The Guardian regarded it as the standout of an anime festival at London's National Film Theatre: "One film in the season, though, proves that anime can be complex and lyrical as well as exciting. Hiroyuki Yamaga's Wings of Honnêamise ... "[309] In Australia, Max Autohead of Hyper magazine rated it 10 out of 10, calling it "a cinematic masterpiece that will pave the way for more" anime of its kind.[310]

Following its initial English-language release in the mid-'90s, later retrospectives on anime have had a positive view of Royal Space Force: The Wings of Honnêamise. In a 1999 issue of Time, former Film Comment editor-in-chief Richard Corliss wrote an outline on the history of anime, listing under the year 1987 the remark, "The Wings of Honnêamise is released, making anime officially an art form."[311] In the 2006 edition of The Anime Encyclopedia, Jonathan Clements and Helen McCarthy characterized the film as "one of the shining examples of how cerebral and intelligent anime can be".[312] Simon Richmond, in 2009's The Rough Guide to Anime, wrote that the film's "reputation has grown over time to the point where it is justly heralded as a classic of the medium".[313] whereas in 2014's Anime, Colin Odell and Michelle Le Blanc described the film as "an example of science-fantasy anime as art-film narrative, combined with a coming-of-age drama that is intelligent and thought-provoking".[314] Jason DeMarco, current senior vice president at Warner Discovery and co-creator of Toonami,[315] ranked it as the #11 anime movie of all time, stating "If The Wings of Honnêamise is a 'noble failure,' it's the sort of failure many filmmakers would kill to have on their résumé."[316] During a 2021 interview with the New York Times, science fiction author Ted Chiang, whose Nebula Award-winning "Story of Your Life" was the basis for the Denis Villeneuve movie Arrival, cited Royal Space Force as the single most impressive example of worldbuilding in book or film.[317]

Academic analysis[edit]

Royal Space Force attracted a broader academic analysis as early as 1992, when Takashi Murakami referenced the film through Sea Breeze, an installation created during his doctoral studies in nihonga at Tokyo University of the Arts.[318] The installation piece was described as "a ring of enormous, 1000-watt mercury spotlights that emitted a powerful blast of heat and blinding light when a roller shutter was raised ... the circular of lights was based on a close-up of rocket engines firing during a space launch in the anime Royal Space Force: [The] Wings of Honneamise."[319] Hiroyuki Yamaga’s remark, "We wanted to create a world, and we wanted to look at it from space" would be quoted as an epigram[320] in My Reality—Contemporary Art and the Culture of Japanese Animation, where Murakami was described as a "pivotal figure" among contemporary artists "inundated with manga and anime—and with concepts of the new Japan, which was wrestling with a sense of self-identity as an increasingly strong part of the modern capitalistic world, yet was tied to a long and distinguished past."[321] In a discussion with the Japanese arts magazine Bijutsu Techō, Murakami "... found it commendable that otaku were dedicated to 'the invention of a new technique, especially through the use of overlooked elements, finding an "empty space".' He maintained that art must find the same 'empty space' to revolutionize itself."[322] "Gainax represented, for Murakami, a model of marginalized yet cutting-edge cultural production ... At the same time, the fact that the burning wheel was contained inside a box signified passion confined within a conventional frame, evoking the failure of Honneamise to present a uniquely Japanese expression as it remained under the influence of Western science-fiction films."[323]

Murakami would express a specific historical conception of otaku during a discussion with Toshio Okada conducted for the 2005 exhibition Little Boy: The Arts of Japan's Exploding Subculture: "After Japan experienced defeat in World War II, it gave birth to a distinctive phenomenon, which has gradually degenerated into a uniquely Japanese culture ... [you] are at the very center of this otaku culture",[324] further asserting in an essay for the exhibit catalog that therefore "otaku ... all are ultimately defined by their relentless references to a humiliated self".[325] This historical positioning of otaku culture would itself be challenged through an analysis of Royal Space Force by Viktor Eikman, who cites Murakami's statement that the studio that made the film occupied "a central place in the current anime world... [they were] professionally incorporated as Gainax in 1984 upon production of the feature-length anime The Wings of Honneamise (released in 1987)"[326] but that the two Gainax works discussed by Murakami in his theory of otaku were the Daicon IV Opening Animation and Neon Genesis Evangelion. Eikman argues that the theory should be tested also against "other works by the same studio, made by the same people for the same audience, but not analysed [in the essay] by Murakami".[327] Of Royal Space Force, Eikman contended, "At most we may view the humiliated Shiro’s mission as symbolic of Japan’s desire to join the Space Race in particular and the 'big boy' struggles of the Cold War in general, a desire which plays into the sense of childish impotence described by Murakami, but even that is a very speculative hypothesis," arguing that "it is remarkably hard to find parallels to World War II" in the film.[328]

In 2004's The Cinema Effect, examining film through "the question of temporality",[329] Sean Cubitt presents an argument grouping Royal Space Force together with 1942: A Love Story and Once Upon a Time in China as examples of "revisionary" films that "displace the fate of the present, opening instead a vista onto an elsewhere...ready to forsake the Western ideal of realism [for] the possibility of understanding how they might remake the past and so make the present other than it is."[330] Cubitt, like Murakami, references the historical consequences of World War II, but in citing a speech by Japan's first postwar prime minister on the need for "nationwide collective repentance," suggests that such repentance is "the theme that seems to resonate in the curious, slow budding" of Royal Space Force through Riquinni's "homemade religion of renunciation and impending judgment"[331] arguing that such a philosophy is evoked also through the film's animation style: "Like the zero of the Lumières' flickering views, the action of [Royal Space Force] sums at nothingness, a zero degree of the political that removes its resolution from history ... into the atemporal zone denoted by Shirotsugh's orbit ... an empty place from which alone the strife of warfare and suffering sinks into pure regret, not so much an end as an exit from history."[332]

In contrast, Shu Kuge, in a 2007 essay in the journal Mechademia, sees Shiro's position in space at film's end as "not the denial of history but the empathetic move to accept the cruel world without translating it into a metaphysical meaning".[333] Kuge groups the connection between Shiro and Riquinni with Makoto Shinkai's Voices of a Distant Star as examples of a personal connection that is in either case a relationship sustained by the spatial distance between two people: "[they] sustain the distance rather than shrink it because sustaining ... is crucial for their relationships to be vast and generous. The topological relationship between the floating and the remaining is actually a mimesis of a stellar relationship, such as the moon and the earth, the earth and the sun."[334] Noting the struggle between the armed forces of Honnêamise and the Republic to control the same territory, Kuge comments that by contrast the Royal Space Force does not in fact "possess any military force," and suggests that likewise the personal nature of Shiro and Riquinni's relationship depends upon respecting the physical separation and boundaries that she seeks to maintain and which he seeks to violate, and does violate, before they are reaffirmed in the latter part of the film.[335]

Sequel[edit]

During 1992–93, Gainax developed plans for a sequel to Royal Space Force to be entitled Aoki Uru (also known under the titles Uru in Blue and Blue Uru); an anime film project to be directed by Hideaki Anno and scripted by Hiroyuki Yamaga, with Yoshiyuki Sadamoto serving as its chief animation director and character designer. Although a full storyboard, partial script, and an extensive collection of design illustrations were produced for Aoki Uru,[336] the project had been initiated without a secured budget, and its development occurred within a period of personal, financial, and managerial crises at Gainax that contributed to the indefinite suspension of work on Aoki Uru in July 1993; the studio instead shifted to producing as their next anime project the TV series Neon Genesis Evangelion.[337] In the years following 1993, Gainax has made occasional announcements regarding a revival of the Aoki Uru concept, including a multimedia proposal in the late 1990s, and the formal announcement of an English name for the film, Uru in Blue, at the 2013 Tokyo Anime Fair. In 2018, the Uru in Blue project was transferred from Gainax to Gaina, a different corporate entity and subsidiary of the Kinoshita Group, which aimed for a worldwide release of the film in 2022.[338] However, in an essay about civilization made by Yamaga in the December 22, 2022 issue of Niigata Keizai Shimbun, it was stated that he was still "currently working" on the project.[339]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Toshio Okada has stated that movie theater ticket sales were "only about 120 or 150 million" yen.[2]
  2. ^ A 1995 New York Times article remarked that Bandai was the sponsor of 18 out of the 35 half-hour anime TV series then airing on Japanese television.[4]
  3. ^ When asked in 2004 to state what had been "the biggest thing that happened" to him at Gainax, Neon Genesis Evangelion director Hideaki Anno cited two things: "the company managing to stay together" after the production of Royal Space Force, and "resisting the urge to resign from my job even after the Aoki Uru project [the sequel to Royal Space Force] was put on indefinite hold."[13]
  4. ^ In a 2004 interview, Watanabe recalled this meeting as having taken place at the event in 1982 rather than in 1983: "At that same time, the second Special Effects Convention was being held at Suginami Public Hall, and General Products had a booth at the event selling garage kits. I learned a lot from the products they were selling there. It was there that I met Mr. Okada and Mr. Takeda … That was in '82, I think."[19] A contemporary report on the 1982 event thanked General Products for their support of the convention programming.[20]
  5. ^ Maeda, a high school classmate of Daicon Film director and character designer Takami Akai, had attended Tokyo Zokei University with Sadamoto; Maeda and Sadamoto had also worked on the Macross TV series, and both were subsequently recruited into Daicon Film.[21]
  6. ^ The award was part of the "Minor Anime Grand Prix" section, in which the Anime Grand Prix's sponsors, Animage, recognized achievements outside the major categories of the main award. The Daicon IV Opening Animation was given that year's prize for the "Local Works" category; the award was made alongside a prize in the "Foreign Works" category for Yuri Norstein's Hedgehog in the Fog, originally released in the Soviet Union in 1975.[26]
  7. ^ Yamaga perceived an affinity in method between his 1983 short film and his 1987 full-length motion picture: "By the time we made Daicon IV, we had down the basics of the approach we used in Royal Space Force. Daicon IV was an experiment that I had wanted to make, in order to see what the effect would be if I condensed the [creative] wills of many people into a unit of time, and presented that information in a way that the audience could feel it. So most of the things that were quite adventurous in Royal Space Force had already been experimented with in Daicon IV, at least to my mind and Okada's."[27]
  8. ^ Although the original 1984 proposal for Royal Space Force listed Okada as its producer,[30] the film as released in 1987 listed Okada, together with Shigeru Watanabe, under the credit kikaku (企画, "planning"), a job described as assisting with the "herculean task" of assisting the producer with all aspects of production management.[31] Okada has however described his role as that of producer in later discussions of Royal Space Force: "But we didn't get back the money. No, I mustn't say we. Bandai didn't get back the money. And of course, it was my responsibility. I was the producer of that film."[32] "From my point of view, I'm the producer, the only one who can be that final breakwater. I’m the president of Gainax, the producer of this film. The buck stops here."[33]
  9. ^ Okada recalled in 1995, "He made lots of designs for [Royal Space Force]. At first, he was supposed to be one of the main mechanical designers. But I couldn't use his mecha designs because they were too fantastic." Yamaga suggested he instead work on creating the movie's red-light district; Sonoda's designs for it appear in the finished film.[34]
  10. ^ Gainax's proposal referred to their own generation using both the term wakamono, "young people," and the term yangu (ヤング), "[the] young," a loan word that had become associated with Japanese youth pop culture, as reflected in the launch of such manga magazines in the late 1970s and early 1980s as Weekly Young Jump or Weekly Young Magazine.[37]
  11. ^ Yamaga had used an old idiomatic expression,「刀折れ矢尽きて」, that refers to reaching the point in battle of having shot one's last arrow, and broken one's sword.[41]
  12. ^ The word used in the proposal to describe this personality trend was nekura (ネクラ, "gloomy"). A term in popular use within Japan during the 1980s, nekura had connotations that would later be associated with the word otaku.[43] In a 2016 commentary track for the Otaku no Video Blu-ray, Yamaga remarked that the term nekura was in use as far back as his high school days [in the late 1970s]. Gainax producer and publicist Hiroki Sato gave its meaning as "dark root" or "creep," and described it as one of two different Japanese terms to describe hardcore fans that predated the use of otaku. First came mania (マニア, "maniac," "fanatic," "enthusiast") a loan word used in Japanese to refer to the obsessed person, rather than to the obsession as mania would be used in English. Yamaga commented that mania literature often affected a professorial mien and was a word that lent such fans "a sort of air of dignity...It gave the impression of somebody intelligent, a person of multifacted knowledge." Sato remarked that the label nekura rather than mania came into use later, once "things got focused on the negative aspects."[44]
  13. ^ In a 2004 essay on Akihabara and the history of otaku culture, professor Kaichiro Morikawa wrote in similar terms: "...as shadows of reality descended upon the 'future' and 'science,' dreams of youth raced off into the realm of fantasy. Objects of fascination veered from science toward science fiction and on to SF anime, whose two leading lights have characteristically been 'robots' and bishōjo 'nymphs.'"[46]
  14. ^ The proposal commented several times on what it described as the "pervasive cultural presence" in anime of the lolicon aesthetic;[51] the same Animage article profiling Yamaga’s direction of "Miss Macross" had noted that the three alien spies who later infiltrate the space battleship after watching a broadcast of the titular beauty contest were named Warera, Rorii, and Konda, of which the magazine remarked, "Start from the left and keep reading…" i.e., warera lolicon da, meaning in Japanese, "we’re lolicon(s)."[52] Animage itself, less than a year before in its April 1982 issue, whose cover story was devoted to the Mobile Suit Gundam III compilation film and which featured the third chapter of Hayao Miyazaki’s then-new manga Nausicaä, had given away as a furoku (free gift item), a pack of "Lolicon Cards," playing cards that each featured a different anime girl character, with the exception of the aces, which in all four suits was Clarisse from The Castle of Cagliostro,[53][54] a favorite heroine of Animage reader polls.[55]
  15. ^ The phrase esoragoto (絵空事) used in the proposal for "castle-in-the-sky" is different from that used in the title of Hayao Miyazaki's Tenkū no Shiro Laputa (Castle in the Sky), whose production would partially overlap with that of Royal Space Force. Toshio Okada maintained that "during the production stage of [Royal Space Force] Miyazaki would often appear in the dead of night...and talk members of Gainax's crew into leaving to work instead on his own movie."[56]
  16. ^ Okada remarked that of the 800 million yen budget for the film, 360 million had been spent on the direct production costs; the remainder was for indirect costs including advertising (senden) expenses and distribution costs (kōgyō, "entertainment," a term here referring to booking advance blocs of screening dates for the film in theaters).[262]
  17. ^ In an interview conducted in April 2003 (published in 2005), Yasuhiro Takeda remarked that when Gainax was planning Royal Space Force, there were people who asked whether they intended to secure rights in the work, but at the time it was more of a priority for Gainax to get the film made the way they wanted to than to insist on rights. Although Yamaga did retain the right to supervise the film, and Gainax was credited by Bandai for making it, Royal Space Force was financed through Bandai, to whom the contract gave 100% of the copyright; Takeda commented, "Contractually, [Royal Space Force] is not 'our thing.'"[268]


References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Takekuma 1998, p. 176
  2. ^ 「映画館の売り上げが一億二千万とか一億五千万ぐらいしかありません。」Okada 2010, p. 92
  3. ^ Gene Park (June 25, 2019). "Evangelion is finally on Netflix. I don't need a rewatch because the trauma lives on in me". washingtonpost.com. Nash Holdings LLC. Archived from the original on October 8, 2019. Retrieved September 30, 2019.
  4. ^ Andrew Pollack (March 12, 1995). "'Morphing' Into The Toy World's Top Ranks". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 8, 2019. Retrieved October 5, 2019.
  5. ^ 「『オネアミス』の基本的な思想で面白いなって思うのは、楽観でも悲観でもない、けれど存在を肯定しようとしているところなんです。現実の世界というものをシビアに見すえた時にすごく悲観的に考え、そこで思想を作る人間もいるし、逆に現実から離れてユートピア的に考える人もいるわけですが、『オネアミス』の場合、そういう観点からじゃない。。。」Daitoku 1987c, p. 23
  6. ^ Klein 2021
  7. ^ Clements 2013, pp. 172–174
  8. ^ Yamaga & Miyazaki 1987, pp. 76–81
  9. ^ Anno 1993, pp. 65–68
  10. ^ Clements 2013, p. 175
  11. ^ Matsuyama 1996, p. 94
  12. ^ Yamaga 2007, p. 5
  13. ^ Steinman 2007, p. 30
  14. ^ Studio Ash 1987, p. 127
  15. ^ Bandai Visual Co., Ltd. 2007, Title 3, 00:00:20
  16. ^ Matsushita 1987, p. 25
  17. ^ Takeda 2005, pp. 46–48
  18. ^ 「83年8月 特撮大会——東京で特撮ファンの大集会、特撮大会が開催される。会場にはゼネ•プロが出店、DAICON FILMの作品[帰ってきたウルトラマン]なども上映される。この大会で岡田斗司夫と渡辺繁(バンダイのビデオレーべル[エモーション]の担当後、社長室新規課担当として[王立宇宙軍]のプロデューサーを務める)が出会う。」Matsushita 1987, p. 23
  19. ^ 「ちょうどその時期に『特撮大会』というイベントの第2回が、 杉並公会堂で開催されていたんですけど、会場ではゼネプロさんもブースを構えてガレージキットを販売していらっしゃった。そこで売られている商品を見て「なるほどこういうものか」と勉強しましたよ。その場でゼネプロにいた岡田さんや、武田さんに出会ったんです。。。あれは'82年かな。」Hotta 2005b, p. 423
  20. ^ 「また小部屋企画も大いにはんじょうしたそうだ。何しろボルテージ高いんだもん。中でも、ネオフェラス、日本特撮ファンクラブG、 ゼネラル・プロダクツ、中央大学特撮研、そしてバンリキ屋の方々の協力は大変有難く、 誌上を借りて厚く御礼申し上げます。」Ichinohe 1982, p. 74
  21. ^ Takeda 2005, p. 187
  22. ^ 「でね、その頃、岡田さんがションボリしていると。ゼネプロの経営自体は、実務を武田さんがやってて順調なんですがね。まあ岡田さんとしては、事業が軌道に乗っちゃったら、自分はすることがないみたい な感じで。。。それで僕は、日々思うこととして、とにかく貞本と前田は、これは大天才だと。庵野ももちろん天才だし、赤井も天才だと。天才っていうのはーつの集団に一人いりゃあ、めっけもんだけど、うち、四人も天才、手に入れてるんですよと。これで行動を起こさないっていうのはバカじゃないですかっていう話をね、一席ぶったわけですよ。 とにかくなんとかすべきだと。僕たちはこれまで学生の身分でありながら、中退したり、就職浪人したり、学生にとってはすごい犠牲を払いながら、自主製作映画を作り続けて来たと。それでこの犠牲がどこかで報われないのか、みたいな願望というのが、みんなの中にもずっとあるわけですね。」Takekuma 1998, p. 169
  23. ^ a b Takeda 2005, p. 188
  24. ^ Ruh 2014, pp. 16–17
  25. ^ Clements 2013, p. 160
  26. ^ Ogata 1984, pp. 43–47
  27. ^ 「山賀は語る。[DAICON IV]を作る頃には[王立宇宙軍]で使った術の基礎みたいなものはできていた。『単位時間内に多数の人間の意志を凝縮して、情報を観客がこほすような形で出したらどのような効果があるか』という実験を[DAICON IV]でしてみたいと思ってたわけ。だから[王立宇宙軍]でけっこう冒険してるようなことは[DAICON IV]で殆ど実験済みですよ。少なくとも私と岡田さんの中では。」Matsushita 1987, p. 23
  28. ^ Takeda 2005, pp. 90–91
  29. ^ Studio Hard 1987, p. 48
  30. ^ 「プロデューサー 岡田斗司夫」Studio Hard 1987, p. 48
  31. ^ Justin Sevakis (August 21, 2019). "Answerman: What Does An Anime Producer Do?". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on October 29, 2020. Retrieved October 24, 2020.
  32. ^ Horn 1996c, p. 24
  33. ^ 「僕にしてみれば、プロデューサーである僕だけが最後の防波堤です。僕はガイナックスの社長であり、この映画のプロデューサーであり、最終責任者です。」Okada 2010, p. 76
  34. ^ Horn 1996b, p. 23
  35. ^ 「本作品の企画意図 ──共同幻想を喪失した時代の新しい波──」Studio Hard 1987, p. 48
  36. ^ 「現在のアニメーション文化を特に『ヤング』と呼ばれる若者の視点で見ると、いくつかの切り口が見つかります。」Studio Hard 1987, p. 48
  37. ^ Kinsella 2000, p. 48
  38. ^ Matsushita 1987, p. 23
  39. ^ Clements 2013, p. 172
  40. ^ 「『ミス•マクロス』演出は若冠20歳──9話演出 山賀博之──AM11月号で紹介された『DAICON III』の演出を担当したのが唯一のアニメ体験という新人演出家。 石黒氏は 『従来のアニメの感覚にそまらない作品を目ざしているため』起用したと語る。。。だが9話の評判は上々。石黒氏の試みは成功したようだ。」Ogata 1983, p. 55
  41. ^ 「『9話のコンテ1本に2か月近くかかりつきり。もう刀折れ矢尽きた感じ』(山賀氏)。」Ogata 1983, p. 55
  42. ^ 「このように最近のアニメは 『かわいい女の子』と『かっこよくリアルっぽいメカ』。。。それは現在のネクラといわれるアニメ•ファンの嗜好をそのまま反映しているからです。。。見る方はそれを一度見ただけで次の、より刺激の強い作品を求めるという袋小路に追い込まれる一方なのです。。。今こそ方向転換の時期です。では、この袋小路を打ち破る、あたらしいアニメとはどんなものでしょうか?」Studio Hard 1987, p. 48
  43. ^ Saitō 2011, p. 12
  44. ^ Sano, Sato & Yamaga 2016, 00:16:28
  45. ^ 「高度に情報化された現代社会においては、どんなセンセーショナルな作品も感動を呼ぶことはむずかしく、すぐに色褪せてしまいます。しかも、皮相な情報の氾濫により、安心できる価値感や夢が打ち壊されてしまっており、特に若者は欲求不満と不安のただなかにいます。『大人になりたくない』というピーターパン•シンドロームも、そこから発生しているといえましょう。。。そこで現在のアニメファンの心理をもう一度振り返って考えてみてください。彼等は社会との接触を持ち、その中でうまくやっていきたいにもかかわらず不幸にもその能力を持たないため、 代償行為としてメカや女の子に興味を走らせていたわけです。 が、当然それらが現実のものではない、すなわち自分との関わり合いが無いものであるため、 より刺激的なものを性急に求めすぐ欲求不満を起こしてしまいます。。。そんな中で彼等が根本的に求めているのは、現実とうまく楽しくやっていく事、と言えるでしょう。そこで我々は身近な社会を再認識し『現実もまだまだ捨てたものじゃない』と考えられるような作品を提示しようと思います。」Studio Hard 1987, p. 48
  46. ^ Morikawa 2004, p. 22
  47. ^ 「アニメ•ファンに現実を再確認させる作品」Studio Hard 1987, p. 49
  48. ^ 「そこで彼等はその捌け口を自分を束縛する直接的な 『現実 』── つまり、あるがままの周囲の世界──にではなく、テレビや新聞、映画といった間接的、情報的な世界に目を向けることに見出しているのです。。。そして、その若者の典型例といえるのが、アニメ•ファン達なのです。」Studio Hard 1987, p. 48
  49. ^ 「『情報過多』といわれる現代社会。若者に限らず誰もが『シラけて』います。。。が、人間というのは決して一人で生きていたいわけではなく、 外との接触で精神的なバランスを保つものなのです。」Studio Hard 1987, p. 48
  50. ^ 「だからこそアニメ•ファンのなかには、或る面で最も現代の政治や社会を象徴する。。。や直接的な欲求を最も現実と切り離した状態として提示する」Studio Hard 1987, p. 48
  51. ^ 「まず、すでにブー厶というよリは慢性化の感すらある『ロリコン• ブーム』。ロリコン化の波はアニメ•ファンの同人誌から始まリ、プラモ•ファン、マンガ•ファンをも巻き込み、いまや『ロリコン•アニメ』なる代物まであらわれるしまつです。。。この方式だと、女の子はよリロリコン風にかわいく。。。」Studio Hard 1987, p. 48
  52. ^ 「マイクローンとなりマクロスに潜入する3人組左からワレラ、ロリー、コンダ、続けて読むと。。。」Ogata 1983, p. 54
  53. ^ Ogata 1982, p. 1
  54. ^ Tokugi 1998, p. 141
  55. ^ McCarthy 1999, p. 56
  56. ^ a b Horn 1996c, p. 27
  57. ^ 「もちろんこれは今まで作られてきた、現実には極力抵抗しない『かっこいい』絵空事のアニメとは正反対のものです。。。この地球には、この世界には、まだまだ価値あることや意味あることが存在する、と宣言するような作品こそ、今、もっとも望まれるのではないでしょうか。」Studio Hard 1987, p. 48
  58. ^ 「世界設定には細心の注意必要です。この世界は全くの異世界であると同時に、現実そのものであらねばならないからです。なぜなら、現実を再認識させるためとはいえ、全く現実の通りの世界でストーリーを進めても、その現実というもの自体が彼等にとっては手垢がついた、魅力の無い世界と感しられるからです。それより、この作品の世界を全くの異世界として設定してしまい、まるで外国映画であるかのようにふるまった方が観客の注意をそちらに引きつけられるわけですし、その引きつける対象がメカや女の子でなく、ごく普通の風俗やファッシヨン(普通といっても考えぬかれた異世界ですから、充分興味深く、面白いわけです)であるのならば、企画意図はほば、達成したといえるのではないでしょうか。つまり、その手法をとれば『現実とは自分が今、思っているよりずっと面白い』という事が表現できるのではないでしょうか。」Studio Hard 1987, p. 49
  59. ^ 「普通どんな企画書も(特にアニメの場合)、作品本編のタタキ台程度の扱いしかされない。。。あえて割愛させていただいた。唯一あるとすれば、主人公とヒロインに名前がないということくらいか。」Studio Hard 1987, p. 49
  60. ^ 「岡田 (斗司夫)社長と山賀(博之)監督から『今、企画を考えているんだけどそれをプレゼンするからボードを描いてくれないか』という話がありまして、貞本(義行)さんと一緒にイメージスケッチを起こしたんです。」Matsushita 1987, pp. 25, 204
  61. ^ Moss 2018, p. 526
  62. ^ 「『何がなんだかわからないけど、何がなんだかわからないところがいい。』」Matsushita 1987, p. 25
  63. ^ 「『。。。100%自分達でやってみようという壮大な実験なんですよ。我々が全部コントロールできることでやろうと。。。何だっていったら、若い人にそのままやらせることじゃないかと思っていたんですよ。だから、ぼくはおもちゃやってていつも思うんですけど、ぼくなんかが分かるのは売れないんですよ。それがあたり前なんですよ。なぜかというと世代がこんなに違うんですよ。このギャップって凄いですよ。ですからこの「オネアミス──」は、若い人向けに作ってますが、ひょっとして大当たりするかもしれません。あたったら今まで言ってることは全部ひっくり返るんですよ。なぜかというと、我々が分るような映画を作ってもらいたくない訳ですよ。つまり言えることは、ぼくが分るようだったら所詮あたったところで大したことないなっていうことなんですよ。最初から「スターウォーズ」を狙っている訳じゃないんですけど、やっぱりヒットさせたい。でも、ヒットさせるためには、本当に純粋に若者達だけの考え方で、コンセプトで、ヘタに妥協させちゃいけないんです。それで突っ走らせないといけない。大きな意味でのプロデューサー的な部分でいうと彼らだけではできませんからね、その辺で我々がうまくここまでもってきたというわけです。そういう面では成功だったんじゃないかと思いますけどね。』」Saitani 1987, p. 48
  64. ^ 「最初は40分くらいのビデオを自主製作でやろうという気楽な話だったんです。」Matsushita 1987, p. 202
  65. ^ Takeda 2005, p. 91
  66. ^ Matsushita 1987, p. 25
  67. ^ Watanabe 1990, p. 22
  68. ^ Takeda 2005, p. 184
  69. ^ Takeda 2005, p. 90
  70. ^ Osmond 2009, p. 34
  71. ^ 「それが完成したのが'85年。そしてパイロットフィルムを社内はもちろん、いろんなところに見せてまわった。押井さんにも見せましたし。。。宮崎駿さんのところにも見せに行きました。」Hotta 2005b, p. 426
  72. ^ Thompson 1996
  73. ^ Hotta 2005b, pp. 426–27
  74. ^ Studio Hard 1987, p. 85
  75. ^ 「重役会議で岡田は熱弁する。」Matsushita 1987, p. 25
  76. ^ 「この日の為に何度も頭の中でセリフを考えて、メモを作り完璧を期した。まず、現在のアニメ界の状況分析から話を始めて、市場分析から市場予測へ。今、若者たちはどんな映画を求めているのかを。最終的に、だからこそ『王立宇宙軍』という作品が必要なのだということを1時間に渡りしゃべり続けた。」Matsushita 1987, p. 25
  77. ^ 「企業として映像事業に進出する機会を欲していたバンダイは『王立宇宙軍』を第一回自主 製作作品に選んで、本編の制作は決定する。しかし、その決定は設定と絵コンテ作業までの暫定的決定であり、劇場用映画として正式決定は85年末に再び検討するということにある。」Matsushita 1987, p. 25
  78. ^ Yamaga 2007, p. 5
  79. ^ 「脚本も絵コンテも全て新潟の喫茶店で窓の外を見ながら書いた。」Matsushita 1987, p. 25
  80. ^ 「山賀は故郷の新潟でシナリオの執筆を開始する。山賀は語る。『この作品が狙っているイメージは、科学は1950年代、世界の雰囲気は1930年代前後のアメリカやヨーロッポ、登場人物と動きのリズムは現代という感じです。オネアミス自体が地方都市という感じで、実は僕の故郷である新潟をベースにして考えてあるんです。新潟といっても絵的なイメージではなく、街の規模や雰囲気という意味。街の作りや古い部分と新しい部分の同居ぶり、街の使われ方、荒野とも空地ともつかめ無人地帯と街の継がり方とか、新潟の街でオネアミスの雰囲気を(スタッフに)掴んで貰った。。。』」Matsushita 1987, p. 25
  81. ^ Studio Hard 1987, p. 50, 52
  82. ^ Matsushita 1987, p. 32
  83. ^ 「 渡米中に加筆、修整を加えたシナリオをたずさえて......。」Studio Hard 1987, p. 52
  84. ^ 「 スペースシャトル打ち上げの見学である。『感想は、すさまじい光と音。これにつきます』と山賀は語る。」Studio Hard 1987, p. 52
  85. ^ 「今までのアニメーションにもあるような、記号的な観せ方というのは避けて、自分で見たりさわったりした物の印象をできるだけ崩さないようにしようと心掛けました。。。実際にフィルムになった画面はやっぱりNASAで見てきたものが役に立っていますね。」Matsushita 1987, p. 202
  86. ^ 「 先日、ガイナックスのスタジオの 一室で、完成したオール•ラッシュのフィルムをスタッフと一緒に見ることができました。。。ところが、60年代 末から、アメリカン•ニューシネマとよばれる作家と作品が登場して、『俺たちに明日はない』『明日に向か って撃て』と、ロケーション中心のより生身の人間に近づいたリアルなキャラ設計で、アメリカ映画のムードを一変させてしまったのです。そして、「オネアミスの翼」に同じ肌あいのなにかを感じるのです。。。人間的な動きと生の表情、タイミ ングをめざして、まさに自分たちの リズム感とことばで、アニメ作品を 作ろうとしているのです。」Ikeda 1986, p. 38
  87. ^ 「 『オネアミスの翼/王立宇宙軍』を見て、そのダイアローグ(セリフ)にびっくりしてしまった。ここまでセリフに気を使い、繊細なニュアンスをこめたオリジナル作品は、ひさびさではないだろうか。特に王立宇宙軍の各キャラクターのセリフは、ストーリーから離れて自由な伸びやかさを持たせており、 昨今 〝テーマを声高に叫ぶアニメ〞 を見なれていたので、実に新鮮で、 等身大の人間を実感させてくれた。ロケットが組み立てを開始すると音楽をかぶせて、セリフを聞かせずグノッム博士がドムロットやチャリチャンミにうれしげに語りかけたり、 マジャホが技術者にエンジンの前でどなっていたり、〝セリフのないセリフ•シーン〞という演出。セリフを使わないセリフもあるんだというそのセンスに感激してしまうのデス。」Ikeda 1987, p. 24
  88. ^ 「『何か、そういう風に考えると、とにかく全部入れて、全部認めちゃったらどあうなるかみたいな、それで得られる解放感のようなものを僕自身が味わいたいというのがかなりあったんです。』『でも最終的にこの映画はあらゆる局面において、人間を肯定するものだから。。。』」Daitoku 1987c, p. 22
  89. ^ Akai & Yamaga 2000, 1:21:34
  90. ^ Takeda 2005, p. 15
  91. ^ Horn 1996c, p. 10
  92. ^ Horn 1996c, p. 25
  93. ^ Akai & Yamaga 2000, 21:58
  94. ^ Akai & Yamaga 2000, 1:12:06
  95. ^ Akai & Yamaga 2000, 1:13:50
  96. ^ Akai & Yamaga 2000, 1:16:00
  97. ^ Horn 1998, p. 13
  98. ^ Akai & Yamaga 2000, 1:16:59
  99. ^ 「ガイナックスは同じ高田馬場の倍のスペースのスタジオに移転する。各人の友人知人関係からプロダクションデザインのスタッフが集められる。[王立宇宙軍]の作品世界観を決めた渡部隆《プロダクションデザイン》や滝沢洋一《プロダクションデザイン》たちが次々と参加する。」Matsushita 1987, p. 25
  100. ^ Matsushita 1987, p. 109
  101. ^ Matsushita 1987, pp. 112–113
  102. ^ 「プレゼンテーションの材料であるパイロットフィルムは魅惑な異世界が強調された。しかし、[王立宇宙軍]の作品世界観である現実より現実的な異世界を構築する材料ではない。パイロットフィルムで構築された異世界は破壊されて、再び[王立宇宙軍]の異世界がイメージボードによって構築される。画面構成を重視する[王立宇宙軍]は、山賀博之の抽象的なイメージをデザインがそれぞれの分野で具像的なボードにする作業で約1年を費す。逆にそれぞれの分野のデザイナーの具体的なボードを山賀が抽象的なイメージでまとめる作業でもある。」Matsushita 1987, p. 25
  103. ^ Yamaga 2007, p. 6
  104. ^ Takeda 1991, p. 31
  105. ^ Takeda 1992, p. 33
  106. ^ Watanabe 1996, p. 41
  107. ^ Watanabe 1997, p. 39
  108. ^ Watanabe 1997, p. 38
  109. ^ Matsushita 1998, p. 40
  110. ^ Suzuki 1988a, pp. 40–41
  111. ^ 「『 「オネアミス」のキャラというのは、いわゆるアニメっぽくないしシロツグにしてもリイクニにしてもカッコイイ主人公、かわいい女の子という風に作られてないわけですが、その点での反応は?』」Daitoku 1987c, p. 20
  112. ^ Yamaga 2007, p. 6
  113. ^ Studio Ash 1987, p. 58
  114. ^ 「『モデルはトリート=ウィリアムス([ヘアー][プリンス•オブ•シティ]他)という俳優ですが。。。』」Matsushita 1987, p. 51
  115. ^ 「『最初に監督からテイタム=オニール、それも[ペーパームーン]の前半1時間のテイタム=オニールと言われたんです』」Matsushita 1987, p. 63
  116. ^ 「『「モデルがあるらしいんだけど山賀監督は教えてくれない。」』」Matsushita 1987, p. 56
  117. ^ Ishida & Kim 2019, p. 27
  118. ^ 「 『。。。また多くのデザイナーによる物が混在している現実世界をトレースして、なるべく多くのデザイナーに参加して貰った。思想や感覚の違うデザインが混ざることで現実感を強くするわけです。』」Matsushita 1987, p. 27
  119. ^ 「 スタッフの全員が作品世界観を把握する為に設定作業は、デザイナーがシナリオから自由にデザインボードを描いて、毎日定時のディスカッションによるチェックで進められる。その為にデザインボードは山賀とスタッフの連絡表的役割の設定(検討稿)」Matsushita 1987, pp. 25, 27
  120. ^ 「『まず、オネアミスという異世界を形成するための根元的なキー•ワードをお教え願えますか?』『う—ん (しばらく考えて)、記号的であるか、ないか、という事で分けてい きました。例えば、〝コップ〞という物を表現しろと言われたら、すぐによくある〝円筒のような物〞を簡単に描いてしまいますよね。それは避けようと。 〝コップ〞であるなら、〝水を入れるもの〞 〝水が入ってると冷たい、汗をかく〞 みたいな、触れた時、見た時の印象や実感を組み合わせてデザインしていく、 という事を心掛けました。』」Studio Hard 1987, p. 34
  121. ^ 「作品の中の『オネアミス』というひとつの世界観の統一するように心掛けていらしたんですね。」「そうですねえ。逆に気を付けていたのは統一してもいけないし、かといってバラバラになりすぎてもいけないしと。文化というのがだいたい年代にして1950年代ぐらいだとしたら、必ずしも単一文化ではなくていくつかの文化が混ぜ合ったところででき上がっているというような感じなんです。現代にしてもそうですしね。」Matsushita 1987, p. 200
  122. ^ Ebert et al. 1988, p. 33
  123. ^ 「『今回はNASAというよりソ連のロケットをモデルにしたんですが。。。』」Yamaga & Miyazaki 1987, p. 77
  124. ^ 「『お金の形まで変えたデザインをやってるじゃない。そしたら、何でロケットだけ変えないのか、奇黄に見えたの。』」Yamaga & Miyazaki 1987, p. 79
  125. ^ 「『ただ、結論の部分で、それを現実の世界からはずしちゃうと違うものになっちゃうんです。その過程までは、いろんな所を通っててもいいけれど、最後の結論の部分では現実のものを時ってこないと、それはもうまるっきり自分らと関係ない別の世界の話になっちゃう』」Yamaga & Miyazaki 1987, p. 79
  126. ^ 「『 それに合わせて言えば、うちはワキ役メカに撤して、主役メカなんていらないよって感じで作っちゃったところがありますから、主役メカってひとつもないんですよね。あのロケットでさえ主役メカではないんです。』」Daitoku 1987c, p. 20
  127. ^ Lum 2018
  128. ^ Onanuga 2017
  129. ^ 「ところで、小倉さんは本当に数多くの作品を手がけられておられますが、ご自身のキャリアを振り返って、一番に挙げるとしたらどの作品になりますか?」「やっぱり『王立宇宙軍 オネアミスの翼』ですね。最初に美術監督をした作品ということもあるけど。。。」SU Planning Co., Ltd. 2012c
  130. ^ Animage Editorial Department 1989, p. 77
  131. ^ 「1977年、小林プロダクションに入社。。。『ルパン三世 カリオストロの城』(1979年)。。。などの劇場用作品で背景を担当。1983年に小林プロダクションを退社し、同僚だった大野広司、水谷利春とともにスタジオ風雅を設立。。。」「『王立宇宙軍 オネアミスの翼』の話は、浅利さんから電話があったんですよ。美術監督を探していると。それで、面白そうなので話を聞こうということになって。岡田(斗司夫)さんとかプロデューサーの井上(博明)さんとかが風雅に来て、こういうのを作ろうとしてるんですけど―っていう話になって、それで受けることになったんです。。。DAICON は以前に会社で見てて、“これを素人が作れるんだ、すごいな”とは思ってたんだけど、この人たちがそうだったんだっていうのは、後で知ったんですよ。」SU Planning Co., Ltd. 2012a
  132. ^ Matsushita 1987, p. 32
  133. ^ Mamatas & Montesa 2014, p. 88
  134. ^ 「背景の作業に関しては半分以上は内部でこなしたんです。それはまずあの世界観を把握していなければダメだということと、それだけの情報量を知っていなければダメだということからだったんです。中の人間だと原図を渡した段階で色々とこっちからのイメージも伝えやすいのですが、外の人間は僕がするI回の説明では微妙な部分とか云えきれなくて…。例えば色味を押さえた感じで描いていたので、もっと青味をといっても単純に青だけを加えるということではないので描き辛かったと思いますね。」Matsushita 1987, p. 205
  135. ^ Akai & Yamaga 2000, 24:33
  136. ^ 「ただ、最初は王立の世界観がつかめなかったですね。だから、『これカッコいいな』と思っても監督なんかが『いや、ちょっと違うな』とか言って、 一体何が違うのかな(笑)。始めの頃は、分かんなかったですね。分かってきたのは、本編 (の作業) をやってからですね。」Studio Ash 1987, p. 124
  137. ^ 「『まず、貞本君がこの世界の色を決めた。そして渡部さんが建築様式と美術観を決めて、小倉さんがそこに光と影と空気、ひいては生活感を与えた。そこで始めて[王立宇宙軍]の美術が完成するのです。(岡田斗司夫)』言葉の解釈では、メインラインがアールデコで、いちばん古い部分がアールヌーボーで、新しい部分がポストモダン。メインカラーが青と茶という。」Matsushita 1987, p. 18
  138. ^ 「ただ、異世界というところでもって、いわゆるSFチックなモノはなしで、普通の、自分達の周りと同じ日常だ、ということでしたね。ゴチャゴチャした印象が欲しい、ということで。。。〝質感の違い〞を表現するというのを、当初 から言ってましたね。原図段階で大まかな説明をもらって。たとえば宇宙軍本部のレリーフなんかは、『木だ』ということなんで極力それを強調したりとか。室内なんかは、あの、ネレッドン首相が利き酒をする部屋があるでしょ。あそこなんかはデザインが面白かったので、ここんところは金属に、とか意識的にやりましたね。まあ、渡部さんの原図なんかはスゴくて(笑)、ここが金属でここは木みたいなのが細かく書いてあって。」Studio Ash 1987, p. 124
  139. ^ Di Battista 2016
  140. ^ 「コントラストを、もっと強調してもよかったかなあと、思いますね。。。でも具体的にどういう風にするかというと、そりゃ描いてみないと分かんないというのがあるんですけども(笑)。描いてみないと分かんないというのは、作 品全体を通してそうでして。」Studio Ash 1987, pp. 124–125
  141. ^ 「美術のスタッフは、サンリオの方が多くて。劇場版をやってこられた方々ですから、きっちり描くということに関しては大丈夫、と。。。佐々木君というのがいまして。ラストのイメージシーンは、彼が全部やってくれたんですよ。」Studio Ash 1987, p. 125
  142. ^ Akai & Yamaga 2000, 1:55:12
  143. ^ 「あいつはほんとの芸術家なんです。あふれんばかりの才能を、絵をかいたりアニメを作ったりすることに使えるんだけど、それって本道ではないんです。 例えば核兵器と同じです。核兵器は、すごい核爆発を起こせるんだけど、それを平和利用しようとしたら、お湯沸かしてタービン回して電気作るくらいしかやりようがない。。。真宏がアニメを作るというのも同じ感じがします。。。ジブリでも、宮崎監督は前田真宏を適材適所には使えなかったんですよ。『天空の城ラピュタ』(一九八六)で、ラピュタの底が抜けるシーンの作画を担当していますが、前田真宏の才能はあんなもんじゃないはずです。『王立宇宙軍』でも、前田真宏の才能は、最後の人類の進化を語るシーンで止め絵で見せるしかできなかった。」Okada 2010, p. 184
  144. ^ Horn 1995b, p. 14
  145. ^ Akai & Yamaga 2000, 03:48, 10:38
  146. ^ Horn 1995b, p. 14
  147. ^ Takeda 2005, p. 96
  148. ^ Matsushita 1987, p. 200
  149. ^ Akai & Yamaga 2000, 38:46
  150. ^ Pineda 2017
  151. ^ 「同じ助監の樋口 (真嗣)君がいちおう設定班というのを組んでいまして、その中で設定全般を作ることと背景や原画の人から設定に関して出される質問を全部受け持って、おかしな点とか新しい設定ができる度に発注したりという作業をやっていて、赤井(孝美)さんの方はもう本当に監督の補助みたいな感じで僕達の作業全般を含めて見てくれる一方で基本的には色彩設定の方を担当して、色指定や背景などの打ち合せをやっていました」「3人の助監の方々のコミュニケーションというのはどういう形で進めていかれたんですか?毎日定時に打ち合せをするとか?」「そういうふうではなくて、原画の上がり具合とか色々と状況が変わりますから、何か状況が変化する度に改善策を相談しながら。これだという決まった方法があるわけではなかったので、状況が変わる度にちょっとこれだとやりづらいからああいう方法をとろう。。。あと、僕の場合は3人の中でいちばんアニメーションという仕事に関しては長くやっていますし、アニメーターのことはよくわかっているので打ち合せの時に原画マンの人が戶惑いそうな時に「あ、これはこうしてください」という感じで監督とかの抽象的な言葉を具体的に説明したりしていました。」Matsushita 1987, p. 199
  152. ^ Takeda 2005, pp. 49–50
  153. ^ Yamaga 2007, p. 6
  154. ^ 「今はテレビでもビデオでも映画でも、割とアニメ特有の変わったエフェクトを入れたり、動かし方にしても変なリアクションの絵を入れて面白おかしくやる方が多いですから、こういうきちんとした芝居をして、メカにしてもリアリティを持った動かし方をするというのは他にありませんからね。そのへんで印象がかなり映画的だなというか、。。。逆にアニメの場合、普通のことをやるというのが物凄く難しいんですよね。アクションがかなりハデな芝居はアニメでは凄く描きやすい部類に入ると思うんですが[王立宇宙軍] の場合、普通にお茶を飲んだりとかただ歩いているだけという芝居が多いんです。そのへんは目立たないんですが作業的に物凄く難しい点で、そういう部分で原画マンの人はかなり難しい作業をやらなくてはならなかったんじゃないかなあと思います。」Matsushita 1987, p. 199
  155. ^ 「[王立宇宙軍]を観た人からよく「アニメにする必要は無かったのでは」とか、そうでなければ「もっとアニメ的な観せ方があっても良いのでは」と言われますけど、[王立宇宙軍]の場合はその必要は無かったと思います。[王立宇宙軍] は実感を持った現実を観客に観せるという意図がありましたから。『アニメーション』(この場合は『絵』になりますけど)の良さのひとつに、必要な『情報』だけを観客に伝えられると いうことがあります。つまり演出を含めて観せたいものだけを描けば良いし、また描かないものは観客には見えません。創り手の意図がそのまま純粋にストレートに伝わるのです。止めセルにしても美術にしても描き込んではありますが、実写みたいにする為に情報量を増やしているわけではありません。画面を現実的に観せる為です。。。いわゆるアニメーションには、意識的にしないようにしました。[王立宇宙軍]には合わないと思ったからです。もっとアニメ的な画面を観たい人は他のアニメを観てくれとしか言えませんね。」Matsushita 1987, p. 202
  156. ^ Akai & Yamaga 2000, 1:55:27
  157. ^ Akai & Yamaga 2000, 36:45
  158. ^ 「 3Dグラフィック•ソフト((株)アスキー協力)で回転や移動をさせてプリントした画をトレースして難しい作画を補助する。例えば王国空軍レシプロ機の二重反転プロップファンの回転、衛星軌道上の宇宙軍ロケットの宇宙船の不規則な回転、道路清掃車の傾斜した車輪の回転、計器盤の指針などである。」Matsushita 1987, p. 31
  159. ^ Hikawa 2007b, p. 15
  160. ^ 「作業は進み、昭和60年末となった。しかし、バンダイが「王立」を正式に劇場用映画として始動させるかどうかの最終決定はまだでない。そのころバンダイでは、「王立」を成功させようとする人々が一丸となって配給会社捜し、最終検討を行っていた。ともかくも、製作作業を停めるわけにはいかない。」Studio Hard 1987, p. 52
  161. ^ 「86年6月撮影──絵コンテの作業が終了して、撮影が開始する。」 Matsushita 1987, p. 31
  162. ^ 「 絵コンテの方はかなり遅れていたが、幸いCパートの部分がほぼ完全で、作画もCパートから突人。最も最初にとりかかったのは、ニュースフィルムのシーン。。。作画をCパートから始めた理由は、絵コンテとの兼ねあいだけでない。まずCパートは地味なシーンが多く、地味であるが故に的確な作画と緻密な演技力が必要とされる。そのため比較的スケジュールの楽なうちにやっておこうと考えたためだ。」Studio Hard 1987, p. 52
  163. ^ 「。。。ただやっぱり、『王立』の仕事を断るアニメーターもいましたね。 打ち合わせまでしたのに、辞めていった人もいた。あの作品では、ものすごくアニメ―夕―に対する依存率の高いつくり方をしていましたから。作画打ち合わせのときに上がっているコンテといえば、象形文字みたいな、マルにチョン程度のもの。人物が何人フレームのなかにいるか、カメラサイズはどのくらいか、どこからどこまでがセリフなのか、とかその程度のことしか書いていない。だから打ち合わせの現場で、俺らが体で演じて画を伝えていくしかないんですよ。通常のように『この画を描きなさい』と依頼するのではなく、アニメーターのみなさんに『この場面の芝居を考えてください』というところから始まって、カメラのアングルまで打ち合わせしていく。すごく面白かったんですけど、最初の私のように、ついていけなくて引いちゃう人もいたんです。」Hotta 2005c, pp. 253–254
  164. ^ 「 86年1月 正式決定──劇場用映画として正式決定されて、[王立宇宙軍]の制作作業は慌しくなる。アニメ雑誌の公募でスタッフが増員、吉祥寺にスタジオを移転してスペースが拡張される。絵コンテに合わせて原図、原画が進む。動画、仕上、背景の作業も開始する。配給会社が東宝東和に決定する。」Matsushita 1987, p. 27
  165. ^ 「 一方山賀は、上がってきた原画、設定、背景に目を通し、自分のイメージとは違うとリテイクを出し、〝自分の頭の中のイメージ〞に少しでも近い画面をあくまで追求する。作画スタッフも、山賀の意図を理理解しようと務め、また自分のイメージも引き出してくる。ガイナックスでは連日のごとく、山賀対作画スタッフ──ひいては作者対作家の意見の交換が繰り返されていた。」Studio Hard 1987, p. 54
  166. ^ Yamaga 2007, p. 5
  167. ^ Akai & Yamaga 2000, 37:52
  168. ^ Akai & Yamaga 2000, 15:10, 01:48:02
  169. ^ 「 さらに全体がモザイク状になっているのは、螢光灯のカバーに使われているギザギザ入リのアクリル板を使ったため。そのカバーをセルの上におき、動かしているので、少し受像状態が良くないテレビ画面らしく見えるのだ。」Studio Hard 1987, p. 68
  170. ^ Akai & Yamaga 2000, 01:48:38
  171. ^ Akai & Yamaga 2000, 22:11
  172. ^ Watanabe 1990, p. 22
  173. ^ 「たまたま虫プロでパイロット版の撮影をやったんで、それで本編の撮影もやんないかという話が僕のところに来たんです。その時の約束では4月から始まる予定だったのが。。。それで面倒なカットは後回しにする形をとりますから8月9月は楽な仕事しか入らないわけですよね、作画も撮影も。だからそれほど気にならなかったんですが、10月頃から急に本格的に動き出してきたもんだから進行状況を把握するだけで大変だったんですよ(笑)。8月から動きだしてはいたけど、手を付けられないように物凄い量がドバーッと入ってきたのは1月になってですが。まあ、1月いっぱいまでかかりましたけど実際は正味3ヶ月という計算ですね。」Matsushita 1987, p. 206
  174. ^ 「特に、あの飛行機に乗っているシーンで、外の景色とコクピットの両方が摇れている感じを出したいらしいんです。普通だと全部が一緒に摇れちゃうんですが、景色とコクピットが別に摇れてダブラシがあったり。あとオートバイに乗っているシーンで、やっぱり乗っている人が揺れて向こうの山も摇れるとか、そういう細かいところの要望がかなりありましたね。」Matsushita 1987, p. 207
  175. ^ 「そのへんの撮影のイメージ的な要望は、山賀(博之)監督なり撮影の助監督である樋口 (真嗣)さんからどういう形で表現されたんですか?」Matsushita 1987, p. 207
  176. ^ 「[ライトスタッフ]どいう映画がありますよね。あれを観せられたりしました。あとNASAで取材した写真とか、いろんなサンプルを観せられながらこのような感じにしたいと言われて。。。例えは透過光にしても、ラシャ紙にちっちゃいちっちゃい穴を開けてもう殆ど透過光とは思えないようなこともやったんです。宇宙から見た地球の神秘とでもいうのか、今までには考えられないような弱い光なんです。強い弱いど言われてもどの程度かわからないんで、フィルム上がりで決定するしかないんですよね。」Matsushita 1987, p. 207
  177. ^ 「しんどかったというか。リテイクを5回も6回もやっているとだんだん疲れてきちゃって、何故リテイクなのかわからなくて腹立てながらやったりしたんですが、まあそれだけ完璧を追求した作品な ので諦めもつきます。フィルムを観た感じは実写的な素材をライブアクションを使わずにアニメの良さを駆使して引き出した作品と感じました。」Matsushita 1987, p. 207
  178. ^ Animage Editorial Department 1988, p. 55
  179. ^ 「まず、僕は20数年アニメーションをやっているわけですが、他所の会社の音響監督は自分の所の仕事ができなくなってしまうんでお断りするようにしているんですよ。そうしたら『そんなこと言わないでぜひともお願いしたい』と非常に熱心に言われたんです。それでシナリオを読んでみたんですが、何だかわからなかったので説明に来て欲しいと頼んだら監督とプロデューサーが来てくれたんですよ。 それでもわからなかったんですよね(笑)。ただそこで、若い彼達が積極的に情熱を持って内容を説明しようとしているのがとてもよくわかったんです。年齡を聞いたら監督が 23才(当時)というでしょう。僕は彼達と一緒に仕事をすることによって自分を活性化していくことができるのではないか、と思ったんです。それで一緒に仕事をやることになりまして全体に渡っての打ち合せをしたんだけど、それでもなかなかわからなかった。彼達の情熱はわかるけれども僕はどうしたらいいんだ(笑)。」Matsushita 1987, p. 206
  180. ^ Akai & Yamaga 2000, 10:25
  181. ^ Matsushita 1987, p. 209
  182. ^ Akai & Yamaga 2000, 16:00
  183. ^ Matsushita 1987, p. 209
  184. ^ 「森本さんはアニメの本格的アフレコは初めてだが。。。そして、リイクニ役の弥生みつきさんもアニメの仕事は初めてでアフレコでは緊張したという。」Suzuki 1987b, p. 33
  185. ^ 「アニメーションに適した声の役者というのは世の中にいっぱいいるわけですが、あのキャスティングの中に経験豊かな人達がいてそこに森本レオさんと弥生みつきさんがぽ っと入った時に、今までアニメ界の中で忘れていたことを彼達が教えてくれたんです。。。全体の雰囲気ですね。彼達はアニメーションフィルム に対して恐怖心を持っているわけですよ。出会いが間近だから、純粋に作品に感動したリアクションというものが素直に出て、それに凄い新鮮味があるんです。」Matsushita 1987, p. 206
  186. ^ 「そして、11月27、28日に行なわれたアフレコでも、その演出は細部にわたって行なわれた。シロツグ役の森本レオさんは、休憩中にこの作品をこう語ってくれた。。。『音響ディレクターの田代(敦巳)さんから、アニメのようにだけは演らないでほしい。なるべくライブに、味をつけるようにやってほしいといわれたんです。』」Suzuki 1987b, p. 33
  187. ^ 「『難しいですねえ。ドラマと違って雰囲気でごまかせないでしょう。声だけできちっと表現しないといけないから。 非常に恐かったけれど充実感はありましたね。』『山賀(博之)監督から最初にこういう部分に注意して欲しいという言葉はありましたか?』『アニメのようにだけはやらないで欲しい、と言われて凄く嬉しかったですね。』」Matsushita 1987, p. 209
  188. ^ 「立派な英雄じゃない。。。シロツグがどんどんグローイングアップしていく話ですよね。そういう話にどれだけ説得力を持たせられるかということなんだけど、[王立宇宙軍]はそれはずいぶんあると思うし。個人の成長がいつのまにか歴史の成長に継がっていくんですよね。その成長の果てにあるものが段々と見えてくる。そのところが凄く壮大なんですよ、これ。こういう作品を24才の人が作ってしまうというのが凄いショックですね。やっぱりこういう人が出てくるんだなあというのが嬉しいし、どんどんと出てきて欲しい。。。」Matsushita 1987, p. 209
  189. ^ 「『山賀監督からリイクニについてどんな説明を受けましたか?』『本人の信じている部分が逆に頑固になってしまって、 あまり頑固なんで他人に迷惑をかけるところがあると。きれいなものを見てきれいだわと素直に思うことができないで、本当にきれいなのかしらって思ってしまったりする。障害じゃないんですが他人から変な子じゃないかと思われてしまう子です、と。』」Matsushita 1987, p. 209
  190. ^ 「リイクニはちょっと変わった娘でしょ。でも心の中は普通の女の子だと思うんです。ただ自分の意志をしっかり持ってる娘で、意志が強すぎるために人には変な子だと思われている。それで日常生活の中に少しズレが出てる娘だと思うんです。この物語も青春物ですよね。」Suzuki 1987b, p. 33
  191. ^ Matsushita 1987, p. 31
  192. ^ Studio Hard 1987, p. 54
  193. ^ Motion Picture Producers Association of Japan 2005a
  194. ^ Hikawa 2007a, p. 1
  195. ^ 「だから最初は三億六〇〇〇万円と言っていたんですが、音楽を坂本龍一に頼んだら、特別予算四〇〇〇万円必要になっちゃったんですよ。」Takekuma 1998, p. 176
  196. ^ Matsushita 1987, p. 31
  197. ^ 「アニメーションの緻密な作業と、ふだん僕たちがやっている音楽の作業とがとても似ていた──これがこの仕事を引き受けた大きな理由のひとつでした。。。」Sakamoto 1986
  198. ^ 「しかし、その根底に流れているイメージは、一人一人のクリエイターが持つところ。。。いわば『深層の感性』の集合体であります。それはもう、覆い隠してもにじみでてくる個人固有の自我の叫びとも言えましょう。音楽も同様、〇〇風といった考え方をすべて排除し、坂本さん個人の感性に根差した究極の音造りをしていただきました。」Yamaga 1986
  199. ^ Matsushita 1987, p. 208
  200. ^ 「で、3人は教授の作ったABCDの4つのテーマとどのシーンで使うかということと山賀(博之)監督から渡されたキーワードを持って。。。」Matsushita 1987, p. 208
  201. ^ 「まず本編のどこに音楽がいるのかを音楽監督と音響監督の人が決めるんです。それと音楽自体をどういう系統の音楽にしよう、という根本的なコンセプトが決まって、線引きがあって、それでおのずと秒数が出てくるんです。今回はありがたいことにチャート表ができていまして。。。その下に4つのテーマのうちのどれをモチーフに使うかちゃんと書いてあって、それをどういうふうにしなければならないかの指示があったんでそれを基にして作っていったんですよね。」Matsushita 1987, p. 208
  202. ^ 「 。。。それぞれ旅に出たと(笑)。スタジオに一緒に入ったこともないし教授と一緒に入ったわけでもないですしね。」「各々で作って集合してちょっと聴き合ったりして、また散らばる。」Matsushita 1987, p. 208
  203. ^ Midi Inc. 1986
  204. ^ Matsushita 1987, p. 32
  205. ^ Takahashi 1987, liner notes
  206. ^ 「5 面(標準ディスク)の残りの部分と、6面(長時間ディスク)の全面はBGM集になっており、画面はBGMの場面にあったイメージボードを多数収録するというかたちになっている。」Takeda 1990, p. 39
  207. ^ Manga Entertainment 2000, Main Menu (Special Features: Art & Music)
  208. ^ Horn 1996d, pp. 24–25
  209. ^ Lee 2018
  210. ^ Mizuno 2018
  211. ^ 「『アニメ映画の音楽に携わったことについては、「今から35年前に担当したことがあるんですが、あまり気に入っていないんです(そのため題名も言えないらしい)。』」Hosoki 2018
  212. ^ 「実は『オネアミスの翼王立宇宙軍』の音楽打ち合わせの時、坂本さんはすごいノリノリだったからなんですね。「こういうふうにしたい、ああいうふうにしたい」って、坂本さんも一生懸命に言ってたんですよ。打ち入りパーティの時もそうでしたし、打ち合わせもすごく和気あいあいと進んだんです。。。でも、坂本さんは明らかにコンテをすごく読み込んでいたし、「ここのシーンにはこんな音楽で~」って話してたから、僕は“擦り寄って来た”わけでは決してないと感じていました。」Okada 2018, p. 1
  213. ^ 「彼らのこの作品に賭ける意気込みは相当なもので、それは例えば、音楽の打ち合わせにでかけた人たちが12時間もいることになってしまったとか、様々なエピソードを生んでいます。」Takahashi 1987, liner notes
  214. ^ 「どんな問題かと言うと、坂本さんは絵コンテを見て「よし、俺も参加するぞ!」と思ったあまり、絵コンテ通りの音楽をつけるって言ったんです。アニメの絵コンテというのは、まるでCMのように「この映像に何秒、この映像に何秒何コマ」というふうに、設計図がめちゃくちゃ細かいんですよ。。。おそらく、「これを使えば映像と音との完全なるシンクロが実現できるんじゃないか?」という、坂本さんの思い込みも入ったんだと思うんですよ。。。ところが、現実にアニメを作り出すと、アニメというのは出来上がってくるカットによって、アニメーターがカットに付ける演技も違ってくるんですね。なので、「コンテ通りに○秒」というふうに作られるわけではなくて、そこから微妙に尺が伸びたり縮んだりすることになるんです。そういう時、通常はどうするのかというと、音楽を担当する音響監督が切って詰めることになるわけです。例えば、「この音楽はこのタイミングで」と言われても、「もうちょっと前から流した方がいい」とか、「後から出した方がいい」というふうに、音響監督が調整するんです。」Okada 2018, p. 1
  215. ^ 「もちろん、そういう時に、坂本龍一さんと僕らが直に話して調整していれば、そこはなんとかなったと思うんですけども、坂本さん側も坂本さん側で、「ちゃんとこうやってくれよ!」という指示を、坂本さん自身が当時所属されていたヨロシタミュージックを通して話される。」Okada 2018, p. 2
  216. ^ Bowker 1987
  217. ^ 「そんなふうに、何やら、それぞれのスタッフの間で、坂本龍一さんと監督の山賀博之以外のところでのトラブルが、ザーッと出てくる。その結果、グループ・タックの田代敦巳さんという音響監督と、ヨロシタミュージックの社長が激しくぶつかることになってしまったんですね。。。これに対して、音響監督の田代敦巳さんからは「どの音楽をどの位置で入れるかの決定権は、坂本龍一にあるんですか? 田代敦巳にあるんですか? 岡田さんはプロデューサーでしょ? あなたが決めてください!」と言われて(笑)。。。だから、「音響監督の田代さんの意見で、ここは統一します」ということを、プロデューサーの僕が決めて、ヨロシタさんにも連絡したんですね。けれども、坂本さんは、この件があったからだと思うんですけど、以後の取材でも『王立宇宙軍 オネアミスの翼』に関しては、なんか黒歴史っぽくなってしまって、触れないようにというか、わりとなかったことみたいにされてるんですよね。これに関しての最終的な責任というのは、「田代さんでいきます」と僕が決めたことにあると思うんですけども。」Okada 2018, p. 2
  218. ^ Clements 2013, p. 173
  219. ^ Horn 1996d, p. 9
  220. ^ 「協力 全日空 株式会社ネットワーク 」Studio Ash 1987, p. 126
  221. ^ Clements 2013, p. 173
  222. ^ Horn 1996d, p. 9
  223. ^ Clements 2013, p. 173
  224. ^ 「今から、2年前ぐらいのことだったそうだ。編集部にゼネプロの岡田氏から電話がかかってきた。それによると、劇場用映画を作るということである。」Daitoku 1987b, p. 27
  225. ^ Matsushita 1987, p. 31
  226. ^ 「『リイクニの翼』だと、観客の意識がリイクニに向き過ぎるということで変更した。世界観を広げる為ですね。『オネアミス』という名は山賀君が考えた。」Matsushita 1987, p. 31
  227. ^ Miyano 1986a, p. 53
  228. ^ Miyano 1986b, p. 57
  229. ^ Miyano 1986c, p. 57
  230. ^ 「スポンサ—との軋鑠 ── 製作が進んで、作品が具体的になってくると、バンダイとの間に様々な軋櫟が生じ始めたのです。例えば、タイトル問題。。。作品の長さでも揉めました。最初から二時間でという約束だったのに、四十分切って一時間二十分にしてくれと言われたからです。上映時間二時間の映画は、劇場では一日四回しか廻せない。一日四回しか廻せなかったら、興行収入にも上限がある。それを四十分切って一時間二十分の映画にすると、一日六回映画館で廻せるわけです。。。五〇パーセントの売り上げ増が見込めて、それだけ、一館一館の映画館の収益が上がるわけです。スポンサーとして要求するのは当然の権利でしょう。。。興行収入の説明をされても、それは俺の仕事じゃないと、つっぱねました。興行会社やバンダイを含む会議の時は、『本編を二十分切 るなら、オレの腕を斬ってからにしろ』とつっぱねました。。。そういう面で考えると、僕はとこまでもクリエイタ—であろうとしました。クリエイタ—とは全員「子供」なんです。。。」Okada 2010, pp. 74–76
  231. ^ 「『それで3週間位、切る切らないでやったんですよ。東宝東和さんと同じことなんですけど、切る切らないの過程で、ここを切ってなぜ切っちゃだめなんだっていう話から始まったんです。それから、あーなるほどと思ったんですよ。切れないなって、感じたんですよ。。。東宝東和に申し訳ないけどやらしてくれと。興業的にいえば100分位に切ってもできるけど、ここで切っちゃうとこの映画を作ったということが全部飛んじゃうんで、つまり何億ってかけた意味が全くなくなっちゃうんでね、申し訳ないけどあたるあたらないの責任はこっちがもつから全部このままやらせてくれ、ということで。』」Saitani 1987, p. 49
  232. ^ 「当時バンダイ側もすごく感情的になっていて、一時は三億六千万円捨ててもいいから、企画をつぶしてしまおうと、覚悟をしていた、と後に聞きました。でもそれをやっちゃうと、担当取締役の首が飛ぶとか、社長作品として立ち上げた企画だし、記者会見までしたから体裁が悪すぎるとか。いつそ、フイルムを全部引き上げて、ガイナックスじゃなくてもっと言うこと聞くプロダクションに残りの仕上げ全部やらせようかとか、そういう話まで出たそうです。」Okada 2010, p. 75
  233. ^ 「バンダイからお金を引き出してくれて、何でもオッケーしてくれる渡辺さんでしたが、このころから、バンダイと僕らの間で板挟みになっちゃって、非常に苦しい立場に追い込まれてしまいます。。。それでも仲間だとばかり思つていたナベさんがこんなことを言い出すなんて、僕たちは裏切られたと感じたし、怒りで憎悪の炎を燃やしたりもしました。だから、僕たちは渡辺さんを責めまくつたわけです。。。渡辺さんは鬱病になって、『オネアミスの翼』が終わって半年位したら、故郷に帰ってしまって、ほんとに一年間働けなかったんですよ。。。この件に関して、僕はものすごく後悔しています。なぜ、もうちよっと大人になれなかったんだろう。せめてナベさんにだけは優しくなれなかったんだろうかって。反省はしてないです。あのとき、他に打てる手はなかったから。少しぐらい妥協しても良かったかな、とは全く思わないんです。そんなことをしたら、多分この作品は完成しませんでした。」Okada 2010, pp. 75, 77
  234. ^ Bandai Visual Co., Ltd. 2007, Title 4, Japanese Trailer, 00:01
  235. ^ Suzuki 1987a, p. 17
  236. ^ Horn 1996d, p. 9
  237. ^ 「 『やっぱり一応100万人予定してますけどね。。。』『そうですね、確か「ナウシカ」は100万人という話ですから。』『その作ってる作品の中味がね、「ナウシカ」。。。とかじゃないでしょ。誰も今までやったことがないんですからね、だからそういう面ですごいリスクあります。』」Saitani 1987, p. 51
  238. ^ Akai & Yamaga 2000, 40:40
  239. ^ Akai & Yamaga 2000, 41:22
  240. ^ Clements 2013, p. 173
  241. ^ 「昭和62年元旦、事態は急に回転し始めた。この時、初の広告が新聞にの載ったのである。しかも四色印刷である。。。「TVや新聞でもしっかり告知されている。その上、いろんな雑誌が取り上げてくれている。。。」Daitoku 1987b, p. 27
  242. ^ 「70を越える雑誌メディア」Daitoku 1987b, p. 31
  243. ^ Akai & Yamaga 2000, 40:39
  244. ^ 「『。。。汚れなき魂の少女の導きのもと 目覚めしきものは翼を持ち天に昇り オネアミスの聖典を手にするであろう』。。。成長したシロツグは彼同様血気盛んな若者たちが集まる王立宇宙軍に入隊する。そこではオネアミスに永遠の平和を約束する幻の聖典を、宇宙へ捜しに行く大プロジェクトが進行していた。」Matsushita 1987, p. 33
  245. ^ Matsushita 1987, pp. 134–136
  246. ^ 「『熱愛──ふたりだけの秘密。シロツグとリイクニの愛が始まった。2人は彼らだけがマインド•コミュニケーションというテレパシーを使得ることを発見。リイクニの愛の思想とシロツグの平和への夢が結ばれ、シンボル•タワーが光を帯びて輝き始めた。』」Daitoku 1987b, p. 26
  247. ^ Bandai Visual Co., Ltd. 2007, Title 4, Japanese Trailer, 00:43, 00:58
  248. ^ 「『あなたの知ってる!?オネアミス 君は愛の奇跡を見たか!?。。。ロケットは無事発射できるのか、シロツグは生きて戻ってこれるのか、そしてオネアミスの歴史を変えてしまうような 〝愛の奇跡〞 とは!?』」Daitoku 1987b, pp. 25, 26
  249. ^ 「 『僕の心配は映画館に閑古鳥が入って誰も映画見に行かないと、これが恐いんです。』」Saitani 1987, p. 49
  250. ^ 「 『で、だけどもしあの山賀くんが提案してるものがこの線だとすると、ね、これから作る人はこの続でないと映画があたんないってことになるんですよ。全部ふっとんじゃう。。。ただあれが成功すると困るのは、今後映画がものすごく難かしくなるんですよ。。。だからもし山賀くんなんかのああいうソフィスティケイトされた非常にレベルの高いあの部分でもし今の若い人がああいうふうに考えてるんだとすると大変だと思いますよ。。。この映画はそういう面でいうと、もうすごく話しにくいんだけど、あたってもあたんなくても困るんだけど、本当に分んない映画ですね、ふたを開けてみないと分んないですね。』」Saitani 1987, pp. 50–51
  251. ^ Matsushita 1987, pp. 31–32
  252. ^ Patten 1987, p. 3
  253. ^ Matsushita 1987, p. 32
  254. ^ Suzuki 1987d, p. 22
  255. ^ Matsushita 1987, p. 32
  256. ^ Daitoku 1987b, p. 31
  257. ^ Suzuki 1987d, p. 22
  258. ^ Daitoku 1987b, p. 30
  259. ^ Iyadomi et al. 2021, 00:08:13
  260. ^ Matsushita 1987, p. 32
  261. ^ 「『3月14日公開作品と春休み映画の中では2番目ですから、健闘したと言えますね。一番長い劇場で7週かかりまして、最近、この手の映画は長くて4週、「ラピュタ」でも5週でしたから、長くかかった方でしょうね。』」Daitoku 1987c, p. 20
  262. ^ 「具体的に言うと『王立』は、直接制作費が三億六千万円、宣伝•興行用の間接経費を含めた総製作費が八億円くらいかかっています。」Okada 2010, p. 92
  263. ^ Takeda 2005, p. 97
  264. ^ Clements 2013, p. 174
  265. ^ Horn 1996d, p. 24
  266. ^ Horn 1996a, p. 6
  267. ^ Clements 2013, pp. 174–175
  268. ^ 「『王立』のときはまず作品をつくることが優先事項で、それどころではなかった。もちろん周囲には『権利はどうすんねん、確保しとけ』と言ってくれる人もいましたけど、あのときは『今は作品ができることが大事。そういうことを主張するよりも作品の完成度を上げることに集中しよう』と、最初に申し合わせていたんです。だから『王立』の著作権は契約上、100%バンダイビジュアルにあります。もちろん法律上は監督した山賀には監督権というものがあります。またバンダイビジュアルも配慮してくれて、クレジットの表記にガイナックスも入れてくれていますし、お金も入ってきます。しかし契約上は、『ウチのモノ』ではないんですよ。」Hotta 2005a, p. 36
  269. ^ Ledoux 1988, p. 7
  270. ^ Ledoux 1995, p. 16
  271. ^ Ledoux 1997, p. 15
  272. ^ Horn 1995a, p. 9
  273. ^ Horn 1998, pp. 13, 26
  274. ^ Kleist 2008
  275. ^ Foster 2001
  276. ^ Bandai Visual Co., Ltd. 2007, Title 2
  277. ^ GAINAX Co., Ltd. 1997
  278. ^ Douglass Jr. 2007
  279. ^ Hodgkins 2013
  280. ^ Mateo 2022
  281. ^ Ridout 1996, p. 120
  282. ^ Anime Ltd. 2015
  283. ^ 「間延びして退屈なところもあるし、話がバラバラなまま盛り上がりを欠く恨みもある。だが、これだけ金も時間 もかかった大作に、既成のアニメのパターンに寄り掛かることなく、飾りの無い率直な自分のイメージを貫いたところは、あっぱれといわねばなるまい。」Watanabe 1987
  284. ^ 「アニメ映画 。。。それこそ脱•地球の興奮と解放感を観客に与えたのはもう大分以前のことだ。アニメ界の新人類ともいえる『オネアミスの翼』の若手スタッフたちが何を意図して、それほど手垢のついた題材を、あえて、それもアニメーションで描こうとしたのか? 。。。地球全体を眺め得る地点から人類の歴史と文明を、もう一度相対化してみる必要があるのではないか。『オネアミスの翼』という作品にはそうしたモチーフが根底にある 。。。なぜあそこまで異世界の創出にこだれるかということも。。。アニメーションという表現媒体の性格をフルに活用して。。。実は文明そのものを一旦相対化し解体した上で再構成しようという意志の表れなのだ 。。。かっこいいメカやロボット、魅力的なキャラクターが登場し、宇宙を漂流しながら物語が展開していくという話は、ある意味では映画『マクロス』で一つの頂点に到達してしまっている。『マクロス』の先を進むことよりも、もう一度より地球に物語を引きつけた形で別の世界を創出するこどの方が、アニメ映画の新しい地平がひらけるのではないかという目論見はこの映画の創り手たちにあったと思うのである。」Daitoku 1987a, pp. 80–81
  285. ^ Manga Entertainment 2000, back cover
  286. ^ Suzuki 1988a, pp. 38, 40
  287. ^ Manga Entertainment 2000, back cover
  288. ^ 「かつて『ホルス』が突然に、リアルな描写と社会的なテームをもったアニメ作品として観客の目の前に登場したように、この作品もそれまでの商業作品との関連なく突然に、それまでと違ったアニメ映画の方法論とメッセージを持った作品とした登場した。それがのちのアニメ作品にどのような影響を与えるかは定かではないが、若手スタッフたちの素晴しい情熱に満ちた作品であったことは間違いない。」Animage Editorial Department 1989, p. 124
  289. ^ 「『「オネアミスの翼」を見て、よくやったと思って感心したの、俺。はったりとかカッコつけみたいなものが感じられなくて、正直につくってるなと、とても気持ちよかった。。。その映画が、若い同業者の諸君に、非常に大きな刺激になると思ったんです。賛否両論、激しく分かれるかと思うけど、それでも刺激になる。』」Yamaga & Miyazaki 1987, p. 76
  290. ^ 「『僕は、最後までNASAのロケットが上がって行くという、むなしさと同じものを感じてね。やったぜ、という感動がない。』『ただ、ロケットを打ち上げるなら、NASAなどビッグサイエンスにかすみとられないためにも、変なロケット。。。』」Yamaga & Miyazaki 1987, p. 77
  291. ^ 「『僕は、ジジイがもうやめようとは絶対言わないだろうと思った。そう思わない? 無理してるって感じがした。。。ただ、シロツグは体力があるから乗っかっただけです。やっぱり情熱を時ってやってたのは、若者じゃなくて、ジジイたちという気がしてしょうがない。あれは、ただ一つの作劇術でやってるだけだと思う。』」Yamaga & Miyazaki 1987, p. 78
  292. ^ 「『ただジジイが萎えてくれて、若者が叫んだ方が若い観客にとって快いだろうという計算はしてると思うけどね。』『それは、最終的なところにあって......。』」Yamaga & Miyazaki 1987, p. 79
  293. ^ 「『確かにやろうとした人間は若い世代だけども、やった人間若い世代だけじゃないという所が、そごく重要だと思う。』」Yamaga & Miyazaki 1987, p. 80
  294. ^ 「『でも、今回の映画でも能動的な出発的の、タネをまいて推進してったのは、君たち若者だから。』『ジジイと若者の関係。ジジイ引っこめって、やればいいのにと思った。』」Yamaga & Miyazaki 1987, p. 80
  295. ^ 「『ジジイと若者が、僕らが打ち上げると思って打ち上げたロケットだと思ってもらっちゃ困るというところがあったんです。あれは、あくまで国がお金を出してつくったロケットで。だから、ああいう形で。』」Yamaga & Miyazaki 1987, p. 80
  296. ^ 「『いや、最初から飛び出したように見えて飛び出してないけど、物理的に飛び出すこと自体より、その過程において、いいものがあるんじゃないかみたいなのが、狙いですから。』」Yamaga & Miyazaki 1987, p. 80
  297. ^ 「閉塞感は『トップ』の段階からあったんです。うち(GAINAX)で最初にやった『オネアミスの翼―王立宇宙軍』。。。が失敗した時、僕は打ちのめされました。。。じゃあ“要するにロボットが出て半裸の姉ちゃんが宇宙に行けばいいんだね”とアイロニーで作ったのが『トップ』でした。」Matsuyama 1996, p. 94
  298. ^ 「庵野に関して言うと、まだ自分の物の作ってないと思ってるから。。。山賀は一回やっちゃったんだよね。『オネアミス』というのはやくも悪くも山賀の作品になっちゃってるの。あいつの悪いところも全部出てるし。」Anno 1993, p. 65
  299. ^ 「『オネアミス』は、そういう意味で言えば……いいとこ悪いとこもいっぱいあるんだけど。気になるとこ山程あるんだけど……アニメーションで映画を作るっていうことに関して、一定のインパクトがあったんですよ。ああいう種類の作品は確かになかった。そういう意義はあるのね。そういう風な種類の作品を見たいんだよね。」Anno 1993, p. 67
  300. ^ 「本論から外れますが、『王立』認めるところってどんなところです。」「やっぱり、あの映画っていうのはドラマを否定してんだよね。ドラマ作ろうという意思がないね。それは初号見たときはっきりそう思った。その後何回か見たけど、見れば見るほど、山賀はドラマ作る気が全然なかった男だなというのがはっきりわかったね。それはだから、 非常にいいことだと思った。そこは評価してる。別にドラマなんてなくたって映画は成立するっていうね。。。なおかつそこにはめ込んだのっていうのは、一種の気分なんだよね。要するに自分達が今世の中をこんな感じで見てるとか、こんな感じで世の中に出ようとしてるとかいう風な、ぽこぽこと隙間を埋めてるだけで、ドラマの構造じゃないんですよ。。。」Anno 1993, p. 68
  301. ^ Whitty 1994, p. 9
  302. ^ O'Neill 1995, p. 18
  303. ^ Means 1994, p. E3
  304. ^ Bowles 1994, p. 11C
  305. ^ Grieser 1995, p. 3
  306. ^ Feeney, F.X. (March 10–16, 1995). "The Wings of Honneamise". LA Weekly. p. 55.
  307. ^ Harrington 1994, p. D6
  308. ^ Ebert 1995
  309. ^ Romney 1995, p. T15
  310. ^ Autohead 1995, p. 16
  311. ^ Corliss 1999, p. 96
  312. ^ Clements & McCarthy 2006, pp. 726–27
  313. ^ Richmond 2009, p. 136
  314. ^ Odell & Le Blanc 2014, p. 87
  315. ^ Gardner 2017
  316. ^ DeMarco 2017
  317. ^ Klein 2021
  318. ^ Martin 2017, p. 142
  319. ^ Keehan 2017, p. 93
  320. ^ Fleming 2001, p. 16
  321. ^ Fleming 2001, pp. 18, 36
  322. ^ Matsui 2007, p. 87
  323. ^ Matsui 2007, p. 89
  324. ^ Morikawa, Murakami & Okada 2005, p. 165
  325. ^ Murakami 2005, p. 132
  326. ^ Murakami 2005, p. 127
  327. ^ Eikman 2007, pp. 7–8
  328. ^ Eikman 2007, p. 30
  329. ^ Cubitt 2004, p. 5
  330. ^ Cubitt 2004, p. 321
  331. ^ Cubitt 2004, pp. 303–304
  332. ^ Cubitt 2004, p. 307
  333. ^ Kuge 2007, p. 253
  334. ^ Kuge 2007, pp. 256–257
  335. ^ Kuge 2007, p. 256
  336. ^ Gainax 1998
  337. ^ Takeda 2005, pp. 154–161, 164–165
  338. ^ Rafael Antonio Pineda (September 7, 2018). "Gaina Announces Uru in Blue Anime for 2022, New Top o Nerae! 3 Anime Project". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on April 22, 2020. Retrieved February 9, 2020.
  339. ^ Yamaga, Hiroyuki (December 22, 2022). "Bunmei-ron' dai 1-kai 'eki ura' ["Civilization" #1: 'Behind the Train Station]". Niigata Keizai Shimbun (in Japanese). Retrieved October 16, 2023.

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