Royal Thai Navy

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Royal Thai Navy
กองทัพเรือ
Emblem of the Royal Thai Navy.svg
Emblem of the Royal Thai Navy
Founded20 November 1906 (113 years)
CountryThailand
BranchRoyal Thai Marine Corps
Air and Coastal Defence Command
TypeNavy
RoleNaval warfare
Size69,850 Active personnel[1]
Part ofMinistry of Defence
Royal Thai Armed Forces
Garrison/HQSattahip Naval Base (Main base), Sattahip, Chonburi
Bangkok Noi, Bangkok (Headquarters)
Nickname(s)ราชนาวี ('Raj Navy')
Motto(s)ร่วมเครือนาวี จักยลปฐพีไพศาล ('Join the Navy to see the world')
ColoursNavy blue
Marchเพลงราชนาวี ('Navy March')
เพลงดอกประดู่ ('Dok Pradu Song')
Engagements
WebsiteRTN
Commanders
Commander-in-chiefAdmiral Luechai Rutdit
Notable
commanders
King Pin-Klao
Prince Abhakara Kiartivongse
Sangad Chaloryu
Sathiraphan Keyanon
Insignia
FlagFlag of the Royal Thai Navy.svg
Naval jack and unit colourNaval Jack of Thailand.svg
Naval ensignNaval Ensign of Thailand.svg
Fin flashRoundel of Thailand – Naval Aviation.svg

The Royal Thai Navy (Abrv: RTN, ทร.; Thai: กองทัพเรือไทย, RTGSkong thap ruea thai), Thailand's naval warfare force, was established in 1906. It was modernised by the Admiral Prince Abhakara Kiartiwongse (1880–1923) who is known as the father of the Royal Navy. It has a structure that includes the naval fleet, Royal Thai Marine Corps, and Air and Coastal Defence Command. The RTN headquarters is at Sattahip Naval Base.

The navy operates three naval area commands (NAC): Northern Gulf of Thailand (First NAC); Southern Gulf of Thailand (Second NAC); and the Andaman Sea (Indian Ocean) (Third NAC). RTN also has two air wings and one flying unit on its aircraft carrier.

Budget[edit]

In fiscal year 2019 (FY2019) the navy's budget was 45,485 million baht.[2] In FY2020, its budget is projected to be 47,300 million baht.[3]

History[edit]

Chulachomklao Fort firing on French ships

Ancient era[edit]

The military history of Thailand encompasses 1,000 years of armed struggle, from wars of independence from the Khmer Empire through to struggles with her regional rivals, Burma and Vietnam, and periods of conflict with Britain and France during the colonial era.[4]

The naval arm of the army consisted mainly of riverine war craft whose mission was to control the Chao Phraya River and protect ships carrying the army to battle. The warships carried up to 30 musketeers and 6- or 12-pounder cannons.

Vietnamese - Siamese war[edit]

The timeline of emergence of a Siamese sea fleet is unknown. Most of its sailors were foreign, such as Cham, Malay, and Chinese. It is assumed that in this era, Ships designs changed from shallow draft Chinese junk (Reu-Sam-Pau/Reụ̄x s̄ảp̣heā) to deeper draft Kam-pan and sloop; with a short period of copied Vietnamese junks. The most prominent naval battle was at Vàm Nao River.

Franco-Siamese War[edit]

The Paknam Incident was a navy engagement fought during the Franco-Siamese War in July 1893. Three French ships violated Siamese territory and warning shots were fired at them by a Siamese fort and a force of gunboats on the Chao Phraya River in Paknam.[5]:259 In the ensuing battle, France prevailed and blockaded Bangkok.[5]:263 Peace was restored on 3 October 1893 after the British put pressure on both the Siamese and French to reach a negotiated settlement.[6]:127

World War I[edit]

The Siamese Expeditionary Force, Paris, 1919

The First World War had no direct impact on Siam due to its distance from the fighting. The war did, however, provide an opportunity for King Rama VI to strengthen his country's position in the international arena. He also used the war as a means to promote the concept of a Siamese nation.[4][7]

Siamese sailors were part of a volunteer expeditionary force, consisting of medical, motor transport, and aviation detachments.[8] By early-1918, 1,284 men were selected from thousands of volunteers. The force was commanded by Major General Phraya Bhijai Janriddhi and was sent to France.[9]

After World War I[edit]

Franco-Thai War[edit]

The Battle of Ko Chang took place on 17 January 1941 during the Franco-Thai War in which a flotilla of French warships attacked a smaller force of Thai vessels, including a coastal defence ship.[10] The HTMS Thonburi was heavily damaged and grounded on a sand bar at the mouth of the Chanthaburi River, with about 20 dead. The Thai transport HTMS Chang arrived at Ko Chang shortly after the French departed and took the Thonburi in tow, before purposefully running her aground in Laem Ngop.

HTMS Thonburi, 1938

The French suffered 11 men killed. During the post-action investigations, the Thai Navy claimed, based on statements by Thai sailors and the fisherman around Ko Chang and merchantmen in Saigon, that heavy damage was seen to have been caused to the French ship Lamotte-Picquet and her squadron. The battle was a tactical victory by the French Navy over the Thai Navy although the strategic result is disputed. The Japanese intervened diplomatically and mediated a ceasefire.[11] Within a month of the engagement, the French and the Thais had negotiated a peace that ended the war.

World War II[edit]

During World War II, Siam allied with Japan after Japan invaded Siam on 8 December 1941.[12] Thailand officially joined the war in January 1942.

Thai submarines saw service throughout World War II, but saw no combat.[13] Two of them did serve an unconventional role during the war. On 14 April 1945, five months before the Japanese surrender, Bangkok's Samsen and Wat Liab Power Plants were bombed by the Allies, leaving the city without electricity. In response to a request from the Bangkok Electricity Authority, the Matchanu and Wirun anchored at the Bangkok Dock Company and served as power generators for one of Bangkok's tram lines.[14]


Manhattan Rebellion[edit]

During the Manhattan Rebellion of 1951, the navy was involved in a failed coup against Prime Minister Plaek Phibunsongkhram which led to the sinking of flagship HTMS Sri Ayudhya.[15]

Vietnam War[edit]

In support of South Vietnam and its allies during the Vietnam War, two Thai naval vessels supported ground forces with naval bombardments.[16]

Present day[edit]

The navy's combat forces include the Royal Fleet and the Royal Thai Marine Corps. The 130 vessels of the Royal Fleet include frigates equipped with surface-to-air missiles, fast attack craft armed with surface-to-surface missiles, large coastal patrol craft, coastal minelayers, coastal minesweepers, landing craft, and training ships.

The mission space of the Thailand navy includes rivers and the Gulf of Thailand and the Indian Ocean, which are separated by the Kra Isthmus. Naval affairs are directed by the country's most senior admiral from his Bangkok headquarters. The naval commander in chief is supported by staff groups that plan and administer such activities as logistics, education and training, and various special services. The headquarters general staff function like the corresponding staffs in the Royal Thai Army army and Royal Thai Air Force command structures.

Command and control[edit]

Royal Thai Navy HQ at Phra Racha Wang Derm in Thonburi

The Royal Thai Navy is commanded by the Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Thai Navy, currently, Admiral Luechai Rutdit, who was appointed in 2018. The Royal Thai Navy headquarters is in Bangkok.

  • Commander-in-Chief, Royal Thai Navy: Admiral Luechai Rutdit
  • Deputy Commander-in-Chief, Royal Thai Navy: Admiral Chorchat Gra-tes
  • President, Royal Thai Navy Advisory Group: Admiral Somchai Na Bangchang
  • Assistant Commander-in-Chief, Royal Thai Navy: Admiral Chatchai Srivorakan
  • Chief of Staff, Royal Thai Navy: Admiral Sittiporn Maskasem
  • Commander-in-Chief, Royal Thai Fleet: Admiral Chumsak Nakvijit

Organisation[edit]

Naval Area Commands[edit]

Royal Thai Navy is located in Thailand
Sattahip Naval Base
Sattahip Naval Base
Bangkok Naval Base
Bangkok Naval Base
Phangnga Naval Base
Phangnga Naval Base
Songkhla Naval Base
Songkhla Naval Base
Phuket Naval Base
Phuket Naval Base
Samui Naval Base
Samui Naval Base
Trat Naval Base
Trat Naval Base
Thai Navy Bases District Forces

The Royal Thai Navy operates three naval area commands:

District forces[edit]

Organization[edit]

Naval Headquarters Naval Fleet Naval Logistics Support Group Naval Education, Research and Development Group
  • Naval Secretariat Department
  • Naval Administration Department
  • Naval Personnel Department
  • Naval Intelligence Department
  • Naval Operation Department
  • Naval Logistics Department
  • Naval Communications and Information Technology department
  • Naval Civil Affairs Department
  • The Office of the Naval Comptroller
  • Naval Finance Department
  • Naval Inspector General
  • Naval Internal Audit Office
  • Naval Acquisition Management Office
  • Judge Advocate General of the Royal Thai Navy
  • Royal Thai Naval Dockyard (RTND)
  • Naval Electronics Department (NED)
  • Naval Public Works Department (NPWD)
  • Naval Ordnance Department (NORDD)
  • Naval Supply Department (NSD)
  • Naval Medical Department (NMD)
  • Naval Transportation Department (NTD)
  • Naval Hydrographic Department (HD)
  • Naval Welfare Department (NWD)
  • Naval Science Department (NScD)
  • Naval Education Department (NED)
    • Naval Command and Staff College (NCSC)
    • Naval Line Officers School (LOS)
    • Naval Rating School (NRS)
    • Naval Non Commissioned Officers School (NCOS)
    • Naval Recruit Training Center (RTC)
    • Royal Thai Navy Language Center (RTNLC)
    • Naval Strategic Studies Center (NSSC)
  • Royal Thai Naval Academy (RTNA)
  • Naval Research and Development Office (NRDO)

Royal Thai Naval Dockyard[edit]

King Ananda Mahidol (Rama VIII) and Prince Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX) on the HTMS Maeklong in 1939.

The Naval Dockyard is in Bangkok Noi District, Bangkok. It has constructed and repaired ships since the reign of King Mongkut. As ships grew larger, King Chulalongkorn ordered the construction of a large wooden dock. He presided over the opening ceremony on 9 January 1890, a date now considered the birth of the Naval Department. Its headquarters is now at Mahidol Adulyadej Dockyard, Sattahip District, Chonburi Province.

Thai offshore patrol vessel HTMS Krabi

Royal Thai Marine Corps[edit]

The Royal Thai Marine Corps (RTMC) was founded in 1932, when the first battalion was formed with the assistance of the United States Marine Corps. It was expanded to a regiment in 1940 and was in action against communist guerrillas throughout the 1950s and 1960s. During the 1960s, the United States Marine Corps assisted in its expansion into a brigade. In December 1978, RECON teams of The Royal Thai Marine Corps were sent to the Mekong River during skirmishes with the Pathet Lao, a communist political movement and organisation in Laos.[18]

Royal Thai Marine Corps conduct amphibious assault training

Thai Marines today are responsible for border security in Chanthaburi and Trat provinces. They have fought communist insurgents in engagements at Baan Hard Lek, Baan Koat Sai, Baan Nhong Kok, Baan Kradook Chang, Baan Chumrark, and in the battle of Hard Don Nai in Nakhon Phanom Province. They serve in 2019 in the southern border provinces currently affected by the South Thailand insurgency. A monument to their valor stands at the Royal Thai Navy base at Sattahip.

Marine special force[edit]

The RTMC Reconnaissance Battalion, known as "RECON", is a reconnaissance battalion. It falls under the command of the Royal Thai Marine Division.[19][20] The mission of Reconnaissance Battalion is to provide task forces to conduct amphibious reconnaissance, ground reconnaissance, battlespace shaping operations, raids, and specialized insertion and extraction.[21][22]

Naval Special Warfare Command[edit]

Royal Thai Navy SEALs

The Naval Special Warfare Command was set up as an underwater demolition assault unit in 1956 with the assistance of the US.[23] A small element of the Navy SEALs has been trained to conduct maritime counter-terrorism missions. The unit has close ties with the United States Navy SEALs and conducts regular joint training exercises.

Most of the operations of the Navy SEALs are highly sensitive and are rarely divulged to the public. Navy SEALs have been used to gather intelligence along the Thai border during times of heightened tension.[18] Navy SEALs have participated in anti-piracy operations in the Gulf of Thailand.[18]

Thai Navy SEALs participated in the Tham Luang cave rescue. The rescue team successfully extricated members of 12 junior football players and their coach, who were trapped in Tham Luang Nang Non Cave in Chiang Rai Province in July 2018. One former Navy SEAL died in the rescue effort.[24]

Air and Coastal Defence Command[edit]

The Air and Coastal Defence Command was formed in 1992 under the control of the Royal Fleet Headquarters, with one coastal defence regiment and one air defence regiment. Personnel were initially drawn from the Royal Thai Marine Corps, but are now being recruited directly. The First Coastal Defence Regiment is based near the Marine Corps facility at Sattahip. The First Air Defence Regiment was near the Naval Air Wing at U-Tapao. Coastal Defence Command was greatly expanded in 1992, following the government's decision in 1988 to charge the RTN with the responsibility of defending the eastern seaboard and Southern Seaboard Development Project. The Second Air Defence Regiment, based at Songkhla, was formed the following year. Some analysts believe that this element will eventually grow to a strength of up to 15,000 personnel.[25]

  • The First Air Defence Regiment: its mission is to provide anti-aircraft defence for the northern Gulf of Thailand with three anti-aircraft battalions.
  • The Second Air Defence Regiment: to provide anti-aircraft defence for the southern Gulf of Thailand and Andaman Sea with three anti-aircraft battalions.
  • The First Coastal Defence Regiment: has three artillery battalions.
  • Two Air and Coastal Defence Command and Control Centers
  • Air and Coastal Defence Supporting Regiment: one transportation battalion, one communications battalion, one maintenance battalion.

Royal Thai Naval Air Division[edit]

Royal Thai Navy Fokker27-MK 400
Royal Thai Navy Sikorksy S-76B
Thai Navy SH-70B Seahawk

The RTN recently has two air wings and one Flying Unit of HTMS Chakri Naruebet, operating 23 fixed-wing aircraft and 26 helicopters from U-Tapao, Songkhla, and Phuket. The First Royal Thai Navy wing has three squadrons; the Second Royal Thai Navy wing has three squadrons and another wing for HTMS Chakri Naruebet Flying Unit.

Squadron Status Role Type Aircraft Number
The First Royal Thai Navy wing
101 Active SAR Maritime patrol aircraft Dornier 228 7[26]
102 Active ASuW and ASW Maritime patrol aircraft Fokker27-MK 200 2[26]
103 Active Forward air control Maritime patrol aircraft Cessna 337 Super Skymaster 9
104 Inactive
The Second Royal Thai Navy wing
201 Active Military transport Maritime patrol aircraft Fokker27-MK 400
Embraer ERJ-135LR
2[26]
202 Active Military transport Helicopter Bell 212
H145M
7[26]
203 Active ASuW and Military transport Helicopter SH-76B Seahawk
Super Lynx 300
4[26]
HTMS Chakri Naruebet Flying Unit
1 Inactive
2 Active ASW and Military transport Helicopter SH-70B Seahawk
MH-60S Knighthawk
6[26]
2[26]

Riverine Patrol Regiment[edit]

Royal Thai Navy riverine sailors
Golden Triangle, Chiang Saen

The Royal Thai Navy RTN Riverine Patrol Regiment keeps the peace, prevents illegal immigration, human trafficking, drug smuggling or any other threats to national security on the Chao Phraya and Mekong Rivers and elsewhere.[27] Royal Thai Navy Riverine Patrol detachments are stationed in several provinces:

Boat Station / Pier District Province Department
Royal Thai Navy Riverine Patrol Regiment
Riverine Patrol Regiment Pier Bangkok Noi  Bangkok Riverine Patrol Regiment
Chiang Saen Boat Station Chiang Saen  Chiang Rai Mekong Riverine Unit
Chiang Khong Boat Station Chiang Khong  Chiang Rai Mekong Riverine Unit
Chiang Khan Boat Station Chiang Khan  Loei Mekong Riverine Unit
Sangkhom Boat Station Sangkhom  Nong Khai Mekong Riverine Unit
Nong Khai Boat Station Mueang Nong Khai  Nong Khai Mekong Riverine Unit
Rattanawapi Boat Station Rattanawapi  Nong Khai Mekong Riverine Unit
Phon Phisai Boat Station Phon Phisai  Nong Khai Mekong Riverine Unit
Si Chiang Mai Boat Station Si Chiang Mai  Nong Khai Mekong Riverine Unit
Bueng Kan Boat Station Mueang Bueng Kan  Bueng Kan Mekong Riverine Unit
Ban Phaeng Boat Station Ban Phaeng  Nakhon Phanom Mekong Riverine Unit
Nakhon Phanom Boat Station Mueang Nakhon Phanom  Nakhon Phanom Mekong Riverine Unit
That Phanom Boat Station That Phanom  Nakhon Phanom Mekong Riverine Unit
Mukdahan Boat Station Mueang Mukdahan  Mukdahan Mekong Riverine Unit
Khemarat Boat Station Khemarat  Ubon Ratchathani Mekong Riverine Unit
Khong Chiam Boat Station Khong Chiam  Ubon Ratchathani Mekong Riverine Unit

Royal Thai Naval Academy[edit]

The Royal Thai Naval Academy in Samut Prakan was established by King Chulalongkorn (Rama V) in 1898,[28] Those who want to enter the academy first have to pass the entrance exam, after which they join a three-year preparatory program at the Armed Forces Academies Preparatory School where they study together with army, air force, and police cadets. On successful completion, they enter the Royal Thai Naval Academy. After graduation, they attend a further one-year advanced course at Sattahip that leads to a graduate diploma in naval science. On completion of this course, they are ready to work as officers in the Royal Thai Navy or Royal Thai Marine Corps. Cadets graduate with a bachelor's degree in engineering or science and are commissioned in the Royal Thai Navy with the rank of ensign (sub-lieutenant). Together with graduates of the other armed forces and police academies they receive their swords from the king personally or the king's representative. Selected first-year cadets of the RTNA are awarded scholarships to study at naval academies abroad. On their return to Thailand they start working as officers in the Royal Thai Navy straightaway.

Naval Medical Department[edit]

A Royal Thai medical nurse

The Naval Medical Department was first set up on 1 April 1890 and is headquartered at Somdet Phra Pinklao Hospital in Bangkok. It provides medical services for sailors of the Royal Thai Navy and operates a number of hospitals in Thailand including Queen Sirikit Naval Hospital in Chonburi, opened on 20 November 1995.[29]

Royal Thai Navy Music Division[edit]

Royal Yacht Maha Chakri, 1905

A Royal Thai Navy band has existed since the RTN was only a naval department of the Royal Thai Army. Its began with the creation of the "Naval Trumpet Band" on 10 June 1878, with the arrival of the new royal yacht Vesatri and her captain, M. Fusco, who later was one of the training instructors.

Captain Fusco had the duty to stage musicals for King Rama V when the king traveled by sea, as when King Chulalongkorn visited Europe in 1897. The government assigned the young ensemble under the command of Captain Fusco to the Royal Yacht Maha Chakri' for the voyage to Europe. This band would later become the basis of the Royal Thai Navy Music Division of the RTN Bangkok Naval Base. Today, the RTNMD stations bands in all naval bases and installations, as well as in educational institutions.

Naval military police

Naval Military Police Regiment[edit]

The navy was the first branch of the Thai military to create a military police unit.[citation needed] The naval military police was established at the order of Marshal Admiral Paribatra Sukhumbandhu, Prince of Nakhon Sawan, who was a naval commander at that time.[30] The official founding date was on 14 December 1905 by the Department of Mechanical Ships and the Department of Naval Affairs.[30]

Fleet[edit]

Bangkok Dock Company dockyard

The Royal Thai Navy fleet consists of ships constructed in Canada, China, Germany, Italy, Singapore, South Korea, Spain, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Thai shipbuilding companies and RTN dockyards such as Mahidol Adulyadej Naval Dockyard, Asian Marine Services, Marsun Shipbuilding, Italthai Marine, and Bangkok Dock also have the capability to construct vessels.[citation needed]

Humanitarian relief operations[edit]

Thailand worked with more than 60 nations in providing help to the Nepali people following an earthquake. Operation Sahayogi Haat ('helping hands') was a US military relief operation delivering humanitarian assistance to victims of the April and May 2015 Nepal earthquakes. The Royal Thai Navy assisted relief efforts.[31] A magnitude 7.8 earthquake struck the region of Kathmandu in Nepal on 25 April 2015. Operation Sahayogi Haat for humanitarian relief operations was put into action by Joint Task Force 505 on 6 May 2015.[32][33]

Royal Barges[edit]

The royal barge is the type of vessel for Thailand's Royal Barge Procession, when is a ceremony of both religious and royal significance which has taken place for almost 700 years when was the earliest historical evidence of royal barges dates from the Sukhothai period (1238–1438).[34] The royal barges are a blend of craftsmanship and traditional Thai art. The Royal Barge Procession takes place rarely, marking only the most significant cultural and religious events.

Royal barge Narai Song Suban Ratchakan Thi Kao or the royal barge Narai Song Suban HM King Rama IX is the only barge out of four royal barges which was built under commission by the Royal Thai Navy, along with the Thai Department of Fine Arts.

She was built during the reign of HM King Rama IX Bhumibol Adulyadej, who laid the keel in 1994. Thus Narai Song Suban HM King Rama IX was launched on 6 May 1996 to be commissioned and coincide with the celebration of the 50 anniversary of Bhumibol Adulyadej's accession to the throne.

Historical engagements[edit]

Rank structure[edit]

Equivalent
NATO Code
OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 Cadet Officer
Officer
ranks
RTN OF-10 (Admiral of the Fleet).svg RTN OF-9 (Admiral).svg RTN OF-8 (Vice Admiral).svg RTN OF-7 (Rear Admiral).svg RTN OF-6 (Commodore).svg RTN OF-5 (Captain).svg RTN OF-4 (Commander).svg RTN OF-3 (Lieutenant Commander).svg RTN OF-2 (Lieutenant).svg RTN OF-1b (Lieutenant Junior Grade).svg RTN OF-1a (Sub-Lieutenant).svg
จอมพลเรือ พลเรือเอก พลเรือโท พลเรือตรี พลเรือจัตวา1 นาวาเอก นาวาโท นาวาตรี เรือเอก เรือโท เรือตรี นักเรียนนายเรือ
Admiral of the Fleet Admiral Vice Admiral Rear Admiral Commodore
or
Rear Admiral
(lower half)1
Captain Commander Lieutenant Commander Lieutenant Lieutenant
Junior Grade
Sub Lieutenant Midshipman
Equivalent
NATO Code
OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-1
Enlisted
ranks
RTN OR-9 (Chief Petty Officer 1st Class).svg RTN OR-9 (Chief Petty Officer 1st Class).svg RTN OR-8 (Chief Petty Officer 2nd Class).svg RTN OR-7 (Chief Petty Officer 3rd Class).svg RTN OR-5 (Petty Officer 1st Class).svg RTN OR-4 (Petty Officer 2nd Class).svg RTN OR-3 (Petty Officer 3rd Class).svg No insignia
พันจ่าเอกพิเศษ พันจ่าเอก พันจ่าโท พันจ่าตรี จ่าเอก จ่าโท จ่าตรี พลทหาร
Master Chief Petty
Officer
Senior Chief Petty
Officer
Chief Petty
Officer
Petty Officer
1st class
Petty Officer
2nd Class
Petty Officer
3rd Class
Seaman Seaman apprentice

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ บำรุงสุข, สุรชาติ (18 July 2019). "เปิดข้อมูลอำนาจกำลังรบไทย". www.matichonweekly.com. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
  2. ^ "Thailand's Budget in Brief Fiscal Year 2019". Bureau of the Budget. 20 December 2018. p. 84. Retrieved 3 December 2019.
  3. ^ "Prawit defends army spending". Bangkok Post. 3 December 2019. Retrieved 3 December 2019.
  4. ^ a b "History of Thailand". Nations Online. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
  5. ^ a b Warington Smyth, H (1898). Five Years in Siam, from 1891 to 1896. v. 1. John Murray. ISBN 1375627406. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  6. ^ Tuck, Patrick (1995). The French Wolf and the Siamese Lamb; The French Threat to Siamese Independence 1858–1907 (1st ed.). White Lotus. ISBN 9789748496283.
  7. ^ Stearn, Duncan (22 August 2009). "Thailand and the First World War". First World War.com. Retrieved 19 July 2015.
  8. ^ Hart, Keith (1982). "A NOTE ON THE MILITARY PARTICIPATION OF SIAM IN WWI" (PDF). Journal of the Siam Society. Retrieved 19 July 2015.
  9. ^ "90th Anniversary of World War I. This Is The History of Siamese Volunteer Corps". Thai Military Information Blog. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
  10. ^ "70th Year of HTMS Thonburi Part II – The Fighting". ThaiArmedForce.com (in Thai). 17 January 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2013.
  11. ^ WatcharaYui (4 March 2010). "Battle of Koh Chang overview". thaigunship.blogspot.com. Retrieved 1 February 2013.
  12. ^ Brecher & Wilkenfeld 1997, p. 407.
  13. ^ เรือดำน้ำกับกองทัพเรือไทย. เรือดำน้ำกับกองทัพเรือไทย (in Thai). Naval Education Department, Royal Thai Navy. Retrieved 6 February 2013.
  14. ^ Reynolds, Thailand's Secret War, 304–05 with photograph on 306.
  15. ^ Fuangrabil, Krisda (May 2007). "สู่วาระสุดท้ายของเรือหลวงศรีอยุธยา: ทหารเรือกับเหตุสำคัญของบ้านเมืองในอดีต (ตอนที่ 4)" (PDF). Nawikasat. 90 (5): 6–14.
  16. ^ Malcolm H. Murfett (2012). Cold War Southeast Asia. Marshall Cavendish International Asia Pte Ltd. p. 166. ISBN 978-981-4382-98-4.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Museum". Thai Seafarer. 26 September 2019. Retrieved 5 December 2019.
  18. ^ a b c Conboy 1991, p. 52.
  19. ^ "หน่วยรบพิเศษ SPECIAL FORCE: กองพันลาดตระเวน (recon) รีคอน" (in Thai). Archived from the original on 12 February 2019. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
  20. ^ "ด่านศุลกากรนครศรีธรรมราช - Nakhonsithammarat Customs House". nakhonsithammarat.customs.go.th (in Thai). Archived from the original on 12 February 2019. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
  21. ^ "ฝึกโหด โคตรภูมิใจ! เปิดใจนักรบรีคอน เรียนเกือบตาย ได้เอาไปใช้จริงไหม". Archived from the original on 26 December 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  22. ^ "นักรบรีคอน ...ยอดคนแกร่ง นักรบเ". Archived from the original on 5 June 2013. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  23. ^ Jomyut, Baan (28 March 2018). "การปรับตัวของไทยในยุคสงครามเย็น". www.baanjomyut.com. Retrieved 22 October 2018.
  24. ^ "Rescuer dies during dive in flooded Tham Luang cave". Bangkok Post. 6 July 2018. Retrieved 5 December 2019.
  25. ^ John Pike. "Air and Coastal Defense Command". Archived from the original on 24 December 2014. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g "World Air Forces 2018" (PDF). Flight International. 28 March 2018. p. 31. Retrieved 5 December 2019.
  27. ^ "The Royal Thai Navy (RTN) received six Special Operations Craft – Riverine (SOC-R)". Thai Military and Asian Region. 28 March 2016. Retrieved 5 December 2019.
  28. ^ "Royal Thai Naval Academy". RTNA. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
  29. ^ "ความเป็นมาโรงพยาบาล".
  30. ^ a b ทร. สถาปนากรมกรมสารวัตรทหารเรือ ครบ 111 ปี - ข่าวสด
  31. ^ Martinez, Staff Sgt. Alexander (29 May 2015). "Thai and USA forces combine to help earthquake victims in Nepal". Pattaya Mail. Archived from the original on 1 June 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
  32. ^ "Operation Sahayogi Haat / Helping Hand". Global Security. Archived from the original on 1 June 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
  33. ^ "Nepal Earthquake Relief Effort Named 'Operation Sahayogi Haat'". Nepal Foreign Affairs. 10 May 2015. Archived from the original on 25 May 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
  34. ^ royal, finearts (26 September 2019). "Royal Barge Procession". www.moe.go.th. Retrieved 6 October 2019.

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