Jump to content

Roza Otunbayeva

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Roza Otunbayeva
Роза Отунбаева
Otunbayeva in 2011
3rd President of Kyrgyzstan
In office
3 July 2010 – 1 December 2011
Acting: 7 April 2010 – 3 July 2010
Prime MinisterAlmazbek Atambayev
Omurbek Babanov (Acting)
Almazbek Atambayev
Preceded byKurmanbek Bakiyev
Succeeded byAlmazbek Atambayev
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
26 February 1992 – 10 October 1992
Prime MinisterTursunbek Chyngyshev
Preceded byMuratbek Imanaliyev
Succeeded byEdnan Karabayev
Kyrgyz Ambassador to the United Kingdom
In office
PresidentAskar Akayev
Deputy Prime Minister of the Kirghiz SSR
In office
PresidentAbsamat Masaliyev
Preceded byJamal Tashibekova
Succeeded byZhanyl Tumenbayeva
Personal details
Born (1950-08-23) 23 August 1950 (age 73)
Frunze, Kirghiz SSR, USSR
Political partySocial Democratic Party
SpouseBolot Sadybakasov (divorced 1997)
Alma materMoscow State University

Roza Isakovna Otunbayeva (Kyrgyz: Роза Исаковна (Исак кызы) Отунбаева, romanizedRoza Isakovna (Isak kyzy) Otunbayeva; born 23 August 1950) is a Kyrgyz diplomat and politician who served as the President of Kyrgyzstan from 7 April 2010 until 1 December 2011, becoming the first female Central Asian head of state. She was sworn in on July 3, 2010, after acting as interim leader following the 2010 April Revolution, which led to the ousting of President Kurmanbek Bakiyev. She previously served as Minister of Foreign Affairs and as head of the parliamentary caucus for the Social Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan. She is also known in Kyrgyzstan for the persecution of human rights activist Azimzhan Askarov[1][2] and the failed policy that led to the bloody events of June 2010.[3]

Since 2022, Otunbayeva has been serving as United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres’ Special Representative for Afghanistan and Head of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA).[4]

Early life


Roza Otunbayeva was born in Frunze (now Bishkek, the capital of Kyrgyzstan), Kirghiz SSR, USSR into the family of Isak Otunbayev, a member of the Supreme Court of Kyrgyz SSR (1967–1992), and Salika Daniyarova (1925–2020),[5] a teacher. She graduated from the Philosophy Faculty of Moscow State University in 1972 and went on to teach as Senior Teacher and then as Head of the Philosophy Department at Kyrgyz State National University for six years (1975–1981).[citation needed]

In 1975, she became Candidate of Sciences after defending her dissertation, "Critique of falsification of Marxist-Leninist dialectic by the philosophers of Frankfurt school".[6]

Otunbayeva is a divorced mother of two children. She is fluent in Russian, English, German and French in addition to Kyrgyz.[7][8]

Political career


In 1981, she began her political career as the Communist Party's Second Secretary of the Lenin raion council (raikom) of Frunze (now Bishkek). From 1983 to 1986, Otunbayeva served as the Secretary of the City Communist Party Committee in Frunze (now Bishkek). In 1986, she was appointed the Deputy to the Chairman of the Council of Ministers, and the same time the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic. In 1989, she was appointed as the Executive Secretary and later as the Chairwoman of the USSR UNESCO National Committee, and she also became member of the USSR Foreign Ministry's Board. From 1989–1992, she served as the Vice-President[9] of the UNESCO Executive Council.

By 1992, the now independent Kyrgyzstan was led by Askar Akayev, who chose her to be Minister of Foreign Affairs and Deputy Prime Minister, positions she held until later that year when she became her country's first ambassador to the US and Canada (1992–1994). In May 1994 she was called back to her original post of Kyrgyz Minister of Foreign Affairs, remaining there for three years. From 1997 to 2002, she served as the first Kyrgyz ambassador to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. From 2002 to 2004, she was recruited Deputy Special Representative of the UN Secretary General in the Peacekeeping Mission for Georgia.[10] Upon her return to Kyrgyzstan in late 2004, Otunbayeva became politically active. In December 2004, she and three other opposition parliamentarians founded the Ata-Jurt (Fatherland) public movement in preparation for the February 2005 parliamentary elections.[11]

From March to September 2005, Otunbayeva served as Acting Minister of Foreign Affairs.[citation needed]

"Tulip Revolution"


Otunbayeva was one of the key leaders of the Tulip Revolution in Kyrgyzstan which led to the overthrow of President Akayev.[12] Subsequently, she served for a few months as Acting Foreign Minister in the interim government of then prime minister (and acting president) Kurmanbek Bakiyev. After Bakiyev was elected President and Feliks Kulov became Prime Minister, Otunbayeva failed to receive the required parliamentary support to become Foreign Minister.[11]

She then ran unsuccessfully in a parliamentary by-election a few months later. Otunbayeva played a key role in the November 2006 protests that pressed successfully for a new democratic constitution.[citation needed]

She was the co-chairwoman of the country's Asaba[13] (Flag) National Revival Party for a short time. In December 2007, Otunbayeva was elected to the Jogorku Kenesh – the Parliament of Kyrgyzstan – on the list of the Social Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan. She served as the Leader of the Opposition SDP from 2008 to 2010. In 2009 she became the Leader of People's Front opposition.[citation needed]

2010 uprising and presidency


On 7 April 2010, she was chosen by opposition leaders as head of the Interim Government of the Kyrgyz Republic, following widespread rioting in Bishkek and the ouster of President Kurmanbek Bakiyev.[14]

Otunbayeva meets Hillary Clinton (2011)
Otunbayeva with Vladimir Putin (2010)

Bakiyev fled the Jalal-Abad area as the riots became more violent. Unable to rally support, he resigned as president on 10 April 2010, and left the country for Kazakhstan. Nine days later he went to Minsk, Belarus, where he was given protected-exile status. On 21 April, he recanted his resignation and declared that he was still president of Kyrgyzstan. Otunbayeva vowed to bring him to trial.[15]

Otunbayeva declared that new elections would be called within six months and that she would act as president until then.[14]

With violent protests in support of ousted President Kurmanbek Bakiyev continuing in Jalalabad, the home city of the former president, it was announced on 19 May 2010, by the interim government that elections would be delayed until 2011 and Otunbayeva was named as president. Following a referendum on the new Kyrgyz constitution, she was sworn in on 3 July 2010. Otunbayeva however was prohibited by the new constitution from running in the 2011 presidential election[why?] and her term ended on 31 December 2011.[16][17]

The referendum was supported by over 90% and changed the government from a Presidential republic to a Parliamentary republic. Parliamentary elections were held in October and the new parliament elected the Prime Minister and Cabinet.[18][19]

Failure in resolving ethnic clashes of 2010

Victimcs of Kyrgyz-Uzbek ethnic clashes of 2010

In June 2010, a bloody conflict broke out between ethnic Uzbeks and Kyrgyz in southern Kyrgyzstan, during which more than 400 people died and thousands of people lost their homes.

The OSCE International Commission led by Kimmo Kiljunen condemned the government of Roza Otunbaeva for inaction and failure to prevent bloodshed in southern Kyrgyzstan:

“The provisional government, which came to power two months before the events, either did not recognize or underestimated the deterioration of interethnic relations in southern Kyrgyzstan. with a situation of civil disobedience. "President Otunbayeva's arguments that the surge in violence was so widespread that it was difficult for the interim government to contain it does not relieve the authorities of their primary responsibility to protect the population." From the OSCE commission report[20]

The reaction of the authorities under the leadership of Roza Otunbaeva was also harshly condemned by Amnesty International, which accused the Provisional Government under her leadership of crimes against humanity, torture, unfair trials, involvement of government structures, rape and mass violence[21]:

Victims of the June events in Kyrgyzstan

“Investigators and prosecutors have still failed to investigate and prosecute the vast number of crimes committed during and immediately after the June 2010 riots, as well as in the 24 months since, primarily murders and other violent crimes against ethnic Uzbeks . Moreover, allegations of collusion and complicity of security forces in committing human rights violations during the June events also went unaddressed. Dozens of reports of rape and other sexual violence were also not addressed.” From Amnesty International report[22]

In May 2011, the government of Roza Otunbaeva rejected the conclusion of the International Commission of Inquiry into the June 2010 riots (Kyrgyz Commission of Inquiry) that crimes against humanity had been committed against the Uzbek population of the city of Osh during the riots.[22] The OSCE also indicated that violence against Uzbek mahallas was carried out systematically and with the connivance or complicity of law enforcement agencies and the army under the control of Roza Otunbaeva.[22]

Roza Otunbaeva shocked many of her supporters by rejecting the report of an international commission that held her administration responsible for much of the chaos in Osh.[23] However, later, under international pressure, Roza Otunbaeva was forced to openly admit that the security forces of the republic under her control violated the rights of ethnic Uzbeks during interethnic clashes in mid-June.[24]

Reaction in Kyrgyzstan


Former Prosecutor General of Kyrgyzstan Baibolov reported on criminal cases against human rights activists, which began on the direct orders of Roza Otunbaeva.[25] A number of politicians have called Otunbayeva "Black Rose" for her role in ethnic clashes.[3][26] In Kyrgyzstan, the trial on the June 2010 events is still ongoing, and the name of Roza Otunbaeva is heard repeatedly. Kyrgyz politicians, and especially the former leader of the opposition Ata-Jurt party in parliament, Zhyldyzkan Zholdosheva and ex-mayor of Ash Melis Myrzakmatov, reported that they warned the head of the Provisional Government about the impending ethnic conflict and about Otunbaeva’s complete disregard for them.[27][3]

Case of Azimjan Askarov and repressions against NGO


Following the outbreak of ethnic violence in 2010, dozens of Uzbek community and religious leaders were arrested by the Kyrgyzstan government and accused of inciting ethnic violence,[28] among them Azimzhan Askarov, who had been filming killings and arson attacks during the riots.[29] Askarov then distributed the video to international media and accused the Kyrgyz military of complicity in the killings.[30]

Azimjan Askarov in prison cell during the trial stated that he was convicted with direct order of Otunbayeva[2]Members of Azimzhan Askarov’s family also spoke about Roza Otunbaeva’s guilt in their appeals to the UN.[31]

Azimjan Askarov openly stated in the court that he was convicted by direct order of Roza Otunbayeva.[2] Human rights activists reported that they personally spoke to Roza Otunbayeva about the torture of Askarov, but she completely ignored them.[32]

In 2017, Azimzhan Askarov was sentenced to life imprisonment by several Kyrgyz courts for the murder of policeman Maktybek Sulaimanov, who was burned alive, and participation in mass riots in 2010. The term of office of President Roza Otunbayeva expired on December 1, 2011.

Words of Askarov against Otunbayeva were also supported by international commission of International Federation of Human Rights FIDH[33]:

“The Observatory mission met with Kubatbek Baibolov, who held the position of Prosecutor General of Kyrgyzstan at the time of Askarov’s sentencing. According to him, the acting president at the time, Roza Otunbayeva, gave the court a direct instruction to sentence Askarov to life imprisonment"[34][1][35]

Kubatbek Baibolov, who served as Prosecutor General in 2010, confirmed that case against Askarov was politically motivated and directed by Otunbayeva. Members of Azimzhan Askarov’s family also spoke about Roza Otunbaeva’s guilt in their appeals to the UN.[31]On March 31, 2016, the UN Human Rights Committee recognized that the state, during the investigation and trial of the criminal case against Azimzhan Askarov, violated Article 7, separately and in conjunction with Article 1 and Article 14, paragraph 3 (b) and (e) of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The Committee noted the use of torture, cruel, inhuman, degrading treatment.[36]

Kubatbek Baibolov, who served as Prosecutor General in 2010, confirmed that case against Askarov was politically motivated and directed by Otunbayeva. Azimzhan Askarov was sentenced precisely at the time of Baibolov's performance of the duties of the Prosecutor General of the republic, then he was dismissed for moral and ethical reasons at the request of Parliament. (ссылка на ту же статью под номером выше абзац 25, там есть такие слова)

Relationships with organized crime


Temirov Live journalists were able to discover photographs of the participation of closest sister of Roza Otunbaeva at a family event together with the largest criminal authority in Central Asia, Kamchybek Kolbaev who is under US sanctions and was recently killed in special operation of the Kyrgyz government.[37]

Repression of opposition leaders


Case of Urmat Baryktabasov

Arrested opposition politician Urmat Baryktabasov

Under Roza Otunbaeva, a mass arrest of supporters of Urmat Baryktabasov was carried out. Opposition leader Baryktabasov, leader of the Meken-Tuu (My Motherland) party, tried to reach Bishkek on August 5, 2010, together with his supporters. On the way to the capital, the column of oppositionists was dispersed by police who used special equipment. Baryktabasov and a number of his supporters were arrested.[38]

“Many of them have nothing to do with Baryktabasov or the organization of rallies,” the human rights activist explained. NGO leaders noted that among those detained were representatives of the youth wing of Zhasasyn of Kyrgyzstan! party. (“Live, Kyrgyzstan!”), the Zhashtar Kenesh (“Youth Parliament”) movement and others. According to Umetalieva, she witnessed how beaten people were taken out of the State National Security Service in ambulances. According to doctors, the detainees were subjected to torture. Umetalieva noted that “if government members continue repression, the situation may get out of control.”[39] Urmat Baryktabasov was sentenced to 4 years in prison and denied all charges.[38]

Persecution of party members


After the success of the Ata-Jurt party in the 2010 parliamentary elections in Kyrgyzstan, on October 23, the house of its leader, Kamchybek Tashiev, was robbed. He later told Al Jazeera that “they burst in like bandits... I think they intended to shoot me. I believe that they tried to destroy me - forces that want to overturn the election results and impose a state of emergency. I know that, of course, the State Committee for National Security [security services] was behind these actions.”[40] He accused Keneshbek Duyshebaev, head of the State Committee for National Security in the office of transitional President Roza Otunbaeva, of attacking him. During the 2010 elections, his party office was also looted and burned.[41]



In January 2012, Otunbayeva established the International Public Foundation "Roza Otunbayeva Initiative".[42] The main objective of the Foundation is to implement programs and projects that will contribute to the social, political and economic development of the Kyrgyz Republic. During a 2016 speech by her successor at a military parade on Ala-Too Square for the 25th anniversary of Kyrgyzstan's independence, Otunbayeva walked off the stage after President Atamabayev repeatedly criticized her government.[43]

During a speech at the Middlebury Institute of International Studies in May 2018, she claimed that the young Kyrgyz generation values freedom above all, saying that they "have been infected by freedom and it runs deep".[44]

Honours and awards


Roza Otunbayeva was listed as one of the 150 Most Influential Women in the World by Newsweek/Daily Beast 2011 Edition.

Otunbayeva has received France's "Legion of Honour" Award with the degree of Commander, as well as the highest order of Mongolia's "Polar Star" Award. She was awarded the Premio Minerva Medallion, which is presided over by the President of the Italian Republic, "For occupying the highest institutional role in Kyrgyzstan, and for her international activities promoting democracy and peace".

In 2011, Otunbayeva received an International Women of Courage Award, which is presented annually by the United States Department of State to women around the world who have shown leadership, courage, resourcefulness, and the willingness to sacrifice for others, especially while promoting women's rights. On December 13, 2012, the Eurasia Foundation (USA) awarded her with the 2012 Bill Maynes Award for demonstrating visionary leadership throughout Kyrgyzstan's constitutional transition and providing a lifelong example of public service.

Roza Otunbayeva (left, seated), then-Foreign Minister, at the Azattyk Media studio in Bishkek, with journalists Cholpon Orozobekova, Aziza Turdueva, Kubat Otorbaev, Kanat Subakojoev, and studio manager Maksat Toroev (seated).

Otunbayeva is a member of:

She is an Honorary Professor at the:

She is also an Honorary Professor at:

See also



  1. ^ a b K-News (2016-07-11). "Роза Отунбаева дала прямое указание судам приговорить Азимжана Аскарова к пожизненному заключению – Байболов". K-News (in Russian). Retrieved 2023-09-25.
  2. ^ a b c gulzat. "Азимжан Аскаров: Меня осудили по приказу Розы Отунбаевой | Сайт газеты Для Вас" (in Russian). Retrieved 2023-09-25.
  3. ^ a b c "Суд по июньским событиям. Джолдошова рассказала, почему назвала Отунбаеву "черной Розой"". kaktus.media (in Russian). 2022-12-08. Retrieved 2024-05-14.
  4. ^ Ms. Roza Otunbayeva of Kyrgyzstan - Special Representative for Afghanistan and Head of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan United Nations, press release of 2 September 2022.
  5. ^ "Умерла мать экс-президента Розы Отунбаевой Салика Даниярова". kaktus.media. 29 June 2020.
  6. ^ "2007 Report" (PDF) (in Russian). Knyazev.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 March 2012. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  7. ^ © РИА Новости. Руслан Кривобок (8 April 2010). "Роза Исааковна Отунбаева. Биографическая справка | Справки | Лента новостей "РИА Новости"". RIA Novosti. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  8. ^ Osborn, Andrew (8 April 2010). "Roza Otunbayeva, the head of Kyrgyzstan's new interim government, is not an archetypal revolutionary". Telegraph. Retrieved 9 April 2010.
  9. ^ "Roza Otunbayeva". www.worldleaders.columbia.edu. Archived from the original on 23 December 2017. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
  11. ^ a b "Profile: Roza Otunbayeva". BBC. 8 April 2010. Retrieved 9 April 2010.
  12. ^ [1] Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ "Kyrgyzstan - Political Parties". www.globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2015-12-22.
  14. ^ "Opposition Forces In Kyrgyzstan Claim Power, Form Interim Government". Radiofreeeurope/Radioliberty. Rferl.org. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  15. ^ "Kyrgyzstan opposition declares new government". BBC News. 8 April 2010. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  16. ^ "Kyrgyzstan's interim leader named president until end of 2011". Xinhua. 20 May 2010. Archived from the original on 20 May 2010. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
  17. ^ "Kyrgyzstan: Roza Otunbaeva is appointed as the president until the end of 2011 without right for reelection - Ferghana Information agency, Moscow". Enews.ferghana.ru. Archived from the original on 16 July 2012. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  18. ^ "About Rissho Kosei-kai, a Buddhist organization". Rk-world.org. Archived from the original on 20 April 2018. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  19. ^ "eng.24.kg". eng.24.kg. Archived from the original on 30 September 2011. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  20. ^ "IIC: Временное правительство Кыргызстана либо не признало, либо недооценило ухудшение межэтнических отношений на юге Кыргызстана". 24.kg (in Russian). 2011-04-25. Retrieved 2024-05-14.
  21. ^ "Кыргызстан: Неисполнение долга". Amnesty International. Retrieved 2024-05-14.
  22. ^ a b c "Кыргызстан: Неисполнение долга". Amnesty International. Retrieved 2024-05-14.
  23. ^ Токаева, Асем (2012-06-28). "Первый в Центральной Азии добровольно ушедший президент". Радио Азаттык (in Russian). Retrieved 2024-05-14.
  24. ^ Автор (2010-08-05). "Отунбаева признала вину спецслужб Кыргызстана в нарушении прав узбеков". Радио Азаттык (in Russian). Retrieved 2024-05-14.
  25. ^ "Kyrgyzstan at a Crossroads: Shrink or Widen the Scene for Human Rights Defenders". International Federation for Human Rights. Retrieved 2024-05-14.
  26. ^ "Жылдызкан Джолдошова назвала тех, кто должен отвечать за июньские события". kaktus.media (in Russian). 2022-12-08. Retrieved 2024-05-14.
  27. ^ "Экс-депутат: Мырзакматов предупреждал Розу Отунбаеву об июньских событиях". Вечерний Бишкек. 2019-04-12. Retrieved 2024-05-14.
  28. ^ Kramer, Andrew E. (2010-07-02). "Uzbeks Accused of Inciting Violence in Kyrgyzstan". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2023-09-27.
  29. ^ "Kyrgyzstan: Further information: Prisoner of conscience on brink of death: Azimzhan Askarov". Amnesty International. Retrieved 2023-09-27.
  30. ^ "U.S. envoy urges action on Kyrgyz riots". The Washington Times. Retrieved 2023-09-27.
  31. ^ a b "Кыргызстан: Сын правозащитника Аскарова обратился к президенту и ООН". ACCA (in Russian). 2019-12-11. Retrieved 2024-05-16.
  32. ^ "Азиза Абдирасулова: Я оповещала Розу Отунбаеву об избиении Аскара Аскарова". Вечерний Бишкек. 2016-11-15. Retrieved 2023-09-25.
  33. ^ "Kyrgyzstan at a Crossroads: Shrink or Widen the Scene for Human Rights Defenders". International Federation for Human Rights. Retrieved 2023-09-25.
  34. ^ "Кыргызстан на распутье: удастся ли сохранить пространство для правозащитной деятельности?". Fédération internationale pour les droits humains (in Russian). Retrieved 2023-09-25.
  35. ^ "ANOTHER SENTENCE TO LIFE IMPRISONMENT OF Human Rights Defender Azimzhan Askarov Contradicts UN Requirements" (PDF). FIDH. 2017.
  36. ^ "Кыргызстан: Сын правозащитника Аскарова обратился к президенту и ООН". ACCA (in Russian). 2019-12-11. Retrieved 2023-09-25.
  37. ^ Отунбаева тоже связана с Кольбаевым ? // Temirov Live, 16 November 2023, retrieved 2023-12-16
  38. ^ a b "Оппонент властей Киргизии Барыктабасов осужден на четыре года тюрьмы – DW – 28.04.2011". dw.com (in Russian). Retrieved 2024-05-14.
  39. ^ "Эксперты заявили о политических репрессиях в Киргизии". Vesti.kz (in Russian). Retrieved 2024-05-14.
  40. ^ ПОДОЛЬСКАЯ, Дарья (2010-10-23). "Камчыбек Ташиев: За нападением на мой дом стоит председатель спецслужб Кыргызстана Кенешбек Душебаев". 24.kg (in Russian). Retrieved 2024-05-14.
  41. ^ "Бишкек. Митингующие захватили и сожгли офис партии Ата-Журт". centrasia.org. Retrieved 2024-05-14.
  42. ^ "МОФ "Инициатива Розы Отунбаевой" »..." roza.kg. Archived from the original on 6 October 2017. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
  43. ^ Putz, Catherine (September 2016). "Independence Day in Kyrgyzstan Marred by Tragedy, Terror, and Politicking". thediplomat.com.
  44. ^ "Former Kyrgyz President Otunbayeva: Road to Democracy Not a Straight Path". middlebury.edu. May 2018.
Political offices
Preceded by Minister of Foreign Affairs
Succeeded by
Preceded by President of Kyrgyzstan
Succeeded by