Rozellida

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Rozellida
Rozella allomycis2.jpg
Rozella allomycis parasitizing the chytrid Allomyces sp.
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
(unranked): Opisthokonta
(unranked): Holomycota
Phylum: Cryptomycota
Jones & Richards 2011 emend. Karpov & Aleoshin 2014
Class: Rozellidea
Cavalier-Smith 2013
Order: Rozellida
Cavalier-Smith 2013
Genus

Cryptomycota ('hidden fungi'), or Rozellida are a clade of micro-organisms that are either fungi or a sister group to fungi. They differ from classical fungi in that they lack chitinous cell walls in the trophic stage, as reported by Jones and colleagues in 2011.[1][2] Despite their unconventional feeding habits, chitin has been observed in the inner layer of resting spores, and in immature resting spores for some species of Rozella, as indicated with calcofluor-white stain as well as the presence of a fungal-specific chitin synthase gene.[3]

Rozellida were first detected as DNA sequences retrieved from a fresh water laboratory enclosure. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences formed a unique terminal clade of then unknown affiliation provisionally called after the first clone in the clade: LKM11.[4]

The only formally described genus in the clade is Rozella, which was previously considered a chytrid. The existence of related organisms was known from environmental DNA sequences.[5]

Additional members of the group were isolated in 2011 by a team led by Thomas Richards, from the Natural History Museum in London, and also an evolutionary geneticist at the University of Exeter, UK. The team used DNA techniques to disclose the existence of unknown genetic material dredged from the university pond. Once they had a few unknown sequences they fluorescently labeled small DNA sequences and let them bind to the matching DNA in the whole sample (fluorescence in situ hybridization). Under fluorescence microscopy, they could see that the possessor cells were ovoid in shape and 3–5 micrometres across. They then established that the cryptomycota were present in other samples taken from further freshwater environments, soils and marine sediments.[6][7]

The common characteristic of the clade members is that they lack the chitinous cell walls present in almost all previously discovered fungi (including microsporidia) and which are a major feature of the kingdom. Without the chitin the cryptomycota can be phagotrophic parasites that feed by attaching to, engulfing, or living inside other cells. Most known fungi feed by osmotrophy—taking in nutrients from outside the cell.[6]

Taxonomy[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jones MD, Richards TA, Hawksworth DL, Bass D (2011). "Validation and justification of the phylum name Cryptomycota phyl. nov.". IMA Fungus. 2 (2): 173–7. PMC 3359815Freely accessible. PMID 22679602. doi:10.5598/imafungus.2011.02.02.08.  open access publication – free to read
  2. ^ Jones MD, Forn I, Gadelha C, Egan MJ, Bass D, Massana R, Richards TA (2011). "Discovery of novel intermediate forms redefines the fungal tree of life". Nature. 474 (7350): 200–3. PMID 21562490. doi:10.1038/nature09984. 
  3. ^ James TY, Berbee ML (2011). "No jacket required—New fungal lineage defies dress code". BioEssays. 34: 94–102. PMID 22131166. doi:10.1002/bies.201100110. 
  4. ^ van Hannen EJ, Mooij W, van Agterveld MP, Gons HJ, Laanbroek HJ (1999). "Detritus-dependent development of the microbial community in an experimental system: Qualitative analysis by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 65 (6): 2478–84. PMC 91365Freely accessible. PMID 10347030. 
  5. ^ Lara E, Moreira D, López-García P (2010). "The environmental clade LKM11 and Rozella form the deepest branching clade of fungi" (PDF). Protist. 161 (1): 116–21. PMID 19674933. doi:10.1016/j.protis.2009.06.005. 
  6. ^ a b Turner M. (11 May 2011). "The evolutionary tree of fungi grows a new branch". Nature News. doi:10.1038/news.2011.285. Retrieved 2014-10-31. 
  7. ^ Ghosh P. (11 May 2011). "'Missing link' fungi found in Devon pond". BBC News. Retrieved 2014-10-31. 
  8. ^ Karpov; et al. (2014). "Morphology, phylogeny and ecology of the aphelids (Aphelidea, Opisthokonta) and proposal for the new superphylum Opisthosporidia". Frontiers in Microbiology. 5. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2014.00112.