Rubén Ángel Berríos Martínez
|President of the Puerto Rico Independence Party|
|Assumed office |
|Preceded by||Gilberto Concepción de Gracia|
|At-Large Member of the Puerto Rico Senate|
|Born||June 21, 1939|
Aibonito, Puerto Rico
Rubén Ángel Berríos Martínez (born June 21, 1939) is a Puerto Rican politician, international law attorney, writer, and current president of the Puerto Rican Independence Party (PIP). A former three-time senator, Berríos is a perennial PIP candidate for Governor of Puerto Rico. He led the Navy–Culebra protests that succeeded in the United States Navy abandoning the use of the Puerto Rican island of Culebra for military exercises and was a leader for the Cause of Vieques.
Berríos was born in Aibonito, Puerto Rico. He attended high school at Colegio San Ignacio (class of 1957). He received his bachelor's degree in business administration and economy from Georgetown University in 1961, his juris doctor and master's degree in law from Yale University (Yale Law School), and his doctoral degree in international rights from Oxford University. He also did some post-doctoral research in Sweden. His first wife was Swedish and his son Rubén Axel was born in Stockholm. He has been a tenured professor of law at the University of Puerto Rico School of Law since 1967.
Berríos became president of the Independence Party PIP when he was thirty-one years old and has been president of it five times during fifty years. Under his leadership, the PIP adopted a democratic socialist program. Although he has had limited success at the voting booth regarding his candidacy for the post of Governor of Puerto Rico in 1976, 1980, 1988, 2000 and 2004 — losing every time to either the Popular Democratic Party (PPD) or the New Progressive Party (PNP) candidate — he, nevertheless, has enjoyed great electoral success regarding his candidacy to the Senate, receiving more votes than any other candidate in the Puerto Rican senatorial elections of 1972, 1984, 1992 and 1996.
In 1972, the thirty-three-year-old Berríos was elected to his first term as an at-large senator. He was also re-elected to at-large senatorial seats at the Puerto Rican Legislative Assembly on three additional occasions: 1984, 1992, and 1996.
Berríos founded the Permanent Conference of Political Parties of Latin America and the Caribbean (COPPPAL), is a member of the Executive Council of the Latin American Human Rights Association (ALDHU), and Honorary President of the Socialist International (SI).
He has published the books The Independence of Puerto Rico: Cause and Struggle, Puerto Rico: Nationality and Plebiscite, and Towards Puerto Rican Socialism, and has collaborated with various publications enjoying wide international prestige such as Foreign Affairs.
In 2015, Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega named Berrios as his political advisor.
Berríos is widely admired by many in Puerto Rico, including those who do not follow his political ideology. In 1984, for example, he received 84% of the general vote in his candidacy for senator.
Berríos believes that there should be a change in the U.S. maritime laws that force Puerto Rico to import and export goods on U.S. ships. Such laws increase the price of products entering or leaving the island. He also believes that the U.S. Selective Service laws should not apply to Puerto Rico without the consent of the Puerto Rican legislature.
|You may listen to one of the speeches made by Rubén Berríos before a Congressional Hearing on YouTube|
In 1971, Berríos led the Navy-Culebra protests that criticized the United States Navy's use of the island of Culebra, Puerto Rico for military exercises. He squatted in Culebra's Flamenco Beach for three days. He was then arrested and imprisoned for three months. In part because of his efforts, the U.S. Navy abandoned its facilities in Culebra.
On May 8, 1999, Berríos began camping inside the U.S. Navy bombing practice grounds in the island of Vieques, Puerto Rico (see Navy-Vieques protests). He stayed in the Gilberto Concepción de Gracia encampment — baptized in honor of the PIP founder — for 362 consecutive days, enduring both camp devastations due to storms and declining health due to a new diagnosis of prostate cancer. In December 1999, he resigned his Senate seat due to the uncertainty and prolongation of his stay at the encampment.
On May 4, 2000, the encampments were evacuated by federal marshals and United States Marines, and Berríos was arrested. Berríos' arrest was televised island-wide in Puerto Rico.
Five days later, Berríos reentered the Vieques target practice grounds. As a result, he was arrested and went to trial at the United States District Court for the District of Puerto Rico, in San Juan, and sentenced to six hours of detention. Similar to what Berríos Martínez had done in Culebra thirty years before, Berríos did not recognize the jurisdiction of the American judicial forum in Puerto Rico during his trial for the Vieques trespassing, and did not present any legal defense. Speaking to Berríos Martínez, the sentencing judge said, "Odd as it may seem to you, we both are on the side of democracy on this one; you are complying with your conscience. I am also complying with mine."
With the continuation of bombing practices by the U.S. Navy, Berríos announced his intention to enter the restricted grounds for a third time. He stayed for five days in the target practice area, before being arrested violently and forced to lie on a hot gravel road for an extended period of time after being handcuffed with his hands to his back with the other PIP members that accompanied him at the U.S. Navy bombing range. This time, convicted for the fourth time (one in Culebra and three additional civil disobedience arrests) by a United States District Court, Berríos was sentenced to four months in prison.
The U.S. Navy abandoned its facilities in Vieques on May 1, 2003, by order of President George W. Bush.
Former professions or positions held
- Currently a professor at the University of Puerto Rico, School of Law (2006)
- Candidate for Governor of Puerto Rico (1976, 1980, 1988, 2000, 2004) - has never won
- Civil disobedient for the Navy-Culebra protests (1971) and the Cause of Vieques (1999)
- President of Puerto Rican Independence Party (1970 to present)
- Professor of Law at the University of Puerto Rico (1967–1971)
- Senator of Puerto Rico (1972–1976, 1984–1988, 1993–1996)
Writings, books, speeches
Berríos has authored the following works and speeches:
- The Independence of Puerto Rico: Cause and Struggle. Speech before the United Nations about colonialism in Puerto Rico, August 1973
- Towards Puerto Rican Socialism. Puerto Rico
- La Independencia de Puerto Rico: Razón y Lucha, 1984
- Puerto Rico's Decolonization. Foreign Affairs, Council on Foreign Affairs, 1997
- Un Mapa Para la Ruta (A Road Map), 2004.
- List of Puerto Ricans
- Latin American and Caribbean Congress in Solidarity with Puerto Rico's Independence
- Manuel Rodríguez Orellana, Esq. - PIP Secretary of Relations with North America
- ^ Conferencia Permanente para los Partidos Políticos de América Latina y el Caribe
- ^ Asociación Lationoamericana de Derechos Humanos
- ^ Socialist International
- ^ Presidente nicaragüense nombró a Rubén Berríos como su asesor político. Telemundo. NBCUniversal. 22 July 2015. Updated 7 March 2015. accessed 29 April 2018.
- ^ Zwickel, Jean Willey. Voices for Independence: In the Spirit of Valor and Sacrifice. Portraits of Notable Individuals in the Struggle for Puerto Rican Independence. White Star Press (Pittsburg, California, U.S.) ISBN 0-9620448-0-6. March 1998. Page 96.
- ^ Puerto Ricans expel United States Navy from Culebra Island, 1970-1974. Global Nonviolent Action Database. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
- ^ Interview with Ruben Berríos Martínez, President of the Puerto Rican Independence Party. Archived 2016-03-03 at the Wayback Machine Eleonora Sharef. 2004. The Yale Globalist. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
- ^ Berríos Vieques Arrest
- ^ Vieques Trials: Puerto Rican Activist Sentenced To Six Hours In Jail. John Marino. Washington Post. 14 June 2000. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
- ^ SLAMMER FOR SHARPTON Gets 90 days in Vieques protest; 11 others sentenced. Michael R. Blood and Dave Goldiner. 24 May 2001. New York Daily News. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
- ^ New Battle on Vieques, Over Navy’s Cleanup of Munitions. Mireya Navarro. 6 August 2009. The New York Times. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
- Puerto Rican Independence Party (1998). [Rubén Berríos: Cápsula Biográfica]. Puerto Rico.
- Puerto Rico Herald. Biography: Rubén Berríos. Puerto Rico.
- 1939 births
- Living people
- People from Aibonito, Puerto Rico
- Puerto Rico Independence Party politicians
- McDonough School of Business alumni
- Members of the Senate of Puerto Rico
- Puerto Rican socialists
- Leaders of political parties
- Yale Law School alumni
- Puerto Rican party leaders
- Alumni of the University of Oxford
- Stockholm University alumni
- Puerto Rican prisoners and detainees
- Prisoners and detainees of the United States federal government
- Colegio San Ignacio de Loyola alumni
- Puerto Rican independence activists
- International law scholars
- University of Puerto Rico faculty