Rubber duck debugging

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A rubber duck in use by a developer to aid code review

In software engineering, rubber duck debugging is a method of debugging code by articulating a problem in spoken or written natural language. The name is a reference to a story in the book The Pragmatic Programmer in which a programmer would carry around a rubber duck and debug their code by forcing themselves to explain it, line-by-line, to the duck.[1] Many other terms exist for this technique, often involving different (usually) inanimate objects, or pets such as a dog or a cat.

Many programmers have had the experience of explaining a problem to someone else, possibly even to someone who knows nothing about programming, and then hitting upon the solution in the process of explaining the problem. In describing what the code is supposed to do and observing what it actually does, any incongruity between these two becomes apparent.[2] More generally, teaching a subject forces its evaluation from different perspectives and can provide a deeper understanding.[3] By using an inanimate object, the programmer can try to accomplish this without having to interrupt anyone else. This approach has been used to teach computer science and software engineering[4] for example in CS50[5] and many other courses.

In popular culture[edit]

The Stack Exchange rubber duck avatar featured on 1 April 2018

Insights are often found by simply describing the problem aloud.

— Duck, Quack Overflow

On 1 April 2018, Stack Exchange introduced a rubber duck avatar on their websites as a new feature called Quack Overflow. The duck appeared at the bottom right corner of the browser viewport, and attempted to help visitors by listening to their problems and responding with solutions. However, the duck merely produced a quack sound after apparently thinking and typing. It referenced rubber ducking as a powerful method for solving problems.[6] Some confused visitors seeing the duck for the first time thought that a malware program had been installed in their computer before realizing it was an April Fools' Day joke.[7]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Hunt, Andrew; Thomas, David (1999). The Pragmatic Programmer: From Journeyman to Master. Addison Wesley. ISBN 978-0201616224. p. 95, footnote.
  2. ^ Baker, SJ, The Contribution of the Cardboard Cutout Dog to Software Reliability and Maintainability.
  3. ^ Hayes, David (25 June 2014). "The Psychology Underlying the Power of Rubber Duck Debugging". Press Up via Internet Archive. Retrieved 10 September 2021.
  4. ^ Attwood, Jeff (2012). "Rubber Duck Problem Solving".
  5. ^ Malan, David (2020). "Rubber Duck Debugging in CS50 IDE".
  6. ^ "Stack Exchange has been taken over by a rubber duck!". Meta Stack Exchange. 31 March 2018. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  7. ^ Purushothaman, Praveen Kumar (31 March 2018). "Quack Overflow - Stack Overflow's take on April Fool!". Adventures (Blog). Retrieved 1 April 2018.

External links[edit]