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A rubefacient is a substance for topical application that produces redness of the skin, e.g. by causing dilation of the capillaries and an increase in blood circulation. It has sometimes been used to relieve acute or chronic pain, but there is limited evidence as to its efficacy,[1][2] and as of 2014 the best evidence does not support using gels and creams containing rubefacients for this purpose.[1][better source needed]



Common medicinal rubefacients include:[2]

Common herbal rubefacients include:[citation needed]

See also



  1. ^ a b Derry, S; Matthews, P; Wiffen, PJ; Moore, RA (2014). "Salicylate-containing rubefacients for acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain in adults". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2014 (3): CD007403. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007403.pub3. PMC 6458007. PMID 25425092.
  2. ^ a b Mason et al. 2004 Systematic review of efficacy of topical rubefacients containing salicylates for the treatment of acute and chronic pain BMJ 328:995