Rubin–Ford effect

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The Rubin–Ford effect is the observation of a dipole anisotropy in the recessional velocity of a sample of ScI galaxies. This anisotropy is different in magnitude and direction from that of the cosmic microwave background radiation, and suggests that they are moving relative to the microwave background frame at about 800 km/s in the direction of the constellation Pegasus. It was found in 1976 by Vera Rubin and W. Kent Ford and became the subject of much discussion and interpretation over the following years.


  • Rubin, Ford, Thonnard, Roberts & Graham. "Motion of the Galaxy and the local group determined from the velocity anisotropy of distant SC I galaxies." 1976. Astronomical Journal, vol 81 pp 687–737 [1] [2].