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Virus classification
Group: Group V ((−)ssRNA)
Order: Mononegavirales
Family: Paramyxoviridae
Genus: Rubulavirus
Type species
Mumps rubulavirus
  • Achimota rubulavirus 1
  • Achimota rubulavirus 2
  • Bat mumps rubulavirus
  • Canine rubulavirus
  • Human rubulavirus 2
  • Human rubulavirus 4
  • Mapuera rubulavirus
  • Menangle rubulavirus
  • Mumps rubulavirus
  • Porcine rubulavirus
  • Simian rubulavirus
  • Sosuga rubulavirus
  • Teviot rubulavirus
  • Tioman rubulavirus
  • Tuhoko rubulavirus 1
  • Tuhoko rubulavirus 2
  • Tuhoko rubulavirus 3

Rubulavirus is a genus of viruses in the family Paramyxoviridae, order Mononegavirales. Humans, apes, pigs, and dogs serve as natural hosts. There are currently 17 species in this genus. Diseases associated with this genus include: mumps.[1][2]


Genus Rubulavirus: species, and their viruses[3]
Species Virus (Abbreviation)
Achimota rubulavirus 1 Achimota virus 1 (AchPV-1)
Achimota rubulavirus 2 Achimota virus 2 (AchPV-2)
Bat mumps rubulavirus bat mumps virus (BMV)
Canine rubulavirus parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV-5)
Human rubulavirus 2 human parainfluenza virus 2 (HPIV-2)
Human rubulavirus 4 human parainfluenza virus 4a (HPIV-4a)
human parainfluenza virus 4b (HPIV-4b)
Mapuera rubulavirus Mapuera virus (MapV)
Menangle rubulavirus Menangle virus (MenPV)
Mumps rubulavirus* mumps virus (MuV)
Porcine rubulavirus La Piedad Michoacán Mexico virus (LPMV)
Simian rubulavirus simian virus 41 (SV-41)
Sosuga rubulavirus Sosuga virus
Teviot rubulavirus Teviot virus (TevPV)
Tioman rubulavirus Tioman virus (TioPV)
Tuhoko rubulavirus 1 Tuhoko virus 1 (ThkPV-1)
Tuhoko rubulavirus 2 Tuhoko virus 2 (ThkPV-2)
Tuhoko rubulavirus 3 Tuhoko virus 3 (ThkPV-3)

Table legend: "*" denotes type species.

Related Viruses[edit]

Viruses of this genus appear to be most closely related to avulaviruses.[4]


Rubulavirions are enveloped, with spherical geometries. The diameter is around 150 nm. Rubulavirus genomes are linear, around 15kb in length. The genome codes for 8 proteins.[1]

Genus Structure Symmetry Capsid Genomic arrangement Genomic segmentation
Rubulavirus Spherical Enveloped Linear Monopartite

The Disease

Rubulavirus causes a disease called mumps. Swollen and painful salivary glands are often a symptom of mumps, but swollen ovaries, testis, or pancreas can also be symptoms. An infected person, can even sometimes show no symptoms which is the case for 20% of individuals who catch the disease. Other symptoms may include muscle aches, fatigue, headache, joint pain, loss of appetite, with infertility and hearing loss, being the most serious complications.

If not vaccinated against mumps, you can catch the disease by breathing around an infected person who has coughed or sneezed, releasing their contaminated saliva. Fortunately, if you get mumps, you're usually immune to future infections of the disease. Children have the highest risk of catching mumps, in fact it is rare for an adult to contract mumps. The incubation period for mumps can range from a couple weeks to a month, while the illness period is a few weeks. The swelling of the salivary glands is caused when the virus travels from the respiratory tract to the salivary glands and multiplies within the glands, causing the glands to swell.

Life cycle[edit]

Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by virus attaches to host cell. Replication follows the negative stranded RNA virus replication model. Negative stranded RNA virus transcription, using polymerase stuttering, through co-transcriptional RNA editing is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host cell by budding. Humans, apes, pigs, and dogs serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are respiratory and saliva.[1]

Genus Host details Tissue tropism Entry details Release details Replication site Assembly site Transmission
Rubulavirus Humans; apes; pigs; dogs None Glycoprotein Budding Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Aerosols; saliva


  1. ^ a b c "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 13 August 2015. 
  2. ^ ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 13 August 2015. 
  3. ^ Amarasinghe, Gaya K.; Bào, Yīmíng; Basler, Christopher F.; Bavari, Sina; Beer, Martin; Bejerman, Nicolás; Blasdell, Kim R.; Bochnowski, Alisa; Briese, Thomas (2017-04-07). "Taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales: update 2017". Archives of Virology. doi:10.1007/s00705-017-3311-7. ISSN 1432-8798. PMID 28389807. 
  4. ^ McCarthy AJ, Goodman SJ (2010) Reassessing conflicting evolutionary histories of the Paramyxoviridae and the origins of respiroviruses with Bayesian multigene phylogenies. Infect Genet Evol 10(1):97–107

External links[edit]