Rubus macraei

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Rubus macraei
Starr 041211-1308 Rubus macraei.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Rubus
Subgenus: Idaeobatus
Species: R. macraei
Binomial name
Rubus macraei

Rubus macraei, commonly known as ʻĀkalakala, is a species of Rubus that is endemic to Hawaii. Although superficially similar to the other Hawaiian species, Rubus hawaiensis, sequence differences of the chloroplast gene ndhF indicate that they are derived from separate colonization events of Hawaii.[2] These data indicate that R. macraei is more distantly related to both Asian and North American species of subgenus Idaeobatus than R. hawaiensis. R. macraei usually has a creeping rather than erect or sprawling habit. It inhabits wet forests, bogs, and subalpine shrublands at elevations of 1,610–2,080 m (5,280–6,820 ft) on the Big Island and East Maui.[3]


  1. ^ "Rubus macraei". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  2. ^ Howarth, Dianella (1997). "Phylogeny of Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus (Rosaceae) and its implications toward colonization of the Hawaiian islands". Systematic Botany. 22 (3): 433–441. doi:10.2307/2419819. 
  3. ^ "ʻakala, ʻakalakala, kala". Hawaiian Ethnobotany Online Database. Bernice P. Bishop Museum. Retrieved 2011-12-29. 

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