Rubyfruit Jungle

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Rubyfruit Jungle
Rubyfruit Jungle (Rita Mae Brown novel) cover.jpg
First edition cover
AuthorRita Mae Brown
CountryUnited States
PublisherVT: Daughters
Publication date
Media typePrint (hardback & paperback)

Rubyfruit Jungle is the first novel by Rita Mae Brown. Published in 1973, it was remarkable in its day for its explicit portrayal of lesbianism. The novel is a coming-of-age autobiographical account of Brown's youth and emergence as a lesbian author. The term "rubyfruit jungle" is a term used in the novel for the female genitals.

Plot summary[edit]

The novel focuses on Molly Bolt, the adopted daughter of a poor family, who possesses remarkable beauty and who is aware of her lesbianism from early childhood. Her relationship with her mother is rocky, and at a young age her mother, referred to as "Carrie", informs Molly that she is not her own biological child but a "bastard". Molly has her first same-sex sexual relationship in the sixth grade with her girlfriend Leota B. Bisland, and then again in a Florida high school, where she has another sexual relationship with another friend, the school's head cheerleader Carolyn Simpson, who willingly has sex with Molly but rejects the "lesbian" label. Molly also engages in sex with males, including her cousin Leroy when the two were younger. Her father, Carl, dies when she is in her junior year of high school.

In a combination of her strong-willed nature and disdain for Carrie, Molly pushes herself to excel in high school, winning a full scholarship to the University of Florida. Unlike Carrie, Carl treated Molly with love and kindness and always supported her goals and education. However, when Molly's relationship with her alcoholic roommate is discovered, she is denied a renewal of her scholarship. Possessing little money, she moves to New York to pursue an education in filmmaking. Upon reaching New York, she realizes that the rubyfruit is possibly not as delicious and varied as she had dreamed within the concrete jungle.

Literary significance and criticism[edit]

This work is notable for being an early literary lesbian novel. Many lesbian readers have found in it a reflection of their own experiences and observations. While some refer to it as "just another lesbian coming of age novel", its success is part of why the genre is now often considered a cliché. However, the book was criticized by psychological theorist David Halperin, who considered its savage ridiculing of butch culture to be heteronormative.[1] In 2015, Rita Mae Brown was awarded the Lee Lynch Classic Book Award from the Golden Crown Literary Society for Rubyfruit Jungle.[2]

The book is directly referenced in Educating Rita with the central character confessing she has changed her name from Susan to Rita in tribute to both the author and the book.


A 1977 review reported that since the book's 1973 release it has remained popular.[3]

In an interview at the 2015 republishing of the book, Brown remarked that the book was an immediate success at the time of its publication.[4]


  1. ^ Halperin, David M. (2012). How to Be Gay (1st ed.). Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belnap Press of Harvard University Press. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-674-06679-3.
  2. ^ Editors (2015-07-28). "Historic Night at Golden Crown Literary Awards". Retrieved 2015-08-06.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  3. ^ Horn, Carole (24 October 1977). "Rita Mae Brown". Washington Post.
  4. ^ Masad, Ilana (22 June 2015). ""Your Sexuality Is the Least Interesting Thing About You": Rita Mae Brown on RubyFruit Jungle's Rerelease". The B&N Teen Blog. Barnes & Noble.

Further reading[edit]