There are very small resident populations of this species in north west Africa and Ethiopia, but the main breeding area of this species is from southeast Europe across central Asia to Southeast Asia. These birds are mostly migratory, wintering in the Indian Subcontinent. This species has colonised the island of Fuerteventura in the Canary Islands, first breeding in 1994 and reaching almost 50 pairs by 2008.
Although becoming quite rare in southeast Europe and southern Spain, the ruddy shelduck is still common across much of its Asian range. It may be this population which gives rise to vagrants as far west as Iceland, Great Britain and Ireland. However, since the European population is declining, it is likely that most occurrences in western Europe in recent decades are escapes or feral birds. Although this bird is observed in the wild from time to time in eastern North America, no evidence of a genuine vagrant has been found.
This is a bird of open country, and it will breed on cliffs, in burrows, tree holes or crevices distant from water, laying 6-16 creamy-white eggs, incubated for 30 days. The ruddy shelduck is usually found in pairs or small groups and rarely forms large flocks. However, moulting and wintering gatherings on chosen lakes or slow rivers can be very large.
The ruddy shelduck is a distinctive species, 58–70 cm (23–28 in) long with a 110–135 cm (43–53 in) wingspan. It has orange-brown body plumage and a paler head. The wings are white with black flight feathers. It swims well, and in flight looks heavy, more like a goose than a duck. The sexes of this striking species are similar, but the male has a black ring at the bottom of the neck in the breeding season summer, and the female often has a white face patch. The call is a loud wild honking.
The ruddy shelduck is a common winter visitor in India. This bird is found in large wetlands, rivers with mud flats and shingle banks. Found in large congregation on lakes and reservoirs. It breeds in high altitude lakes and swamps in Jammu & Kashmir. Arrives in north India by October and departs by April. The genus name Tadorna comes from Celtic roots and means "pied waterfowl", essentially the same as the English "shelduck".
- Utva Pančevo, an aircraft manufacturer, is named after the shelduck.
- BirdLife International (2012). "Tadorna ferruginea". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- Garcia del Rey, Eduardo; Rodriguez-Lorenzo, Juan Antonio (2010). "Breeding status of the Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea at Fuerteventura, Canary Islands: natural colonisation of two habitat types on an oceanic island". Ostrich. , 81(2): 93–96.
- Stockley, C.H. (1923). "Some notes on Indian game birds". The Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 29: 278–279.
- Kear, Janet (2005). Ducks, Geese, and Swans. Oxford University Press. p. 420. ISBN 0-19-861008-4.
- "AEWA Species". http://www.unep-aewa.org. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tadorna ferruginea.|
|Wikispecies has information related to: Tadorna ferruginea|
- BirdLife species factsheet for Tadorna ferruginea
- Tadorna ferruginea on Avibase
- Ruddy shelduck videos, photos, and sounds at the Internet Bird Collection
- Ruddy shelduck photo gallery at VIREO (Drexel University)
- Interactive range map of Tadorna ferruginea at IUCN Red List maps
- Audio recordings of Ruddy shelduck on Xeno-canto.