Rudnya, Rudnyansky District, Smolensk Oblast

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Rudnya (in English)
Рудня (Russian)
-  Town[1]  -
Monument katyusha rudnya.JPG
Katyusha monument
Map of Russia - Smolensk Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Smolensk Oblast in Russia
Rudnya is located in Smolensk Oblast
Rudnya
Rudnya
Location of Rudnya in Smolensk Oblast
Coordinates: 54°57′N 31°06′E / 54.950°N 31.100°E / 54.950; 31.100Coordinates: 54°57′N 31°06′E / 54.950°N 31.100°E / 54.950; 31.100
Administrative status (as of February 2014)
Country Russia
Federal subject Smolensk Oblast[1]
Administrative district Rudnyansky District[1]
Urban settlement Rudnyanskoye[1]
Administrative center of Rudnyansky District,[1] Rudnyanskoye Urban Settlement[1]
Municipal status (as of November 2011)
Municipal district Rudnyansky Municipal District[2]
Urban settlement Rudnyanskoye Urban Settlement[2]
Administrative center of Rudnyansky Municipal District,[2] Rudnyanskoye Urban Settlement[3]
Statistics
Area (urban settlement) (February 2014) 14.99 km2 (5.79 sq mi)[1]
Population (2010 Census) 10,030 inhabitants[4]
Density 669/km2 (1,730/sq mi)[5]
Time zone MSK (UTC+03:00)[6]
First mentioned 1363[citation needed]
Town status since 1926[citation needed]
Previous names Rodnya[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[7] 216790, 216799
Rudnya on Wikimedia Commons

Rudnya (Russian: Ру́дня, Polish: Rudnia) is a town and the administrative center of Rudnyansky District in Smolensk Oblast, Russia, located on the Malaya Berezina River (Dnieper's basin) 68 kilometers (42 mi) northwest of Smolensk, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 10,030 (2010 Census);[4] 9,853 (2002 Census);[8] 11,032 (1989 Census).[9]

History[edit]

Historical affiliations

Poland–Lithuania late 14th cent.–1569
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth 1569–1772
 Russian Empire 1772–1917
Russia Russian Republic 1917
Soviet Russia 1917–1922
 Soviet Union 1922–1991
 Russian Federation 1991–present

Rudnya (as the settlement of Rodnya) is first mentioned in 1363 since the lands were occupied by Andrei of Polotsk and included in the Principality of Smolensk.[10] During Polish rule it was part of the Vitebsk Voivodeship. After the First Partition of Poland in 1772 the area was included into newly established Babinovichsky Uyezd of Mogilev Governorate. In 1840, the uyezd was abolished and merged into Orshansky Uyezd of the same governorate.[11] In 1919, Mogilev Governorate was abolished, and Orshansky Uyezd was included into Gomel Governorate. In 1920, the uyezd was included into Vitebsk Governorate, and shortly the area was transferred to Smolensky Uyezd of Smolensk Governorate. In 1926, Rudnya was granted the town status.[11]

On 12 July 1929, governorates and uyezds were abolished, and Rudnyansky District with the administrative center in Rudnya was established. The district belonged to Smolensk Okrug of Western Oblast. On August 1, 1930 the okrugs were abolished, and the districts were subordinated directly to the oblast. On 27 September 1937 Western Oblast was abolished and split between Oryol and Smolensk Oblasts. Rudnyansky District was transferred to Smolensk Oblast. Between 1941 and September 1943, during World War II, the district was occupied by German troops.[10][12]

Rudnya is known as the maiden battle target of the famous Soviet multiple rocket launchers Katyusha. On July 14, 1941, an experimental artillery battery of seven launchers was first used in battle at Rudnya, under the command of Captain Ivan Flyorov, destroying a concentration of German troops with tanks, armored vehicles, and trucks at the marketplace, causing massive German Army casualties and its retreat from the town in panic.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Rudnya serves as the administrative center of Rudnyansky District.[1] As an administrative division, it is incorporated within Rudnyansky District as Rudnyanskoye Urban Settlement.[1] As a municipal division, this administrative unit also has urban settlement status and is a part of Rudnyansky Municipal District.[2]

Economy[edit]

Industry[edit]

80% of the industrial production in Rudnyansky District is produced by food industry. There is also production of shoes and of doors and windows.[13]

Transportation[edit]

The railway connecting Smolensk with Vitebsk and further with Daugavpils passes Rudnya.

The R120 highway connecting Smolensk with the state border between Russia and Belarus, and continuing across the border to Vitebsk, passes Rudnya as well. The R130 highway connects Rudnya to Demidov.

Culture and recreation[edit]

Rudnya contains one cultural heritage monuments of federal significance and additionally three objects classified as cultural and historical heritage of local significance. The federally protected monument is the monument to the first Katyusha rocket launcher military usage during World War II. The three locally protected monuments are the railway station and two monuments to soldiers fallen in Workd War II.[14]

In Rudnya, there is a history museum[15] and a museum-house of Mikhail Yegorov.[16] The latter is a subdivision of Smolensk State Museum Reserve. Yegorov, who was born close to Rudnya, was one of the two Soviet soldiers who raised a flag over the Reichstag on 2 May 1945, after the Battle of Berlin.

Rudnya at one point had a Shtetl status, meaning that the village had a large concentration of Jews living in it. Jewish families first arrived after the Pale of Settlement was established in the eastern Russian Empire in 1791, granting Jews the legality to live in this settlement area. In 1926, there were 2235 Jews in Rudnya, nearly half of the village's population at the time. The majority of Jews in Rudnya moved to larger cities such as Leningrad and Smolensk in the early 1900's due to the newly established Communist driven industrial boom in larger cities. [17]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Resolution #261
  2. ^ a b c d Law #76-z
  3. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики. Федеральное агентство по технологическому регулированию и метрологии. №ОК 033-2013 1 января 2014 г. «Общероссийский классификатор территорий муниципальных образований. Код 66 638 101». (Federal State Statistics Service. Federal Agency on Technological Regulation and Metrology. #OK 033-2013 January 1, 2014 Russian Classification of Territories of Municipal Formations. Code 66 638 101. ).
  4. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  5. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  6. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  7. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  8. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  9. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  10. ^ a b "История" Check |url= value (help) (in Russian). Rudnyansky District Administration. Retrieved 10 October 2016. 
  11. ^ a b "Герб Руднянского района" (in Russian). City of Roslavl. Retrieved 10 October 2016. 
  12. ^ Борис Парфенов; Ольга Хоренженкова. "К истории формирования Смоленской области" (in Russian). Смоленск. Retrieved 18 June 2016. 
  13. ^ "Промышленность" Check |url= value (help) (in Russian). Rudnyansky District Administration. Retrieved 2 October 2016. 
  14. ^ Памятники истории и культуры народов Российской Федерации (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Culture. Retrieved 2 June 2016. 
  15. ^ "Муниципальное бюджетное учреждение культуры Руднянский исторический музей" (in Russian). Rudnya History Museum. Retrieved 7 October 2016. 
  16. ^ "Дом-музей М.А.Егорова" (in Russian). Смоленский государственный музей-заповедник. Retrieved 7 October 2016. 
  17. ^ http://data.jewishgen.org/wconnect/wc.dll?jg~jgsys~community~-2993839

Sources[edit]

  • Администрация Смоленской области. Постановление №261 от 30 апреля 2008 г. «Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных единиц и территориальных единиц Смоленской области», в ред. Постановления №464 от 27 июня 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в реестр административно-территориальных единиц и территориальных единиц Смоленской области». Опубликован: База данных "Консультант-плюс". (Administration of Smolensk Oblast. Resolution #261 of April 30, 2008 On the Adoption of the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units and Territorial Units of Smolensk Oblast, as amended by the Resolution #464 of June 27, 2014 On Amending the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units and Territorial Units of Smolensk Oblast. ).
  • Смоленская областная Дума. Закон №76-з от 1 декабря 2004 г. «О наделении статусом муниципального района муниципального образования Руднянский район Смоленской области, об установлении границ муниципальных образований, территории которых входят в его состав, и наделении их соответствующим статусом», в ред. Закона №111-з от 23 ноября 2011 г. «О внесении изменений в областной Закон "О наделении статусом муниципального района муниципального образования Руднянский район Смоленской области, об установлении границ муниципальных образований, территории которых входят в его состав, и наделении их соответствующим статусом"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вестник Смоленской областной Думы и Администрации Смоленской области", №12, часть II, стр. 104, 5 декабря 2004 г. (Smolensk Oblast Duma. Law #76-z of December 1, 2004 On Granting the Status of the Municipal District to the Municipal Formation of Rudnyansky District of Smolensk Oblast, on Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations Whose Territories It Comprises, and on Granting Them Appropriate Status, as amended by the Law #111-z of November 23, 2011 On Amending the Oblast Law "On Granting the Status of the Municipal District to the Municipal Formation of Rudnyansky District of Smolensk Oblast, on Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations Whose Territories It Comprises, and on Granting Them Appropriate Status". Effective as of the official publication date.).

External links[edit]