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Rudolf Roessler was born on November 22, 1897 in Kaufbeuren, Bavaria. He was the son of a Bavarian Forestry Official. When World War I broke out, Rudolf Roessler enlisted in the army at the ripe age of 17. For four years, he served in the German army as a combat soldier. While in the army, he met 10 men who would later become his contacts in World War II. After being released from service in the German army, he studied theology in Augsburg.
When Adolf Hitler rose to power, Roessler and his 10 contacts realized the evil in Adolf Hitler. Rudolf Roessler started working as a newspaper man at the Augsburg Post Zeitung to awake fellow Germans to the rise of Nazism.
In 1933, Rudolf Roessler and his wife, Olga, had to flee to Lucern, Switzerland, with only 10 marks in his pocket(about $50). In Lucern, he opened a publishing house, the Vita Nova. There he wrote about the evils of Nazism under the name R.A. Hermes. Hermes for the Greek messenger for the gods.
Unfortunately, due to the secrecy of Rudolf Roessler, not all of his contacts were ever disclosed. What we do know is they were all top German official dedicated to the demise of Hitler. Of his 10 contacts, 5 were generals. Their names were Helmuth S, Hermann F, Rudolf von Gersdorf, Fritz Thiele and Georg T. There was one colonel, "O", Major "K", and three Captains, "S", "A" and "O". These high German Official had top spots in German Operations, Logistics, Transport, Military Economy and Communications. All 10 of the contacts survived through the various purges Hitler had while dictator.
World War II
One day, Rudolf Roessler was visited by Geman generals and 2 of his contacts, Rudolf von Gersdof and Fritz Thiele. He was given a radio and the nickname Lucy, short for Lucern where he lived. His one condition to giving information was that he would never name his sources.
Roessler's information came straight from the German High command itself. He would get radio contact from the Official Broadcasting Center of the OberKommando de Wehrmadt. His contacts betrayed their country from directly under the nose of Hitler himself. The information was given to a transmitter who only knew Roessler by his call number "RAHS." Any information regarding the German army was preceded by "Werther" and Air Force "Olga." His information contained troop movements, invasion timetables, production statistics, casualty counts and loss of equipment for each battle. Often, his information was transmitted to the Russians before the German units received orders.
A typical day for Rudolf Roessler was: up at 6:30 and at 7:30 ride the trolley to work. By 8:00, the Vita Nova was open. Lunch was at noon. In the afternoon, he worked on Swiss intelligence. After dinner, he transmitted messages to the Russians. Rudolf Roessler never slept more than 3 hours a night.
The order of how the Russians received Roessler's information was this: the 10 contacts would send information to Roessler. From Roessler, he would send to Christian Schneider his boss. From Schneider to Rado than Foote and finally to Moscow.
The amount of information Rudolf Roessler sent to Russia could fill about 40 average length books over the course of 5 years. That is about 5,500 messages or 5 messages a day for 3 years or even 129 messages a month. Russia used the information to create psychological warfare. This was an unqualified success and many German soldiers suffered mental breakdowns.
Operation Barbarossa was the largest attack in history. On August 3, 1940, Hitler wanted to attack Russia. He planned on mobilizing armies for two offenses. In the north, the armies would head toward the Baltic Stats and Moscow. Then, Special Operations would secure the Baku Oil Fields. In the south, armies would attack Kiev and Dnieper. Also, there would be 650,000 men in Bulgaria to fight off the allies who would come to the aid of Russia. In total, the eastern front would have spanned over 1,000 miles. In this attack, there would be 186 total German divisions including 19 panzer units, 3,000,000 men, 750,000 horses, 600,000 cars, 7,200 guns, 3,000 tanks and 1,800 planes.
Rudolf Roessler was able to get information for the complete order of battle including codenames, individual battalions down to the soldier, precise times and directions of attack, senior officers down the corps commanders and the intention of each individual attack.
When Roessler received this information, he tried to give the information to the Swiss to relay to the Russians, but the Swiss wouldn't share the information. Rudolf Roessler told them, "I msut remember that my objective, and that of the men I represent, remains the death of Nazism. We are ready to help whoever will do the most to achieve that end, whatever their nationality." Through other contacts, Rudolf Roessler was able to contact the Russians. However, the Russian "center" believed Roessler to be an Agent Provocateur-or a double agent. The "Center" ignored Roessler's information. On June 22, Germany struck exactly as Roessler said. Because of this, Roessler was turned into a star intelligence agent. The center said, “From today all intelligence communication by Lucy will be classified as VYRDO(major importance) and be relayed immediately.”
Operation Zitadelle "Citadelle"
Operation Zitadelle was the greatest tank battle ever fought. Rudolf Roessler was able to get battle information for the sectors attacked, number of men and materials, where the supply and command posts were, where possible reinforcements could come from and the day and hour of attack.
This time, Russia was prepared for the attack. 977,000 men, 3,300 tanks and assault guns, 20,000 other guns, and 3,000 aircraft in a defensive line 70 miles deep. The Soviets planned a counter-offensive trap which included a minefield to channel German tanks to 10 different antitank points with enough man power to completely destroy the target.
The German plan was simple-a classic pincer movement. The 9th army would come from the south with 13 divisions and 7 armored divisions. The 2nd Army would attack head on with 6 armored divisions and 2 infantry divisions. Finally the 4th army would come from the north with 17 divisions and 1 SS armored division. In total, the German army had 570,000 men, 2,500 tanks and 2,000 aircraft.
It was called the greatest tank battle ever fought because of the amount of tanks in that one battle. There were 850 Russian T-34s verses 600 of the 2nd SS Panzer division.
Operation Zitadelle was set for July 5. By July 13, the Germans retreated. The Panzer, tank, force never recovered and the Germans never went on the offensive on the Eastern front for the duration of the war. The Germans suffered 30,000 losses and 60,000 wounded in Operation Zitadelle. The Russian army suffered about the same. After this battle, Russia no longer needed Rudolf Roessler.
After the War
After the war, Rudolf Roessler became a freelance journalist. He never regretted In the summer of 1947, due to financial difficulties Roessler went back to spy work. He worked for the Czech telling them about forces, disposition and weapons of the United States, England and France in West Germany. However, it was very low level material.
Rudolf Roessler was arrest twice on counts of spying for a foreign nation. The first time was on May 9, 1944. Roessler was taken under heavy guard to the prison of Lausanne until he was released on September 8, 1944. The second time was in March of 1953. He was put to trial on November 2, 1953. Roessler was charged with spying on West Germany Federal Republic for the Czech. He was imprisoned for 9 months and released in early 1954.
Death and Quotes
Rudolf Roessler died on December 11, 1958. Some people called Roessler a German Plant or a Russian spy. In reality, he was a dedicated anti-Nazi.
“Even more incredibly, he provided reports-which appeared to have been obtained right from Abwehr headquarters-on what the German intelligence service was telling Hitler about Russian positions, strength, and plans. Taken as a whole, it amounted to a breathtaking intelligence coup; the Russians not only were being told the precise strength and plans of their enemies, they also were learning the scope and accuracy of their opponent’s intelligence. Nothing like it had ever been seen before, nor has it been duplicated since.” Ernest Volkman
A British General said, "[Rudolf Roessler] Having contributed more to our victory in Europe than could have a dozen atom bombs."
Ronald Seth said, "Rudolf Roessler must be ranked among the greatest spies of all time."
"Rudolf Roessler was a saint." Joseph Stocker
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- Ziemke, Earl Frederick. The Soviet Juggernaut. Alexandria, VA: Time-Life, 1980. Print.
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