Rudolph Augustus, Duke of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel

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Rudolph Augustus
Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
RudolphAugust by HansHinrichRundt.jpg
Portrait by Hans Hinrich Rundt, c. 1700
Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Reign September 17, 1666 – January 26, 1704
Spouse(s) Christine Elizabeth of Barby-Mühlingen
Noble family House of Welf
Father Augustus the Younger, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Mother Dorothea of Anhalt-Zerbst
Born (1627-05-16)May 16, 1627
Hitzacker, Principality of Lüneburg
Died January 26, 1704(1704-01-26) (aged 76)
Hedwigsburg (now part of Kissenbrück), Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel

Rudolph Augustus (May 16, 1627 – January 26, 1704), a member of the House of Welf, was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruled as Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel from 1666 until his death. In 1685 he made his younger brother Anthony Ulrich co-ruler.


Reverse of a one-twelfth thaler coin of Rudolph Augustus

He was born in Hitzacker, then the residence of his father Duke Augustus the Younger of Brunswick-Lüneburg and his second wife Princess Dorothea of Anhalt-Zerbst. His father assumed the rule in the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, after his Welf cousin Duke Frederick Ulrich had died childless in 1634.

Rudolph Augustus succeeded his father as ruling Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel in 1666. More interested in his studies and hunting, he soon after appointed his politically astute younger brother Anthony Ulrich governor. In 1671 both besieged and finally occupied the city of Braunschweig, ending about 250 years of local autonomy.

During his reign, Rudolph Augustus concentrated on the Baroque expansion of his ducal residence, including the Alter Weg ("Old Way"), a road connecting the cities of Brunswick and Wolfenbüttel. He died in 1704 at the Hedwigsburg hunting lodge.

Marriage and issue[edit]

In 1650 Rudolph Augustus married Christine Elizabeth (1634–1681), daughter of Count Albert Frederick of Barby and Mühlingen. They had two daughters that reached adulthood:

Upon the death of his first wife, Rudolph Augustus entered into a morganatic marriage with Rosine Elisabeth Menthe (1663–1701), which remained childless.


Rudolph Augustus, Duke of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel
Cadet branch of the House of Este
Born: 16 May 1627 in Hitzacker Died: 26 January 1704 in Hedwigsburg
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
with his brother Anthony Ulrich
between 1685 and 1702

Succeeded by
Anthony Ulrich

External links[edit]

Media related to Rudolph Augustus, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel at Wikimedia Commons