Rudra Mahalaya Temple
|Rudra Mahalaya Temple|
Ruins of main portal, Toran, of Rudra Mahalaya, 1874
|Alternative names||Rudra Mala|
|Architectural style||Māru-Gurjara architecture|
|Location||Siddhpur, Patan district, Gujarat|
|Construction started||943 AD|
|Destroyed||1296 AD and 1414 AD|
|Designations||ASI Monument of National Importance (N-GJ-164 for temple/163 for mosque)|
The Rudra Mahalaya Temple, also known as Rudramal, is a destroyed/desecrated temple complex at Siddhpur in the Patan district of Gujarat, India. Its construction was started in 943 AD by Mularaja and completed in 1140 AD by Jayasimha Siddharaja, the rulers of the Chaulukya dynasty. This Hindu temple was destroyed by the Sultan of Delhi, Alauddin Khalji, and later the Sultan of Gujarat, Ahmed Shah I (1410–44) desecrated and substantially demolished this temple, and also converted part of it into the congregational mosque (Jami Masjid) of the city. Two torans (porches) and four pillars of the former central structure still stand along with western part of the complex used as a congregational mosque.
Siddhpur, historically known as Sristhal. Sidhpur, under the rulers of Chaulukya dynasty, was a prominent town in the 10th century. In the tenth century (943 AD) Mularaja, the founder of the Chaulukya dynasty of Gujarat, started the erection of the Rudra Mahalay temple. In his youth, Muladev had slain his maternal uncle, usurped his throne, and murdered the whole of his mother's kindred; and in old age his crimes hung heavily on his mind. He made pilgrimages and courted the favour of Brahmins from far and near. To a band of them he gave Sristhal, and committing the kingdom to his son Chamundaraja, he retired there to end his days in their company (996 AD). But the Rudra Mahalay was still incomplete, nor was it finished till 1140 AD. An inscription and ballad regarding its construction says,
In Samvat ten (?) hundred, begun by Maharaj Mahadev,
In Samvat twelve hundred and two, Siddharaj completed the work ;
In Samvat twelve hundred two, Magh month, Krishna paksh,
On Monday the fourteenth, in the Nakshatra Shravan and Varyan Yoga,
Siddharaj, in the Rudra Mala, Shivashankar established.
According to another legend, two Parmars from Malwa, named Govinddas and Madhavdas, took up their haunt among the rush grass that covered the neighbourhood of the Rudra Mahalaya, and lived by plunder. There they found the foundations of a temple and Shiva linga, and said that in the night they had seen heavenly beings. This was told to Siddharaj and led to the erection or completion of the temple.
In Mirat-i-Ahmadi, Ali Muhammad Khan writes, "The king on signifying his intention of building the temple, requested the astrologers, it is said, to appoint a fortunate hour; and they at this time predicted the destruction of the building." Then Siddha Raja caused images of "horse lords" and other great kings to be placed in the temple, and "near them a representation of himself in the attitude of supplication, with an inscription praying that, even if the land was laid waste, this temple might not be destroyed."
Alauddin Khalji sent an army under Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan, who dismantled the temple complex in 1296 AD (Samvat 1353). The temple was further destroyed and the western part of it was converted into congregational mosque (Jami Mosque) by Muslim ruler Ahmed Shah I (1410–44) of Muzaffarid dynasty in 1414 or 1415.
The temple was built in Māru-Gurjara architecture style.
The original temple, completed in 1140 to lavish proportions with extensive ornamentation, consisted of a roof measuring 32 feet (9.8 m), much larger than the Abu temple. Its overall dimensions were 300 by 230 feet (91 m × 70 m) with the central building 150 feet (46 m) in length. It was a triple storied temple with 1,600 pillars, 12 entrance doors, and 11 shrines of Rudra positioned around it. The sanctum was located on the west and there was also a mandapa or hall which had porches on the eastern, northern, and southern wings. Today only a few remnants of this complex are seen, such as two "toranas" (porches) and four pillars. One "torana" is elaborately ornamented; the eastern gate which leads to the Saraswati river still stands; the remaining pillars have highly ornamented carvings. Kirti Torana of North has survived. The western part of complex converted into the congregation mosque is also there.
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- Burgess; Murray (1874). "The Rudra Mala at Siddhpur". Photographs of Architecture and Scenery in Gujarat and Rajputana. Bourne and Shepherd. p. 19. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
- "Sidhpur". Official website of Gujarat Tourism. Retrieved 8 April 2016.
- "Rudra Mahalaya Temple Sidhpur Patan District Gujarat". Official website of Gujarat Tourism. Retrieved 8 April 2016.
- Patel, Alka (2004). "Architectural Histories Entwined: The Rudra-Mahalaya/Congregational Mosque of Siddhpur, Gujarat". Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians. 63 (2): 144–163. doi:10.2307/4127950. JSTOR 4127950.
- Sastri & Congress 1907, p. 525-26.
- Alexander Kinloch Forbes (1856). Râs Mâlâ: Or, Hindoo Annals of the Province of Goozerat, in Western India. Richardson Bros. p. 195.
- "Ruined Rudra Mahalaya Temple, Siddhapur". Online Gallery of British Library. Retrieved 8 April 2016.
- "Figure sculpture from the Rudra Mala at Siddhapur". Online Gallery of British Library. Retrieved 8 April 2016.
- Sastri, Kallidaikurichi Aiyah Nilakanta; Congress, Indian History (1907). A Comprehensive History of India. Orient Longmans. ISBN 978-81-7304-561-5.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Burgess; Murray (1874). "The Rudra Mala at Siddhpur". Photographs of Architecture and Scenery in Gujarat and Rajputana. Bourne and Shepherd. p. 19. Retrieved 23 July 2016.