|107th Mayor of New York City|
January 1, 1994 – December 31, 2001
|Preceded by||David Dinkins|
|Succeeded by||Michael Bloomberg|
|United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York|
June 3, 1983 – January 1, 1989
|Preceded by||John S. Martin Jr.|
|Succeeded by||Benito Romano (Acting)|
|United States Associate Attorney General|
February 20, 1981 – June 3, 1983
|Preceded by||John H. Shenefield|
|Succeeded by||D. Lowell Jensen|
Rudolph William Louis Giuliani
May 28, 1944
New York City, U.S.
|Political party||Republican (1980–present)|
Democratic (before 1975)
(m. 1968; div. 1982)
(m. 1984; div. 2002)
(m. 2003; div. 2019)
|Education||Manhattan College (BA)|
New York University (JD)
Mayor of New York City
Rudolph William Louis Giuliani (//, Italian: [dʒuˈljaːni]; born May 28, 1944) is an American politician and disbarred attorney who served as the 107th Mayor of New York City from 1994 to 2001. He previously served as the United States Associate Attorney General from 1981 to 1983 and the United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York from 1983 to 1989.
Giuliani led the 1980s federal prosecution of New York City mafia bosses as U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York. After a failed campaign for Mayor of New York City in the 1989 election, he succeeded in 1993, and was reelected in 1997, holding a platform of toughness on crime. He led New York's controversial "civic cleanup" as its mayor from 1994 to 2001. Mayor Giuliani appointed an outsider, William Bratton, as New York City's new police commissioner. Reforming the police department's administration and policing practices, they applied the broken windows theory, which cites social disorder, like disrepair and vandalism, for attracting loitering addicts, panhandlers, and prostitutes, followed by serious and violent criminals. In particular, Giuliani focused on removing panhandlers and sex clubs from Times Square, promoting a "family values" vibe and a return to the area's earlier focus on business, theater, and the arts. As crime rates fell steeply, well ahead of the national average pace, Giuliani was widely credited, yet later critics cite other contributing factors. In 2000, he ran against First Lady Hillary Clinton for a US Senate seat from New York, but left the race once diagnosed with prostate cancer. For his mayoral leadership after the September 11 attacks in 2001, he was called "America's mayor". He was named Time magazine's Person of the Year for 2001, and was given an honorary knighthood in 2002 by Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom.
In 2002, Giuliani founded a security consulting business, Giuliani Partners, and acquired, but later sold, an investment banking firm, Giuliani Capital Advisors. In 2005, he joined a law firm, renamed Bracewell & Giuliani. Vying for the Republican Party's 2008 presidential nomination, Giuliani was an early frontrunner, yet did poorly in the primary election, withdrew, and endorsed the party's subsequent nominee, John McCain. Declining to run for New York governor in 2010 and for the Republican presidential nomination in 2012, Giuliani focused on the activities of his business firms. In addition, he has often been engaged for public speaking, political commentary, and Republican campaign support.
Giuliani joined President Donald Trump's personal legal team in April 2018. His activities as Trump's attorney have drawn renewed media scrutiny, including allegations that he engaged in corruption and profiteering. In late 2019, Giuliani was reportedly under federal investigation for violating lobbying laws, and possibly several other charges, as a central figure in the Trump–Ukraine scandal, which resulted in Trump's first impeachment. Following the 2020 presidential election, he represented Trump in many lawsuits filed in attempts to overturn the election results, making false and debunked allegations about rigged voting machines, polling place fraud, and an international communist conspiracy. As a consequence, his license to practice law was suspended in New York State in June 2021 and in the District of Columbia in July 2021.
Giuliani was born in the East Flatbush section, then an Italian-American enclave, in New York City's borough of Brooklyn, the only child of working-class parents Helen (née D'Avanzo; 1909–2002) and Harold Angelo Giuliani (1908–1981), both children of Italian immigrants. Giuliani is of Tuscan descent on his father's side, as his paternal grandparents (Rodolfo and Evangelina Giuliani) were born in Montecatini Terme, Tuscany, Italy. He was raised a Roman Catholic. Harold Giuliani, a plumber and a bartender, had trouble holding a job, was convicted of felony assault and robbery, and served prison time in Sing Sing. Once released, he worked as an enforcer for his brother-in-law Leo D'Avanzo, who operated an organized crime-affiliated loan sharking and gambling ring at a restaurant in Brooklyn. The couple lived in East Flatbush until Harold died of prostate cancer in 1981, whereupon Helen moved to Manhattan's Upper East Side.
When Giuliani was seven years old in 1951, his family moved from Brooklyn to Garden City South, where he attended the local Catholic school, St. Anne's. Later, he commuted back to Brooklyn to attend Bishop Loughlin Memorial High School, graduating in 1961.
Giuliani attended Manhattan College in Riverdale, Bronx, where he majored in political science with a minor in philosophy and considered becoming a priest. Giuliani was elected president of his class in his sophomore year, but was not re-elected in his junior year. He joined the Phi Rho Pi college forensic fraternity and honor society. He graduated in 1965. Giuliani decided to forgo the priesthood and instead attended the New York University School of Law in Manhattan, where he made the NYU Law Review and graduated cum laude with a Juris Doctor degree in 1968.
Giuliani started his political life as a Democrat. He volunteered for Robert F. Kennedy's presidential campaign in 1968. He also worked as a Democratic Party committeeman on Long Island in the mid-1960s and voted for George McGovern for president in 1972.
Giuliani did not serve in the military during the Vietnam War. His conscription was deferred while he was enrolled at Manhattan College and NYU Law. Upon graduation from the latter in 1968, he was classified 1-A (available for military service), but in 1969 he was reclassified 2-A (essential civilian) as Judge MacMahon's law clerk. In 1970, Giuliani was reclassified 1-A but received a high 308 draft lottery number and was not called up for service.
Giuliani switched his party registration from Democratic to Independent in 1975. This occurred during a period of time in which he was recruited for a position in Washington, D.C. with the Ford administration: Giuliani served as the Associate Deputy Attorney General and chief of staff to Deputy Attorney General Harold "Ace" Tyler.
His first high-profile prosecution was of Democratic U.S. Representative Bertram L. Podell (NY-13), who was convicted of corruption. Podell pleaded guilty to conspiracy and conflict of interest for accepting more than $41,000 in campaign contributions and legal fees from a Florida airline to obtain federal rights for a Bahama route. Podell, who maintained a legal practice while serving in Congress, said the payments were legitimate legal fees. The Washington Post later reported: "The trial catapulted future New York mayor Rudolph Giuliani to front-page status when, as assistant U.S. attorney, he relentlessly cross-examined an initially calm Rep. Podell. The congressman reportedly grew more flustered and eventually decided to plead guilty."
From 1977 to 1981, during the Carter administration, Giuliani practiced law at the Patterson, Belknap, Webb and Tyler law firm, as chief of staff to his former boss, Ace Tyler. In later years, Tyler became "disillusioned" by what Tyler described as Giuliani's time as US Attorney, criticizing several of his prosecutions as "overkill".
On December 8, 1980, one month after the election of Ronald Reagan brought Republicans back to power in Washington, he switched his party affiliation from Independent to Republican. Giuliani later said the switches were because he found Democratic policies "naïve", and that "by the time I moved to Washington, the Republicans had come to make more sense to me." Others suggested that the switches were made in order to get positions in the Justice Department. Giuliani's mother maintained in 1988 that he "only became a Republican after he began to get all these jobs from them. He's definitely not a conservative Republican. He thinks he is, but he isn't. He still feels very sorry for the poor."
In 1981, Giuliani was named Associate Attorney General in the Reagan administration, the third-highest position in the Department of Justice. As Associate Attorney General, Giuliani supervised the U.S. Attorney Offices' federal law enforcement agencies, the Department of Corrections, the Drug Enforcement Administration, and the United States Marshals Service. In a well-publicized 1982 case, Giuliani testified in defense of the federal government's "detention posture" regarding the internment of more than 2,000 Haitian asylum seekers who had entered the country illegally. The U.S. government disputed the assertion that most of the detainees had fled their country due to political persecution, alleging instead that they were "economic migrants". In defense of the government's position, Giuliani testified that "political repression, at least in general, does not exist" under President of Haiti Jean-Claude Duvalier's regime.
In 1983, Giuliani was appointed to be U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York, which was technically a demotion but was sought by Giuliani because of his desire to personally litigate cases and because the SDNY is considered the highest profile United States Attorney's Office in the country, and as such, is often used by those who have held the position as a springboard for running for public office. It was in this position that he first gained national prominence by prosecuting numerous high-profile cases, resulting in the convictions of Wall Street figures Ivan Boesky and Michael Milken. He also focused on prosecuting drug dealers, organized crime, and corruption in government. He amassed a record of 4,152 convictions and 25 reversals. As a federal prosecutor, Giuliani was credited with bringing the perp walk, parading of suspects in front of the previously alerted media, into common use as a prosecutorial tool. After Giuliani "patented the perp walk", the tool was used by increasing numbers of prosecutors nationwide.
Giuliani's critics claimed that he arranged for people to be arrested, then dropped charges for lack of evidence on high-profile cases rather than going to trial. In a few cases, his arrests of alleged white-collar criminals at their workplaces with charges later dropped or lessened, sparked controversy, and damaged the reputations of the alleged "perps". He claimed veteran stock trader Richard Wigton, of Kidder, Peabody & Co., was guilty of insider trading; in February 1987, he had officers handcuff Wigton and march him through the company's trading floor, with Wigton in tears. Giuliani had his agents arrest Tim Tabor, a young arbitrageur and former colleague of Wigton, so late that he had to stay overnight in jail before posting bond.
Within three months, charges were dropped against both Wigton and Tabor; Giuliani said, "We're not going to go to trial. We're just the tip of the iceberg," but no further charges were forthcoming and the investigation did not end until Giuliani's successor was in place. Giuliani's high-profile raid of the Princeton/Newport firm ended with the defendants having their cases overturned on appeal on the grounds that what they had been convicted of were not crimes.
Mafia Commission trial
In the Mafia Commission Trial, which ran from February 25, 1985, through November 19, 1986, Giuliani indicted eleven organized crime figures, including the heads of New York City's so-called "Five Families", under the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO) on charges including extortion, labor racketeering, and murder for hire. Time magazine called this "Case of Cases" possibly "the most significant assault on the infrastructure of organized crime since the high command of the Chicago Mafia was swept away in 1943", and quoted Giuliani's stated intention: "Our approach is to wipe out the five families." Gambino crime family boss Paul Castellano evaded conviction when he and his underboss, Thomas Bilotti, were murdered on the streets of Midtown Manhattan on December 16, 1985. However, three heads of the Five Families were sentenced to 100 years in prison on January 13, 1987. Genovese and Colombo leaders, Tony Salerno and Carmine Persico received additional sentences in separate trials, with 70-year and 39-year sentences to run consecutively. He was assisted by three Assistant United States Attorneys: Michael Chertoff, the eventual second United States Secretary of Homeland Security and co-author of the Patriot Act; John Savarese, now a partner at Wachtell Lipton Rosen & Katz; and Gil Childers, a later deputy chief of the criminal division for the Southern District of New York and now managing director in the legal department at Goldman Sachs.
According to an FBI memo revealed in 2007, leaders of the Five Families voted in late 1986 on whether to issue a contract for Giuliani's death. Heads of the Lucchese, Bonanno, and Genovese families rejected the idea, though Colombo and Gambino leaders, Carmine Persico and John Gotti, encouraged assassination. In 2014, it was revealed by a former Sicilian Mafia member and informant, Rosario Naimo, that Salvatore Riina, a notorious Sicilian Mafia leader, had ordered a murder contract on Giuliani during the mid-1980s. Riina allegedly was suspicious of Giuliani's efforts prosecuting the American Mafia and was worried that he might have spoken with Italian anti-mafia prosecutors and politicians, including Giovanni Falcone and Paolo Borsellino, who were both murdered in 1992 in separate car bombings. According to Giuliani, the Sicilian Mafia offered $800,000 for his death during his first year as mayor of New York in 1994.
Boesky, Milken trials
Ivan Boesky, a Wall Street arbitrageur who had amassed a fortune of about $200 million by betting on corporate takeovers, was originally investigated by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) for making investments based on tips received from corporate insiders, leading the way for the US Attorney's Office of the Southern District of New York to investigate as well. These stock and options acquisitions were sometimes brazen, with massive purchases occurring only a few days before a corporation announced a takeover. Although insider trading of this kind was illegal, laws prohibiting it were rarely enforced until Boesky was prosecuted. Boesky cooperated with the SEC and informed on several others, including junk bond trader Michael Milken. Per agreement with Giuliani, Boesky received a 3+1⁄2-year prison sentence along with a $100 million fine. In 1989, Giuliani charged Milken under the RICO Act with 98 counts of racketeering and fraud. In a highly publicized case, Milken was indicted by a grand jury on these charges.
Giuliani was U.S. Attorney until January 1989, resigning as the Reagan administration ended. He garnered criticism until he left office for his handling of cases, and was accused of prosecuting cases to further his political ambitions. He joined the law firm White & Case in New York City as a partner. He remained with White & Case until May 1990, when he joined the law firm Anderson Kill Olick & Oshinsky, also in New York City.
Giuliani first ran for New York City mayor in 1989, when he attempted to unseat three-term incumbent Ed Koch. He won the September 1989 Republican Party primary election against business magnate Ronald Lauder, in a campaign marked by claims that Giuliani was not a true Republican and after an acrimonious debate between the two men. In the Democratic primary, Koch was upset by Manhattan Borough president David Dinkins.
In the general election, Giuliani ran as the fusion candidate of both the Republican and the Liberal parties. The Conservative Party, which had often co-lined the Republican party candidate, withheld support from Giuliani and ran Lauder instead. Conservative Party leaders were unhappy with Giuliani on ideological grounds. They cited the Liberal Party's endorsement statement that Giuliani "agreed with the Liberal Party's views on affirmative action, gay rights, gun control, school prayer and tuition tax credits".
During two televised debates, Giuliani framed himself as an agent of change, saying, "I'm the reformer," that "If we keep going merrily along, this city's going down," and that electing Dinkins would represent "more of the same, more of the rotten politics that have been dragging us down". Giuliani pointed out that Dinkins had not filed a tax return for many years and of several other ethical missteps, in particular a stock transfer to his son. Dinkins filed several years of returns and said the tax matter had been fully paid off. He denied other wrongdoing, saying "what we need is a mayor, not a prosecutor," and that Giuliani refused to say "the R-word – he doesn't like to admit he's a Republican". Dinkins won the endorsements of three of the four daily New York newspapers, while Giuliani won approval from the New York Post.
In the end, Giuliani lost to Dinkins by a margin of 47,080 votes out of 1,899,845 votes cast, in the closest election in New York City's history. The closeness of the race was particularly noteworthy considering the small percentage of New York City residents who are registered Republicans and resulted in Giuliani being the presumptive nominee for a rematch with Dinkins at the next election.
Four years after his defeat to Dinkins, Giuliani again ran for mayor. Once again, Giuliani also ran on the Liberal Party line but not the Conservative Party line, which ran activist George Marlin. Giuliani promised to focus the police department on shutting down petty crimes and nuisances as a way of restoring the quality of life:
It's the street tax paid to drunks and panhandlers. It's the squeegee men shaking down the motorist waiting at a light. It's the trash storms, the swirling mass of garbage left by peddlers and panhandlers, and open-air drug bazaars on unclean streets.
Dinkins and Giuliani never debated during the campaign, because they were never able to agree on how to approach a debate. Dinkins was endorsed by The New York Times and Newsday, while Giuliani was endorsed by the New York Post and, in a key switch from 1989, the Daily News. Giuliani went to visit the Lubavitcher Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson, seeking his blessing and endorsement.
Giuliani's opponent in 1997 was Democratic Manhattan Borough president Ruth Messinger, who had beaten Al Sharpton in the September 9, 1997 Democratic primary. In the general election, Giuliani once again had the Liberal Party and not the Conservative Party listing. Giuliani ran an aggressive campaign, parlaying his image as a tough leader who had cleaned up the city. Giuliani's popularity was at its highest point to date, with a late October 1997 Quinnipiac University Polling Institute poll showing him as having a 68 percent approval rating; 70 percent of New Yorkers were satisfied with life in the city and 64 percent said things were better in the city compared to four years previously.
Throughout the campaign he was well ahead in the polls and had a strong fund-raising advantage over Messinger. On her part, Messinger lost the support of several usually Democratic constituencies, including gay organizations and large labor unions. The local daily newspapers – The New York Times, Daily News, New York Post and Newsday – all endorsed Giuliani over Messinger.
In the end, Giuliani won 58% of the vote to Messinger's 41%, and became the first registered Republican to win a second term as mayor while on the Republican line since Fiorello H. La Guardia in 1941. Voter turnout was the lowest in twelve years, with 38% of registered voters casting ballots. The margin of victory included gains in his share of the African American vote (20% compared to 1993's 5%) and the Hispanic vote (43% from 37%) while maintaining his base of white ethnic, Catholic and Jewish voters from 1993.
Giuliani served as mayor of New York City from 1994 through 2001.
In Giuliani's first term as mayor, the New York City Police Department – at the instigation of Commissioner Bill Bratton – adopted an aggressive enforcement/deterrent strategy based on James Q. Wilson's "Broken Windows" approach. This involved crackdowns on relatively minor offenses such as graffiti, turnstile jumping, cannabis possession, and aggressive panhandling by "squeegee men", on the theory that this would send a message that order would be maintained. The legal underpinning for removing the "squeegee men" from the streets was developed under Giuliani's predecessor, Mayor David Dinkins. Bratton, with Deputy Commissioner Jack Maple, also created and instituted CompStat, a computer-driven comparative statistical approach to mapping crime geographically and in terms of emerging criminal patterns, as well as charting officer performance by quantifying criminal apprehensions. Critics of the system assert that it creates an environment in which police officials are encouraged to underreport or otherwise manipulate crime data. An extensive study found a high correlation between crime rates reported by the police through CompStat and rates of crime available from other sources, suggesting there had been no manipulation. The CompStat initiative won the 1996 Innovations in Government Award from the Kennedy School of Government.
During Giuliani's administration, crime rates dropped in New York City. The extent to which Giuliani deserves the credit is disputed. Crime rates in New York City had started to drop in 1991 under previous mayor David Dinkins, three years before Giuliani took office. The rates of most crimes, including all categories of violent crime, made consecutive declines during the last 36 months of Dinkins's four-year term, ending a 30-year upward spiral. A small nationwide drop in crime preceded Giuliani's election, and some critics say he may have been the beneficiary of a trend already in progress. Additional contributing factors to the overall decline in New York City crime during the 1990s were the addition of 7,000 officers to the NYPD, lobbied for and hired by the Dinkins administration, and an overall improvement in the national economy. Changing demographics were a key factor contributing to crime rate reductions, which were similar across the country during this time. Because the crime index is based on that of the FBI, which is self-reported by police departments, some have alleged that crimes were shifted into categories the FBI doesn't collect.
Some studies conclude that the decline in New York City's crime rate in the 1990s and 2000s exceeds all national figures and therefore should be linked with a local dynamic that was not present as such anywhere else in the country: what University of California, Berkeley sociologist Frank Zimring calls "the most focused form of policing in history". In his book The Great American Crime Decline, Zimring argues that "up to half of New York's crime drop in the 1990s, and virtually 100 percent of its continuing crime decline since 2000, has resulted from policing."
Bratton was featured on the cover of Time Magazine in 1996. Giuliani reportedly forced Bratton out after two years, in what was seen as a battle of two large egos in which Giuliani was not tolerant of Bratton's celebrity. Bratton went on to become chief of the Los Angeles Police Department. Giuliani's term also saw allegations of civil rights abuses and other police misconduct under other commissioners after Bratton's departure. There were police shootings of unarmed suspects, and the scandals surrounding the torture of Abner Louima and the killings of Amadou Diallo, Gidone Busch and Patrick Dorismond. Giuliani supported the New York City Police Department, for example by releasing what he called Dorismond's "extensive criminal record" to the public, including a sealed juvenile file.
The Giuliani administration advocated the privatization of the city's public schools, which he called "dysfunctional", and advocated the reduction of state funding for them. He advocated for a voucher-based system to promote private schooling. Giuliani supported protection for illegal immigrants. He continued a policy of preventing city employees from contacting the Immigration and Naturalization Service about immigration violations, on the grounds that illegal aliens should be able to take actions such as sending their children to school or reporting crimes to the police without fear of deportation.
During his mayoralty, gay and lesbian New Yorkers received domestic partnership rights. Giuliani induced the city's Democratic-controlled New York City Council, which had avoided the issue for years, to pass legislation providing broad protection for same-sex partners. In 1998, he codified local law by granting all city employees equal benefits for their domestic partners.
2000 U.S. Senate campaign
Due to term limits, Giuliani was ineligible to run in 2001 for a third term as mayor. In November 1998, four-term incumbent Democratic U.S. Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan announced his retirement and Giuliani immediately indicated an interest in running in the 2000 election for the now-open seat. Due to his high profile and visibility Giuliani was supported by the state Republican Party. Giuliani's entrance led Democratic Congressman Charles Rangel and others to recruit then-U.S. First Lady Hillary Clinton to run for Moynihan's seat, hoping she might combat his star power.
An early January 1999 poll showed Giuliani trailing Clinton by ten points. In April 1999, Giuliani formed an exploratory committee in connection with the Senate run. By January 2000, polling for the race dramatically reversed, with Giuliani now pulling nine points ahead of Clinton, in part because his campaign was able to take advantage of several campaign stumbles by Clinton. Nevertheless, the Giuliani campaign was showing some structural weaknesses; so closely identified with New York City, he had somewhat limited appeal to normally Republican voters in Upstate New York. The New York Police Department's fatal shooting of Patrick Dorismond in March 2000 inflamed Giuliani's already strained relations with the city's minority communities, and Clinton seized on it as a major campaign issue. By April 2000, reports showed Clinton gaining upstate and generally outworking Giuliani, who said his duties as mayor prevented him from campaigning more. Clinton was now eight to ten points ahead of Giuliani in the polls.
Then followed four tumultuous weeks in which Giuliani learned he had prostate cancer and needed treatment; his extramarital relationship with Judith Nathan became public and the subject of a media frenzy; and he announced a separation from his wife Donna Hanover. After much indecision, on May 19, Giuliani announced his withdrawal from the Senate race.
September 11 terrorist attacks
Giuliani received nationwide attention in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks. He made frequent appearances on radio and television on September 11 and afterwards – for example, to indicate that tunnels would be closed as a precautionary measure, and that there was no reason to believe the dispersion of chemical or biological weaponry into the air was a factor in the attack. In his public statements, Giuliani said:
Tomorrow New York is going to be here. And we're going to rebuild, and we're going to be stronger than we were before ... I want the people of New York to be an example to the rest of the country, and the rest of the world, that terrorism can't stop us.
The 9/11 attacks occurred on the scheduled date of the mayoral primary to select the Democratic and Republican candidates to succeed Giuliani. The primary was immediately delayed two weeks to September 25. During this period, Giuliani sought an unprecedented three-month emergency extension of his term from January 1 to April 1 under the New York State Constitution (Article 3 Section 25). He threatened to challenge the law imposing term limits on elected city officials and run for another full four-year term, if the primary candidates did not consent to the extension of his mayoralty. In the end leaders in the State Assembly and Senate indicated that they did not believe the extension was necessary. The election proceeded as scheduled, and the winning candidate, the Giuliani-endorsed Republican convert Michael Bloomberg, took office on January 1, 2002, per normal custom.
Giuliani claimed to have been at the Ground Zero site "as often, if not more, than most workers ... I was there working with them. I was exposed to exactly the same things they were exposed to. So in that sense, I'm one of them." Some 9/11 workers have objected to those claims. While his appointment logs were unavailable for the six days immediately following the attacks, Giuliani logged 29 hours at the site over three months beginning September 17. This contrasted with recovery workers at the site who spent this much time at the site in two to three days.
When Saudi Prince Alwaleed bin Talal suggested the attacks were an indication that the United States "should re-examine its policies in the Middle East and adopt a more balanced stand toward the Palestinian cause," Giuliani asserted, "There is no moral equivalent for this act. There is no justification for it ... And one of the reasons I think this happened is because people were engaged in moral equivalency in not understanding the difference between liberal democracies like the United States, like Israel, and terrorist states and those who condone terrorism. So I think not only are those statements wrong, they're part of the problem." Giuliani subsequently rejected the prince's $10 million donation to disaster relief in the aftermath of the attack.
Emergency command center location and communications problems
Giuliani has been widely criticized for his decision to locate the Office of Emergency Management headquarters on the 23rd floor inside the 7 World Trade Center building. Those opposing the decision perceived the office as a target for a terrorist attack in light of the previous terrorist attack against the World Trade Center in 1993. The office was unable to coordinate efforts between police and firefighters properly while evacuating its headquarters. Large tanks of diesel fuel were placed in 7 World Trade to power the command center. In May 1997, Giuliani put responsibility for selecting the location on Jerome M. Hauer, who had served under Giuliani from 1996 to 2000 before being appointed by him as New York City's first Director of Emergency Management. Hauer has taken exception to that account in interviews and provided Fox News and New York Magazine with a memo demonstrating that he recommended a location in Brooklyn but was overruled by Giuliani. Television journalist Chris Wallace interviewed Giuliani on May 13, 2007, about his 1997 decision to locate the command center at the World Trade Center. Giuliani laughed during Wallace's questions and said that Hauer recommended the World Trade Center site and claimed that Hauer said the WTC site was the best location. Wallace presented Giuliani a photocopy of Hauer's directive letter. The letter urged Giuliani to locate the command center in Brooklyn, instead of lower Manhattan. The February 1996 memo read, "The [Brooklyn] building is secure and not as visible a target as buildings in Lower Manhattan."
In January 2008, an eight-page memo was revealed which detailed the New York City Police Department's opposition in 1998 to location of the city's emergency command center at the Trade Center site. The Giuliani administration overrode these concerns.
The 9/11 Commission Report noted that lack of preparedness could have led to the deaths of first responders at the scene of the attacks. The Commission noted that the radios in use by the fire department were the same radios which had been criticized for their ineffectiveness following the 1993 World Trade Center bombings. Family members of 9/11 victims have said these radios were a complaint of emergency services responders for years. The radios were not working when Fire Department chiefs ordered the 343 firefighters inside the towers to evacuate, and they remained in the towers as the towers collapsed. However, when Giuliani testified before the 9/11 Commission he said the firefighters ignored the evacuation order out of an effort to save lives. Giuliani testified to the commission, where some family members of responders who had died in the attacks appeared to protest his statements. A 1994 mayoral office study of the radios indicated that they were faulty. Replacement radios were purchased in a $33 million no-bid contract with Motorola, and implemented in early 2001. However, the radios were recalled in March 2001 after a probationary firefighter's calls for help at a house fire could not be picked up by others at the scene, leaving firemen with the old analog radios from 1993. A book later published by Commission members Thomas Kean and Lee H. Hamilton, Without Precedent: The Inside Story of the 9/11 Commission, argued that the commission had not pursued a tough enough line of questioning with Giuliani.
Giuliani gained international attention in the wake of the attacks and was widely hailed for his leadership role during the crisis. Polls taken just six weeks after the attack showed a 79 percent approval rating among New York City voters. This was a dramatic increase over the 36 percent rating he had received a year earlier, which was an average at the end of a two-term mayorship. Oprah Winfrey called him "America's Mayor" at a 9/11 memorial service held at Yankee Stadium on September 23, 2001. Other voices denied it was the mayor who had pulled the city together. "You didn't bring us together, our pain brought us together and our decency brought us together. We would have come together if Bozo was the mayor," said civil rights activist Al Sharpton, in a statement largely supported by Fernando Ferrer, one of three main candidates for the mayoralty at the end of 2001. "He was a power-hungry person," Sharpton also said.
Giuliani was praised by some for his close involvement with the rescue and recovery efforts, but others argue that "Giuliani has exaggerated the role he played after the terrorist attacks, casting himself as a hero for political gain." Giuliani has collected $11.4 million from speaking fees in a single year (with increased demand after the attacks). Before September 11, Giuliani's assets were estimated to be somewhat less than $2 million, but his net worth could now be as high as 30 times that amount. He has made most of his money since leaving office.
Time Person of the Year
On December 24, 2001, Time magazine named Giuliani its Person of the Year for 2001. Time observed that, before 9/11, Giuliani's public image had been that of a rigid, self-righteous, ambitious politician. After 9/11, and perhaps owing also to his bout with prostate cancer, his public image became that of a man who could be counted on to unite a city in the midst of its greatest crisis. Historian Vincent J. Cannato concluded in September 2006:
With time, Giuliani's legacy will be based on more than just 9/11. He left a city immeasurably better off – safer, more prosperous, more confident – than the one he had inherited eight years earlier, even with the smoldering ruins of the World Trade Center at its heart. Debates about his accomplishments will continue, but the significance of his mayoralty is hard to deny.
Giuliani initially downplayed the health effects arising from the September 11 attacks in the Financial District and lower Manhattan areas in the vicinity of the World Trade Center site. He moved quickly to reopen Wall Street, and it was reopened on September 17. In the first month after the attacks, he said "The air quality is safe and acceptable."
Giuliani took control away from agencies such as the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the Army Corps of Engineers and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, leaving the "largely unknown" city Department of Design and Construction in charge of recovery and cleanup. Documents indicate that the Giuliani administration never enforced federal requirements requiring the wearing of respirators. Concurrently, the administration threatened companies with dismissal if cleanup work slowed. In June 2007, Christie Todd Whitman, former Republican Governor of New Jersey and director of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), reportedly said the EPA had pushed for workers at the WTC site to wear respirators but she had been blocked by Giuliani. She said she believed the subsequent lung disease and deaths suffered by WTC responders were a result of these actions. However, former deputy mayor Joe Lhota, then with the Giuliani campaign, replied, "All workers at Ground Zero were instructed repeatedly to wear their respirators."
Giuliani asked the city's Congressional delegation to limit the city's liability for Ground Zero illnesses to a total of $350 million. Two years after Giuliani finished his term, FEMA appropriated $1 billion to a special insurance fund, called the World Trade Center Captive Insurance Company, to protect the city against 9/11 lawsuits.
In February 2007, the International Association of Fire Fighters issued a letter asserting that Giuliani rushed to conclude the recovery effort once gold and silver had been recovered from World Trade Center vaults and thereby prevented the remains of many victims from being recovered: "Mayor Giuliani's actions meant that fire fighters and citizens who perished would either remain buried at Ground Zero forever, with no closure for families, or be removed like garbage and deposited at the Fresh Kills Landfill," it said, adding: "Hundreds remained entombed in Ground Zero when Giuliani gave up on them." Lawyers for the International Association of Fire Fighters seek to interview Giuliani under oath as part of a federal legal action alleging that New York City negligently dumped body parts and other human remains in the Fresh Kills Landfill.
Before 2008 election
Since leaving office as mayor, Giuliani has remained politically active by campaigning for Republican candidates for political offices at all levels. When George Pataki became Governor in 1995, this represented the first time the positions of both Mayor and Governor were held simultaneously by Republicans since John Lindsay and Nelson Rockefeller. Giuliani and Pataki were instrumental in bringing the 2004 Republican National Convention to New York City. He was a speaker at the convention, and endorsed President George W. Bush for re-election by recalling that immediately after the World Trade Center towers fell,
Without really thinking, based on just emotion, spontaneous, I grabbed the arm of then-Police Commissioner Bernard Kerik, and I said to him, 'Bernie, thank God George Bush is our president.'
Similarly, in June 2006, Giuliani started a website called Solutions America to help elect Republican candidates across the nation.
After campaigning on Bush's behalf in the U.S. presidential election of 2004, he was reportedly the top choice for Secretary of Homeland Security after Tom Ridge's resignation. When suggestions were made that Giuliani's confirmation hearings would be marred by details of his past affairs and scandals, he turned down the offer and instead recommended his friend and former New York Police Commissioner Bernard Kerik. After the formal announcement of Kerik's nomination, information about Kerik's past – most notably, that he had ties to organized crime, had failed to properly report gifts he had received, had been sued for sexual harassment and had employed an undocumented alien as a domestic servant – became known, and Kerik withdrew his nomination.
On March 15, 2006, Congress formed the Iraq Study Group (ISG). This bipartisan ten-person panel, of which Giuliani was one of the members, was charged with assessing the Iraq War and making recommendations. They would eventually unanimously conclude that contrary to Bush administration assertions, "The situation in Iraq is grave and deteriorating" and called for "changes in the primary mission" that would allow "the United States to begin to move its forces out of Iraq".
On May 24, 2006, after missing all the group's meetings, including a briefing from General David Petraeus, former Secretary of State Colin Powell and former Army Chief of Staff Eric Shinseki, Giuliani resigned from the panel, citing "previous time commitments". Giuliani's fundraising schedule had kept him from participating in the panel, a schedule which raised $11.4 million in speaking fees over fourteen months, and that Giuliani had been forced to resign after being given "an ultimatum to either show up for meetings or leave the group" by group leader James Baker. Giuliani subsequently said he had started thinking about running for president, and being on the panel might give it a political spin.
Giuliani was described by Newsweek in January 2007 as "one of the most consistent cheerleaders for the president's handling of the war in Iraq" and as of June 2007, he remained one of the few candidates for president to unequivocally support both the basis for the invasion and the execution of the war.
Giuliani spoke in support of the removal of the People's Mujahedin of Iran (MEK, also PMOI, MKO) from the United States State Department list of Foreign Terrorist Organizations. The group was on the State Department list from 1997 until September 2012. They were placed on the list for killing six Americans in Iran during the 1970s and attempting to attack the Iranian mission to the United Nations in 1992. Giuliani, along with other former government officials and politicians Ed Rendell, R. James Woolsey, Porter Goss, Louis Freeh, Michael Mukasey, James L. Jones, Tom Ridge, and Howard Dean, were criticized for their involvement with the group. Some were subpoenaed during an inquiry about who was paying the prominent individuals' speaking fees. Giuliani and others wrote an article for the conservative publication National Review stating their position that the group should not be classified as a terrorist organization. They supported their position by pointing out that the United Kingdom and the European Union had already removed the group from their terrorism lists. They further assert that only the United States and Iran still listed it as a terrorist group. However, Canada did not delist the group until December 2012.
2008 presidential campaign
In November 2006, Giuliani announced the formation of an exploratory committee toward a run for the presidency in 2008. In February 2007, he filed a "statement of candidacy" and confirmed on the television program Larry King Live that he was indeed running.
Early polls showed Giuliani with one of the highest levels of name recognition ever recorded along with high levels of support among the Republican candidates. Throughout most of 2007, he was the leader in most nationwide opinion polling among Republicans. Senator John McCain, who ranked a close second behind the New York Mayor, had faded, and most polls showed Giuliani to have more support than any of the other declared Republican candidates, with only former Senator Fred Thompson and former Governor Mitt Romney showing greater support in some per-state Republican polls. On November 7, 2007, Giuliani's campaign received an endorsement from evangelist, Christian Broadcasting Network founder, and past presidential candidate Pat Robertson. This was viewed by political observers as a possibly key development in the race, as it gave credence that evangelicals and other social conservatives could support Giuliani despite some of his positions on social issues such as abortion and gay rights.
Giuliani's campaign hit a difficult stretch during the last two months of 2007, when Bernard Kerik, whom Giuliani had recommended for the position of Secretary of Homeland Security, was indicted on 16 counts of tax fraud and other federal charges. The media reported that when Giuliani was the mayor of New York, he billed several tens of thousands of dollars of mayoral security expenses to obscure city agencies. Those expenses were incurred while he visited Judith Nathan, with whom he was having an extramarital affair (later analysis showed the billing to likely be unrelated to hiding Nathan). Several stories were published in the press regarding clients of Giuliani Partners and Bracewell & Giuliani who were in opposition to goals of American foreign policy. Giuliani's national poll numbers began steadily slipping and his unusual strategy of focusing more on later, multi-primary big states rather than the smaller, first-voting states was seen at risk.
Despite his strategy, Giuliani competed to a substantial extent in the January 8, 2008, New Hampshire primary but finished a distant fourth with 9 percent of the vote. Similar poor results continued in other early contests, when Giuliani's staff went without pay in order to focus all efforts on the crucial late January Florida Republican primary. The shift of the electorate's focus from national security to the state of the economy also hurt Giuliani, as did the resurgence of McCain's similarly themed campaign. On January 29, 2008, Giuliani finished a distant third in the Florida result with 15 percent of the vote, trailing McCain and Romney. Facing declining polls and lost leads in the upcoming large Super Tuesday states, including that of his home New York, Giuliani withdrew from the race on January 30, endorsing McCain.
Giuliani's campaign ended up $3.6 million in arrears, and in June 2008 Giuliani sought to retire the debt by proposing to appear at Republican fundraisers during the 2008 general election, and have part of the proceeds go towards his campaign. During the 2008 Republican National Convention, Giuliani gave a prime-time speech that praised McCain and his running mate, Sarah Palin, while criticizing Democratic nominee Barack Obama. He cited Palin's executive experience as a mayor and governor and belittled Obama's lack of same, and his remarks were met with wild applause from the delegates. Giuliani continued to be one of McCain's most active surrogates during the remainder of McCain's eventually unsuccessful campaign.
After 2008 election
Following the end of his presidential campaign, Giuliani's "high appearance fees dropped like a stone". He returned to work at both Giuliani Partners and Bracewell & Giuliani. His consultancy work included advising Keiko Fujimori with her presidential campaign during the 2011 Peruvian general election. Giuliani also explored hosting a syndicated radio show, and was reported to be in talks with Westwood One about replacing Bill O'Reilly before that position went to Fred Thompson (another unsuccessful 2008 GOP presidential primary candidate). During the March 2009 AIG bonus payments controversy, Giuliani called for U.S. Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner to step down and said the Obama administration lacked executive competence in dealing with the ongoing financial crisis.
Giuliani said his political career was not necessarily over, and did not rule out a 2010 New York gubernatorial or 2012 presidential bid. A November 2008 Siena College poll indicated that although Governor David Paterson – promoted to the office via the Eliot Spitzer prostitution scandal a year before – was popular among New Yorkers, he would have just a slight lead over Giuliani in a hypothetical matchup. By February 2009, after the prolonged Senate appointment process, a Siena College poll indicated that Paterson was losing popularity among New Yorkers, and showed Giuliani with a fifteen-point lead in the hypothetical contest. In January 2009, Giuliani said he would not decide on a gubernatorial run for another six to eight months, adding that he thought it would not be fair to the governor to start campaigning early while the governor tries to focus on his job. Giuliani worked to retire his presidential campaign debt, but by the end of March 2009 it was still $2.4 million in arrears, the largest such remaining amount for any of the 2008 contenders. In April 2009, Giuliani strongly opposed Paterson's announced push for same-sex marriage in New York and said it would likely cause a backlash that could put Republicans in statewide office in 2010. By late August 2009, there were still conflicting reports about whether Giuliani was likely to run.
On December 23, 2009, Giuliani announced that he would not seek any office in 2010, saying "The main reason has to do with my two enterprises: Bracewell & Giuliani and Giuliani Partners. I'm very busy in both." The decisions signaled a possible end to Giuliani's political career. During the 2010 midterm elections, Giuliani endorsed and campaigned for Bob Ehrlich and Marco Rubio.
On October 11, 2011, Giuliani announced that he was not running for president. According to Kevin Law, the Director of the Long Island Association, Giuliani believed that "As a moderate, he thought it was a pretty significant challenge. He said it's tough to be a moderate and succeed in GOP primaries," Giuliani said "If it's too late for (New Jersey Governor) Chris Christie, it's too late for me."
At a Republican fund-raising event in February 2015, Giuliani said, "I do not believe, and I know this is a horrible thing to say, but I do not believe that the president Obama loves America," and "He doesn't love you. And he doesn't love me. He wasn't brought up the way you were brought up and I was brought up, through love of this country." In response to criticism of the remarks, Giuliani said, "Some people thought it was racist – I thought that was a joke, since he was brought up by a white mother ... This isn't racism. This is socialism or possibly anti-colonialism." White House deputy press secretary Eric Schultz said he agreed with Giuliani "that it was a horrible thing to say", but he would leave it up to the people who heard Giuliani directly to assess whether the remarks were appropriate for the event. Although he received some support for his controversial comments, Giuliani said he also received several death threats within 48 hours.
Relationship with Donald Trump
Presidential campaign supporter
Giuliani supported Donald Trump in the 2016 U.S. presidential election. He gave a prime time speech during the first night of the 2016 Republican National Convention. Earlier in the day, Giuliani and former 2016 presidential candidate Ben Carson appeared at an event for the pro-Trump Great America PAC. Giuliani also appeared in a Great America PAC ad entitled "Leadership". Giuliani's and Jeff Sessions's appearances were staples at Trump campaign rallies.
During the campaign, Giuliani praised Trump for his worldwide accomplishments and helping fellow New Yorkers in their time of need. He defended Trump against allegations of racism, sexual assault, and not paying any federal income taxes for as long as two decades.
In August 2016, Giuliani, while campaigning for Trump, claimed that in the "eight years before Obama" became president, "we didn't have any successful radical Islamic terrorist attack in the United States". It was noted that 9/11 happened during George W. Bush's first term. Politifact brought up four more counter-examples (the 2002 Los Angeles International Airport shooting, the 2002 D.C. sniper attacks, the 2006 Seattle Jewish Federation shooting and the 2006 UNC SUV attack) to Giuliani's claim. Giuliani later said he was using "abbreviated language".
Giuliani was believed to be a likely pick for Secretary of State in the Trump administration. However, on December 9, 2016, Trump announced that Giuliani had removed his name from consideration for any Cabinet post.
Advisor to the president
The president-elect named Giuliani his informal cybersecurity adviser on January 12, 2017. The status of this informal role for Giuliani is unclear because, in November 2018, Trump created the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA), headed by Christopher Krebs as director and Matthew Travis as deputy. In the weeks following his appointment, Giuliani was forced to consult an Apple Store Genius Bar when he "was locked out of his iPhone because he had forgotten the passcode and entered the wrong one at least 10 times", belying his putative expertise in the field.
In January 2017, Giuliani said he advised President Trump in matters relating to Executive Order 13769, which barred citizens of seven Muslim-majority countries from entering the United States for 90 days. The order also suspended the admission of all refugees for 120 days.
In mid April 2018, Giuliani joined Trump's legal team, which dealt with the special counsel investigation by Robert Mueller into Russian interference in the 2016 U.S. elections. Giuliani said his goal was to negotiate a swift end to the investigation.
In early May, Giuliani made public that Trump had reimbursed his personal attorney Michael Cohen $130,000 that Cohen had paid to adult-film actress Stormy Daniels for her agreement not to talk about her alleged affair with Trump. Cohen had earlier insisted he used his own money to pay Daniels, and he implied that he had not been reimbursed. Trump had previously said he knew nothing about the matter. Within a week, Giuliani said some of his own statements regarding this matter were "more rumor than anything else".
Later in May 2018, Giuliani, who was asked on whether the promotion of the Spygate conspiracy theory is meant to discredit the special counsel investigation, said the investigators "are giving us the material to do it. Of course, we have to do it in defending the president ... it is for public opinion" on whether to "impeach or not impeach" Trump. In June 2018, Giuliani claimed that a sitting president cannot be indicted: "I don't know how you can indict while he's in office. No matter what it is. If President Trump shot [then-FBI director] James Comey, he'd be impeached the next day. Impeach him, and then you can do whatever you want to do to him."
In June 2018, Giuliani also said Trump should not testify to the special counsel investigation because "our recollection keeps changing". In early July, Giuliani characterized that Trump had previously asked Comey to "give him [then-national security adviser Michael Flynn] a break". In mid-August, Giuliani denied making this comment: "What I said was, that is what Comey is saying Trump said." On August 19 on Meet the Press, Giuliani argued that Trump should not testify to the special counsel investigation because Trump could be "trapped into perjury" just by telling "somebody's version of the truth. Not the truth." Giuliani's argument continued: "Truth isn't truth." Giuliani later clarified that he was "referring to the situation where two people make precisely contradictory statements".
In late July, Giuliani defended Trump by saying "collusion is not a crime" and that Trump had done nothing wrong because he "didn't hack" or "pay for the hacking". He later elaborated that his comments were a "very, very familiar lawyer's argument" to "attack the legitimacy of the special counsel investigation". He also described and denied several supposed allegations that have never been publicly raised, regarding two earlier meetings among Trump campaign officials to set up the June 9, 2016, Trump Tower meeting with Russian citizens. In late August, Giuliani said the June 9, 2016, Trump Tower "meeting was originally for the purpose of getting information about Hillary Clinton".
Additionally in late July, Giuliani attacked Trump's former personal lawyer Michael Cohen as an "incredible liar", two months after calling Cohen an "honest, honorable lawyer". In mid-August, Giuliani defended Trump by saying: "The president's an honest man."
It was reported in early September that Giuliani said the White House could and likely would prevent the special counsel investigation from making public certain information in its final report which would be covered by executive privilege. Also according to Giuliani, Trump's personal legal team is already preparing a "counter-report" to refute the potential special counsel investigation's report.
In an interview with Olivia Nuzzi in New York magazine, Giuliani, who is a Roman Catholic of Italian descent, said, "Don't tell me I'm anti-Semitic if I oppose George Soros ... I'm more of a Jew than Soros is." George Soros is a Hungarian-born Jew who survived The Holocaust. The Anti-Defamation League replied, "Mr. Giuliani should apologize and retract his comments immediately unless he seeks to dog whistle to hardcore anti-Semites and white supremacists who believe this garbage."
In the last days of the Trump administration, when White House aides were soliciting fees to lobby for presidential pardons, Giuliani said that while he'd heard that large fees were being offered, he did not work on clemency cases, saying "I have enough money. I'm not starving."
As of February 16, 2021, Giuliani was reportedly not actively involved in any of Trump's pending legal cases.
Attempts to get Ukraine to carry out investigations
Since at least May 2019, Giuliani has been urging Ukraine's newly elected president, Volodymyr Zelensky, to investigate the oil company Burisma, whose board of directors once included Joe Biden's son Hunter Biden, and to check for irregularities in Ukraine's investigation of Paul Manafort. He said such investigations would benefit his client's defense, and that his efforts had Trump's full support. Toward this end, Giuliani met with Ukrainian officials throughout 2019. In July 2019, Buzzfeed News reported that two Soviet-born Americans, Lev Parnas and Igor Fruman, were liaisons between Giuliani and Ukrainian government officials in this effort. Parnas and Fruman, prolific Republican donors, have neither registered as foreign agents in the United States, nor been evaluated and approved by the State Department. Giuliani responded, "This (report) is a pathetic effort to cover up what are enormous allegations of criminality by the Biden family." Yet by September 2019, there had been no clear evidence of wrongdoing by the Bidens.
As of October 1, 2019, Giuliani hired former Watergate prosecutor Jon Sale to represent him in the House Intelligence Committee's impeachment investigation. The committee also issued a subpoena to Giuliani asking him to release documents related to the Ukraine scandal. The New York Times reported on October 11, 2019, that the United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York, which Giuliani had once led, was investigating him for violating lobbying laws related to his activities in Ukraine. The following month, Bloomberg News reported that the investigation could extend to bribery of foreign officials or conspiracy, and The Wall Street Journal reported Giuliani was being investigated for a possible profit motive in a Ukrainian natural gas venture. Giuliani has denied having any interest in a Ukrainian natural gas venture. In late November, the Wall Street Journal reported that federal prosecutors had just issued subpoenas to multiple associates of Giuliani to potentially investigate certain individuals, apparently including Giuliani, on numerous potential charges, including money laundering, obstruction of justice, conspiracy to defraud the United States, making false statements to the federal government, and mail/wire fraud.
Parnas and Fruman were arrested for campaign finance violations while attempting to board a one-way flight to Frankfurt from Washington Dulles International Airport on October 9, 2019. Giuliani was paid $500,000 to consult for Lev Parnas's company named "Fraud Guarantee". Republican donor and Trump supporter Long Island attorney Charles Gucciardo paid Giuliani on behalf of Fraud Guarantee in two $250,000 payments, in September and October 2018. Fruman eventually pled guilty in September 2021 to having solicited a contribution by a foreign national.
In May 2019, Giuliani described Ukraine's chief prosecutor Yuriy Lutsenko as a "much more honest guy" than his predecessor, Viktor Shokin. After Lutsenko was removed from office, he said in September 2019 that he found no evidence of wrongdoing by the Bidens, and that he had met Giuliani about ten times. Giuliani then reversed his stance, saying that Shokin is the one people "should have spoken to", while Lutsenko acted "corruptly" and "is exactly the prosecutor that Joe Biden put in in order to tank the case".
In September 2019, as reports surfaced that a whistleblower was alleging high-level misconduct related to Ukraine, Giuliani went on CNN to discuss the story. When asked if he had tried to get Ukrainian officials to investigate Biden, he initially replied "No, actually I didn't," but thirty seconds later said, "Of course I did." In a later tweet he seemed to confirm reports that Trump had withheld military assistance funds scheduled for Ukraine unless they carried out the investigation. He said, "The reality is that the president of the United States, whoever he is, has every right to tell the president of another country you better straighten out the corruption in your country if you want me to give you a lot of money. If you're so damn corrupt that you can't investigate allegations – our money is going to get squandered."
Tom Bossert, a former Homeland Security Advisor in the Trump administration, described Giuliani's theory that Ukraine was involved in 2016 U.S. election interference as "debunked"; Giuliani responded that Bossert "doesn't know what the hell he's talking about".
On September 30, 2019, the House Intelligence Committee issued a subpoena to Giuliani asking him to release documents concerning the Ukraine scandal to Committee members by October 15, 2019. On October 2, 2019, Steve Linick, the State Department's inspector general, delivered a 40-page packet of apparent disinformation regarding former vice president Joe Biden and former Ambassador to the Ukraine, Marie Yovanovitch, to Capitol Hill. Linick told congressional aides his office questioned Ulrich Brechbuhl, Pompeo's advisor about the origins of the packet. Brechbuhl noted the packet came to him from Pompeo, who said it "came over", and Brechbuhl reportedly presumed it was from the White House. Later that day, Giuliani acknowledged he passed the packet to Pompeo regarding the Ukraine and attacks on Yovanovich. In a November 2019 interview he confirmed that he had "needed Yovanovitch out of the way" because she was going to make his investigations difficult. "They (the State Department) told me they would investigate it," Giuliani added. Giuliani persuaded Trump to remove Yovanovich from office in spring 2019. By April 2021, the U.S attorney's office in Manhattan was investigating the role of Giuliani and his associates in Yovanovitch's removal.
U.S. ambassador to the European Union Gordon Sondland testified that Trump delegated American foreign policy on Ukraine to Giuliani. The late 2019 impeachment inquiry against Donald Trump centered around Giuliani's actions involving Ukraine. In the compiled testimony and in the December reports of the House Intelligence Committee, Giuliani's name was mentioned more than any but Trump's. Some experts suggested that Giuliani may have violated the Logan Act.
On November 22, 2019, Giuliani sent a letter to Senator Lindsey Graham, Chairman of the Committee on the Judiciary, informing him of at least three witnesses from Ukraine who Giuliani claimed had direct oral, documentary, and recorded evidence of Democratic criminal conspiracy with Ukrainians to prevent Trump's election and, after his election, to remove him from office via contrived charges. Giuliani's letter also claims that the witnesses had evidence of the Biden family's involvement in bribery, money laundering, Hobbs Act extortion, and other possible crimes. The letter sought Graham's help obtaining U.S. visas for the witnesses to testify. The next month, Graham invited Giuliani to share his findings with the Judiciary Committee, and soon advised him "to share what he got from Ukraine with the [intelligence community] to make sure it's not Russia propaganda".
Dmytry Firtash is a Ukrainian oligarch who is prominent in the natural gas sector. In 2017, the Justice Department characterized him as being an "upper echelon (associate) of Russian organized crime". Since his 2014 arrest in Vienna, Austria at the request of American authorities, he has been living there on $155 million bail while fighting extradition to the United States on bribery and racketeering charges, and has been seeking to have the charges dropped. Firtash's attorneys obtained a September 2019 statement from Viktor Shokin, the former Ukrainian prosecutor general who was forced out under pressure from multiple countries and non-governmental organizations, as conveyed to Ukraine by Joe Biden. Shokin falsely asserted in the statement that Biden actually had him fired because he refused to stop his investigation into Burisma. Giuliani, who asserts he has "nothing to do with" and has "never met or talked to" Firtash, promoted the statement in television appearances as purported evidence of wrongdoing by the Bidens. Giuliani told CNN he met with a Firtash attorney for two hours in New York City at the time he was seeking information about the Bidens.
Firtash is represented by Trump and Giuliani associates Joseph diGenova and his wife Victoria Toensing, having hired them on Parnas's recommendation in July 2019. The New York Times reported in November 2019 that Giuliani had directed Parnas to approach Firtash with the recommendation, with the proposition that Firtash could help provide damaging information on Biden, which Parna's attorney described was "part of any potential resolution to [Firtash's] extradition matter". Shokin's statement notes that it was prepared "at the request of lawyers acting for Dmitry Firtash ('DF'), for use in legal proceedings in Austria". Giuliani presented the Shokin statement during American television appearances. Bloomberg News reported on October 18 that during the summer of 2019 Firtash associates began attempting to dig up dirt on the Bidens in an effort to solicit Giuliani's assistance with Firtash's legal matters. Bloomberg News also reported that its sources told them Giuliani's high-profile publicity of the Shokin statement had greatly reduced the chances of the Justice Department dropping the charges against Firtash, as it would appear to be a political quid pro quo. diGenova has said he has known U.S. Attorney General Bill Barr for thirty years, as they both worked in the Reagan Justice Department. The Washington Post reported on October 22 that after they began representing Firtash, Toensing and diGenova secured a rare face-to-face meeting with Barr to argue the Firtash charges should be dropped, but he declined to intervene.
On October 18, The New York Times reported that weeks earlier, before his associates Parnas and Fruman were indicted, Giuliani met with officials with the criminal and fraud divisions of the Justice Department regarding what Giuliani characterized as a "very, very sensitive" foreign bribery case involving a client of his. The Times did not name whom the case involved, but shortly after publication of the story Giuliani told a reporter it was not Firtash. Two days later, the Justice Department said its officials would not have met with Giuliani had they known his associates were under investigation by the SDNY.
On December 3, 2019, the House Intelligence Committee's report included phone records acquired via subpoenas, including numerous phone calls made by Giuliani between April and August 2019.: 58–59, 116–117, 155–159 Calls involved Giuliani in contact with Kurt Volker,: 58 Republican Representative and House Intelligence Committee Ranking Member Devin Nunes,: 155 Lev Parnas,: 156 numbers associated with the Office of Management and Budget and the White House switchboard,: 116–117 and an unidentified White House official whose phone number is referenced as "-1".: 58, 117, 156, 158–159 Chairman Adam Schiff of the House Intelligence Committee announced after the report's release that his committee was investigating whether "-1" referred to President Trump, citing grand jury evidence from the trial of convicted Trump-associate Roger Stone in which the phone number "-1" was shown to have referred to Trump. Writing for The Washington Post, analyst Philip Bump reasoned that Giuliani's calls with "-1" are 'likely' calls with Trump citing that Giuliani speaks longer with "-1" than any other person, "-1" always calls Giuliani, and generally after Giuliani calls the White House switchboard, and timing of some of President Trump's actions shortly after Giuliani's calls with "-1" ended.
In early December 2019, while the House Judiciary Committee began holding public hearings for the impeachment inquiry, Giuliani returned to Ukraine to interview former Ukrainian officials for a documentary series seeking to discredit the impeachment proceedings. U.S. officials told The Washington Post that Giuliani would have been considered a target of Russian intelligence efforts from early in Trump's presidency, and particularly after Giuliani turned his focus to Ukraine — a former Soviet republic under attack from Russia and with deep penetration by Russian intelligence services. Analysts say Trump's and Giuliani's habit of communicating over unencrypted lines makes it highly likely that foreign intelligence agencies could be listening in on the president's unsecured calls with Giuliani; and that foreign intelligence agencies often collect intelligence about a primary target through monitoring communications of other people who interact with that target.
In a December 2019 opinion piece, former FBI director, CIA director and federal judge William Webster wrote of "a dire threat to the rule of law in the country I love". In addition to chastising President Trump and attorney general Bill Barr, Webster wrote he was "profoundly disappointed in another longtime, respected friend, Rudy Giuliani" because his "activities of late concerning Ukraine have, at a minimum, failed the smell test of propriety". Since 2005, Webster had served as the chair of the Homeland Security Advisory Council.
NBC News reported in December 2020 that SDNY investigators, which were reported in late 2019 to be investigating Giuliani's activities, had discussed with Justice Department officials in Washington the possibility of acquiring Giuliani's emails, which might require headquarters approval due to protection by attorney–client privilege. The New York Times reported in February 2021 that the SDNY had requested a search warrant of Giuliani's electronic records in summer 2020, but were met with resistance from high-level political appointees in the Washington headquarters, ostensibly because the election was near, while career officials were supportive of the search warrant. The Justice Department generally avoids taking significant actions relating to political figures that might become public within sixty days of an election. Senior political appointees nevertheless opposed the effort after the election, noting Giuliani played a leading role in challenging the election results. The officials deferred the matter to the incoming Biden administration.
Federal investigators in Manhattan executed search warrants on the early morning of April 28, 2021 at Giuliani's office and Upper East Side apartment, seizing his electronic devices and searching the apartment. FBI agents also executed a search warrant that day on Toensing's Washington, D.C.-area home and confiscated her cellphone. In April 2021, Giuliani's attorney said investigators told him they had searched his client's iCloud account beginning in late 2019, later arguing to a judge that the search was illegal and so the subsequent raid on Giuliani's properties was "fruit of this poisoned tree," demanding to review documents justifying the iCloud search. In May 2021, the SDNY confirmed in a court filing that in late 2019 it obtained search warrants for Giuliani's iCloud account, and that of Toensing, as part of "an ongoing, multi-year grand jury investigation into conduct involving Giuliani, Toensing, and others," and argued that attorneys for Giuliani and Toensing were not entitled to review the underlying documents of the warrants prior to any charges. Giuiliani and Toensing asserted their attorney-client privilege with clients may have been violated by the iCloud searches, which investigators disputed, saying they employed a "filter team" to prevent them from seeing information potentially protected by attorney-client privilege. Federal judge J. Paul Oetken days later ruled in favor of investigators regarding the warrant documents and granted their request for a special master to ensure attorney-client privilege was maintained.
The New York Times reported in February 2021 that the SDNY was scrutinizing Giuliani's association with Firtash in efforts to discredit the Bidens, and efforts to lobby the Trump administration on behalf of Ukrainian officials and oligarchs. Time reported in May 2021 it had spoken with three unidentified witnesses who said they were questioned by investigators, two of whom said they had worked with Giuliani while cooperating with investigators; one witness said investigators were particularly interested in Giuliani's association with Firtash.
United States intelligence community analysis released in March 2021 found that Ukrainian politician Andrii Derkach was among proxies of Russian intelligence who promoted and laundered misleading or unsubstantiated narratives about Biden "to US media organizations, US officials, and prominent US individuals, including some close to former President Trump and his administration". Giuliani met with Derkach in December 2019.
In April 2021, Forensic News reported that the SDNY investigation into Giuliani had expanded to include a criminal probe of Derkach and Andrii Artemenko. The New York Times confirmed weeks later that Derkach was the subject of a criminal investigation into foreign interference in the 2020 United States elections. "Federal prosecutors in Brooklyn have been investigating whether several Ukrainian officials helped orchestrate a wide-ranging plan to meddle in the 2020 presidential campaign, including using Rudolph W. Giuliani to spread their misleading claims about President Biden and tilt the election in Donald J. Trump's favor," the Times reported.
On June 8, 2021, CNN uncovered exclusive audio of a 2019 phone call from Giuliani to Ukraine, stating that "Rudy Giuliani relentlessly pressured and coaxed the Ukrainian government in 2019 to investigate baseless conspiracies about then-candidate Joe Biden."
2020 election lawsuits
In November 2020, after Joe Biden was named president-elect, Trump placed Giuliani in charge of lawsuits related to alleged voter irregularities in the 2020 United States presidential election. Trump designated Giuliani to lead a legal team to challenge the election results. This team—a self-described "elite strike force" that included Sidney Powell, Joseph diGenova, Victoria Toensing and Trump campaign attorney Jenna Ellis —appeared at a November 19 press conference in which they made numerous false and unsubstantiated assertions revolving around an international Communist conspiracy, rigged voting machines, and polling place fraud.
Giuliani repeatedly publicly denounced the use of provisional ballots (in which the poll worker doesn't see the voter's name on the rolls, so the voter swears an affidavit oath that they are registered to vote), arguing that the practice enables fraud, although Giuliani himself had cast this type of ballot on October 31, 2020, in Manhattan.
By January 8, 2021, Trump and his team had lost 63 lawsuits. A month later, Giuliani was no longer representing Trump in any pending cases, according to a Trump adviser. While Trump continued to fundraise, purportedly for his election-related legal fights, as of the end of July 2021 he had not given any of this money to Giuliani. In October 2021, in another context, Trump remarked: "I do pay my lawyers when they do a good job."
One early lawsuit sought to invalidate up to 700,000 mail-in ballots and stop Pennsylvania from certifying its election results. Giuliani claimed to have signed affidavits attesting to voter fraud and election official misconduct in Pennsylvania and elsewhere. Despite not having argued a case in any courtroom for over three decades, Giuliani applied for special permission to represent the Trump presidential campaign in the federal court of Pennsylvania. (In his application, he misrepresented his status with the District of Columbia Bar, claiming that he was a member in good standing, whereas D.C. had suspended him for nonpayment of fees.) In his first day in court on the case, which was November 17, 2020, Giuliani struggled with rudimentary legal processes and was accused by lawyers for the Pennsylvania Secretary of State of making legal arguments that were "disgraceful in an American courtroom". Judge Matthew Brann questioned how Giuliani could justify "asking this court to invalidate some 6.8 million votes thereby disenfranchising every single voter in the commonwealth."
His federal lawsuit against Pennsylvania was dismissed with prejudice on November 21, 2020, with the judge citing "strained legal arguments without merit and speculative accusations" which were "unsupported by evidence". Giuliani and Jenna Ellis reacted by stating that the ruling "helps" the Trump campaign "get expeditiously to the U.S. Supreme Court". They also pointed out that the judge, Matthew W. Brann, was "Obama-appointed", though Brann is also a Republican and a former member of the right-leaning Federalist Society.
The Trump campaign appealed the lawsuit to the Third Circuit Court of Appeals, where a three-judge panel on November 27 rejected the Trump campaign's attempt to undo Pennsylvania's vote certification, because the Trump campaign's "claims have no merit". The panel also ruled that the District Court was correct in preventing the Trump campaign from conducting a second amendment of its complaint. An amendment would be pointless, ruled the judges, because the Trump campaign was not bringing facts before the court, and not even alleging fraud. Judge Stephanos Bibas highlighted that Giuliani himself told the district court that the Trump campaign "doesn't plead fraud", and that this "is not a fraud case". The panel concluded that neither "specific allegations" nor "proof" was provided in this case, and that the Trump campaign "cannot win this lawsuit".
Giuliani and Ellis reacted to the appeals court ruling by condemning the "activist judicial machinery in Pennsylvania". Of the three Appeal Court judges, Stephanos Bibas, who delivered the opinion, was appointed by Trump himself, while judges D. Brooks Smith and Michael Chagares were appointed by Republican president George W. Bush.
Dominion and Smartmatic lawsuits
As part of Giuliani's allegations that voting machines had been rigged, he made several false assertions about two rival companies, Dominion Voting Systems and Smartmatic. These false claims included that Smartmatic owned Dominion; that Dominion voting machines used Smartmatic software; that Dominion voting machines sent vote data to Smartmatic at foreign locations; that Dominion was founded by the former socialist Venezuelan leader Hugo Chávez; and that Dominion is a "radical-left" company with connections to antifa.
Both companies sued Giuliani and Fox News. Dominion filed a defamation lawsuit against Giuliani on January 25, 2021, seeking $1.3 billion in damages, and separately sued Fox News for $1.6 billion. On February 4, 2021, Smartmatic also filed a lawsuit that accused Giuliani, Fox News, some hosts at Fox News, and Sidney Powell of engaging in a "disinformation campaign" against the company, and asked for $2.7 billion in damages.
On September 10, 2021, Fox News told Giuliani that neither he nor his son Andrew would be allowed on their network for nearly three months.
Attack on the Capitol
|2021 United States|
|Timeline of events|
On January 6, 2021, Giuliani spoke at a "Save America March" rally on the Ellipse that was attended by Trump supporters protesting the election results. He repeated conspiracy theories that voting machines used in the election were "crooked" and called for "trial by combat". Trump supporters subsequently stormed the U.S. Capitol in a riot that resulted in the deaths of five people, including a police officer, and temporarily disrupted the counting of the Electoral College vote.
Giuliani had reportedly been calling Republican lawmakers to urge them to delay the electoral vote count in order to ultimately throw the election to Trump. Giuliani attempted to contact Alabama Sen. Tommy Tuberville, a Trump ally, around 7:00 p.m. on January 6, after the Capitol storming, to ask him to "try to just slow it down" by objecting to multiple states and "raise issues so that we get ourselves into tomorrow – ideally until the end of tomorrow". However, Giuliani mistakenly left the message on the voicemail of another senator, who leaked the recording to The Dispatch. Rick Perlstein, a noted historian of the American conservative political movement, termed Giuliani's attempts to slow certification in the wake of the riot as treasonous. "Sedition. Open and shut. He talked about the time that was being opened up. He was welcoming, and using, the violence. This needs to be investigated," Perlstein tweeted on January 11, 2021.
Giuliani faced criticism for his appearance at the rally and the Capitol riot that followed it. Former Congressman and MSNBC host Joe Scarborough called for the arrest of Giuliani, President Trump, and Donald Trump Jr. Manhattan College president Brennan O'Donnell stated in a January 7 open letter to the college community, "one of the loudest voices fueling the anger, hatred, and violence that spilled out yesterday is a graduate of our College, Rudolph Giuliani. His conduct as a leader of the campaign to de-legitimize the election and disenfranchise millions of voters – has been and continues to be a repudiation of the deepest values of his alma mater."
On January 11, the New York State Bar Association, an advocacy group for the legal profession in New York state, announced that it was launching an investigation into whether Giuliani should be removed from its membership rolls, noting both Giuliani's comments to the Trump supporter rally at the Ellipse on January 6, and that it "has received hundreds of complaints in recent months about Mr. Giuliani and his baseless efforts on behalf of President Trump to cast doubt on the veracity of the 2020 presidential election and, after the votes were cast, to overturn its legitimate results". Removal from the group's membership rolls would not directly disbar Giuliani from practicing law in New York. New York State Sen. Brad Hoylman and lawyers' group Lawyers Defending American Democracy, also filed a complaints against Giuliani with the Attorney Grievance Committee of the First Judicial Department of the New York Supreme Court, which has the authority to discipline and disbar licensed New York lawyers.
Also on January 11, 2021, District of Columbia Attorney General Karl Racine said that he is looking at whether to charge Giuliani, along with Donald Trump Jr. and Representative Mo Brooks, with inciting the violent attack.
On January 29, Giuliani falsely claimed that The Lincoln Project played a role in the organization of the Capitol riot. In response, Steve Schmidt announced that the group would be taking legal action against Giuliani for defamation.
On March 5, 2021, Representative Eric Swalwell filed a civil lawsuit against Giuliani and three others (Donald Trump, Donald Trump Jr., and Representative Mo Brooks), seeking damages for their alleged role in inciting the Capitol riot.
Suspension of law license
On June 24, 2021, a New York appellate court suspended Giuliani's law license. The panel of five justices found that there was "uncontroverted" evidence that Giuliani made "demonstrably false and misleading statements to courts, lawmakers and the public" and that "These false statements were made to improperly bolster (Giuliani's) narrative that due to widespread voter fraud, victory in the 2020 United States presidential election was stolen from his client." The court concluded that Giuliani's conduct "immediately threatens the public interest and warrants interim suspension from the practice of law". His license was also suspended in Washington D.C. on July 7, 2021.
After leaving the New York City mayor's office, Giuliani founded a security consulting business, Giuliani Partners LLC, in 2002, a firm that has been categorized by multiple media outlets as a lobbying entity capitalizing on Giuliani's name recognition, and which has been the subject of allegations surrounding staff hired by Giuliani and due to the firm's chosen client base. Over five years, Giuliani Partners earned more than $100 million.
In June 2007, he stepped down as CEO and Chairman of Giuliani Partners, although this action was not made public until December 4, 2007; he maintained his equity interest in the firm. Giuliani subsequently returned to active participation in the firm following the election. In late 2009, Giuliani announced that they had a security consulting contract with Rio de Janeiro, Brazil regarding the 2016 Summer Olympics. He faced criticism in 2012 for advising people once allied with Slobodan Milošević who had lauded Serbian war criminals.
Bracewell & Giuliani
In 2005, Giuliani joined the law firm of Bracewell & Patterson LLP (renamed Bracewell & Giuliani LLP) as a name partner and basis for the expanding firm's new New York office. When he joined the Texas-based firm he brought Marc Mukasey, the son of Attorney General Michael Mukasey, into the firm.
Despite a busy schedule, Giuliani was highly active in the day-to-day business of the law firm, which was a high-profile supplier of legal and lobbying services to the oil, gas, and energy industries. Its aggressive defense of pollution-causing coal-fired power plants threatened to cause political risk for Giuliani, but association with the firm helped Giuliani achieve fund-raising success in Texas. In 2006, Giuliani acted as the lead counsel and lead spokesmen for Bracewell & Giuliani client Purdue Pharma, the makers of OxyContin, during their negotiations with federal prosecutors over charges that the pharmaceutical company misled the public about OxyContin's addictive properties. The agreement reached resulted in Purdue Pharma and some of its executives paying $634.5 million in fines.
Bracewell & Giuliani represented corporate clients before many U.S. government departments and agencies. Some clients have worked with corporations and foreign governments.
In January 2016, Giuliani moved to the law firm Greenberg Traurig, where he served as the global chairman for Greenberg's cybersecurity and crisis management group, as well as a senior advisor to the firm's executive chairman. In April 2018, he took an unpaid leave of absence when he joined Trump's legal defense team. He resigned from the firm on May 9, 2018.
Lobbying in Romania
In August 2018, Giuliani was retained by Freeh Group International Solutions, a global consulting firm run by former FBI Director Louis Freeh, which paid him a fee to lobby Romanian president Klaus Iohannis to change Romania's anti-corruption policy and reduce the role of the National Anticorruption Directorate. Giuliani argued that the anti-corruption efforts had gone too far.
Marriages and relationships
Giuliani married Regina Peruggi, whom he had known since childhood, on October 26, 1968. The marriage was in trouble by the mid-1970s and they agreed to a trial separation in 1975. Peruggi did not accompany him to Washington when he accepted the job in the Attorney General's Office. Giuliani met local television personality Donna Hanover sometime in 1982, and they began dating when she was working in Miami. Giuliani filed for legal separation from Peruggi on August 12, 1982. The Giuliani-Peruggi marriage legally ended in two ways: a civil divorce was issued by the end of 1982, while a Roman Catholic church annulment of the marriage was granted at the end of 1983, reportedly because Giuliani had discovered that he and Peruggi were second cousins. Alan Placa, Giuliani's best man, later became a priest and helped secure the annulment. Giuliani and Peruggi had no children.
Giuliani married Hanover in a Catholic ceremony at St. Monica's Church in Manhattan on April 15, 1984. They had two children, Andrew and Caroline Rose, who is a filmmaker in the LGBTQ+ community and has described herself as "multiverses apart" from her father.
Giuliani was still married to Hanover in May 1999 when he met Judith Nathan, a sales manager for a pharmaceutical company, at Club Macanudo, an Upper East Side cigar bar. By 1996, Donna Hanover had reverted to her professional name and virtually stopped appearing in public with her husband amid rumors of marital problems. Nathan and Giuliani formed an ongoing relationship. In summer 1999, Giuliani charged the costs for his NYPD security detail to obscure city agencies in order to keep his relationship with Nathan from public scrutiny. The police department began providing Nathan with city-provided chauffeur services in early 2000.
By March 2000, Giuliani had stopped wearing his wedding ring. The appearances that he and Nathan made at functions and events became publicly visible, although they were not mentioned in the press. The Daily News and the New York Post both broke news of Giuliani's relationship with Nathan in early May 2000. Giuliani first publicly acknowledged her on May 3, 2000, when he said Judith was his "very good friend".
On May 10, 2000, Giuliani held a press conference to announce that he intended to separate from Hanover. Giuliani had not informed Hanover about his plans before the press conference. This was an omission for which Giuliani was widely criticized. Giuliani then went on to praise Nathan as a "very, very fine woman" and said about Hanover that "over the course of some period of time in many ways, we've grown to live independent and separate lives." Hours later Hanover said, "I had hoped that we could keep this marriage together. For several years, it was difficult to participate in Rudy's public life because of his relationship with one staff member."
Giuliani moved out of Gracie Mansion by August 2001 and into an apartment with a couple he was friends with. Giuliani filed for divorce from Hanover in October 2000, and a public battle broke out between their representatives. Nathan was barred by court order from entering Gracie Mansion or meeting his children before the divorce was final.
In May 2001, Giuliani's attorney revealed that Giuliani was impotent due to prostate cancer treatments and had not had sex with Nathan for the preceding year. "You don't get through treatment for cancer and radiation all by yourself," Giuliani said. "You need people to help you and care for you and support you. And I'm very fortunate I had a lot of people who did that, but nobody did more to help me than Judith Nathan." In a court case, Giuliani argued that he planned to introduce Nathan to his children on Father's Day 2001 and that Hanover had prevented this visit. Giuliani and Hanover finally settled their divorce case in July 2002 after his mayoralty had ended, with Giuliani paying Hanover a $6.8 million settlement and granting her custody of their children. Giuliani married Nathan on May 24, 2003, and gained a stepdaughter, Whitney. It was also Nathan's third marriage after two divorces.
By March 2007, The New York Times and the Daily News reported that Giuliani had become estranged from both his son Andrew and his daughter Caroline. In 2014, he said his relationship with his children was better than ever, and was spotted eating and playing golf with Andrew.
Nathan filed for divorce from Giuliani on April 4, 2018, after 15 years of marriage. According to an interview with New York magazine, "For a variety of reasons that I know as a spouse and a nurse ... he has become a different man." The divorce was settled on December 10, 2019.
In October 2020, following myriad joint public appearances, Giuliani confirmed that he is in a relationship with Maria Ryan, a nurse practitioner and hospital administrator whom his ex-wife Nathan has alleged to have been his mistress for an indeterminate period during their marriage. As of 2018, Ryan was married to United States Marine Corps veteran Robert Ryan, with Giuliani characterizing the couple as platonic friends in response to contemporaneous press inquiries.
In April 1981, Giuliani's father died, at age 73, of prostate cancer, at Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center. 19 years later, in April 2000, Giuliani, then aged 55, was diagnosed with prostate cancer following a prostate biopsy, after an elevated screening PSA. Giuliani chose a combination prostate cancer treatment consisting of four months of neoadjuvant Lupron hormonal therapy, then low dose-rate prostate brachytherapy with permanent implantation of ninety TheraSeed radioactive palladium-103 seeds in his prostate in September 2000, followed two months later by five weeks of fifteen-minute, five-days-a-week external beam radiotherapy at Mount Sinai Medical Center, with five months of adjuvant Lupron hormonal therapy.
On December 6, 2020, Trump announced that Giuliani had contracted COVID-19. Giuliani was admitted to MedStar Georgetown University Hospital the same day. He was discharged from the hospital on December 9.
It was unclear when he received the positive test. In the days leading up to the announcement, Giuliani had been to multiple indoor hearings without wearing a mask, and requested that others remove their masks. The Arizona Legislature closed for one week starting on December 7, 2020, as 15 current and future members had met with Giuliani. He had also met with Republican legislators in Michigan and Georgia, potentially exposing them.
Giuliani has declined to comment publicly on his religious practice and beliefs, although he identifies religion as an important part of his life. When asked if he is a practicing Catholic, Giuliani answered, "My religious affiliation, my religious practices and the degree to which I am a good or not-so-good Catholic, I prefer to leave to the priests."
Awards and honors
- In 1998, Giuliani received The Hundred Year Association of New York's Gold Medal Award "in recognition of outstanding contributions to the City of New York".
- House of Savoy: Knight Grand Cross (motu proprio) of the Order of Merit of Savoy (December 2001)
- For his leadership on and after September 11, Giuliani was made an honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II on February 13, 2002.
- Giuliani was named Time magazine's "Person of the Year" for 2001
- In 2002, the Episcopal Diocese of New York gave Giuliani the Fiorello LaGuardia Public Service Award for Valor and Leadership in the Time of Global Crisis.
- Also in 2002, Former First Lady Nancy Reagan awarded Giuliani the Ronald Reagan Freedom Award.
- In 2002, he received the U.S. Senator John Heinz Award for Greatest Public Service by an Elected or Appointed Official, an award given out annually by Jefferson Awards.
- In 2003, Giuliani received the Academy of Achievement's Golden Plate Award
- In 2004, construction began on the Rudolph W. Giuliani Trauma Center at St. Vincent's Hospital in New York.
- In 2005, Giuliani received honorary degrees from Loyola College in Maryland and Middlebury College. In 2007, Giuliani received an honorary Doctorate in Public Administration from The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina. In 2021, Middlebury announced that it was revoking the degree given to Giuliani.
- In 2006, Rudy and Judith Giuliani were honored by the American Heart Association at its annual Heart of the Hamptons benefit in Water Mill, New York.
- In 2007, Giuliani was honored by the National Italian American Foundation (NIAF), receiving the NIAF Special Achievement Award for Public Service.
- In 2007, Giuliani was awarded the Margaret Thatcher Medal of Freedom by the Atlantic Bridge.
- In the 2009 graduation ceremony for Drexel University's Earle Mack School of Law, Giuliani was the keynote speaker and recipient of an honorary degree. In 2021, Drexel announced that it was rescinding the degree.
- Giuliani was the Robert C. Vance Distinguished Lecturer at Central Connecticut State University in 2013.
- In 1993, Giuliani made a cameo appearance as himself in the Seinfeld episode "The Non-Fat Yogurt", which is a fictionalized account of the 1993 mayoral election. Giuliani's scenes were filmed the morning after his real world election.
- In 2003, Rudy: The Rudy Giuliani Story was released starring actor James Woods as Giuliani.
- In 2018, Giuliani was portrayed multiple times on Saturday Night Live by Kate McKinnon. McKinnon continued portraying him in 2019.
- In 2020, Giuliani made a cameo appearance on a Netflix true crime limited series' Fear City: New York vs The Mafia, talking about his role in leading the 1980s federal prosecution of the Five Families.
- In 2020, Giuliani made an unwitting appearance in Borat Subsequent Moviefilm. In the mockumentary film, Giuliani agrees to an interview with Borat's "daughter", Tutar (played by actress Maria Bakalova), who is disguised as a reporter. When invited to Tutar's hotel room, Giuliani proceeds to lie on her bed and reach inside his trousers; they are immediately interrupted by Borat, who says: "She 15. She too old for you." Giuliani later disregarded the accusation, calling it a "complete fabrication" and saying he was rather "tucking in [his] shirt after taking off the recording equipment". In 2021, Giuliani won two Razzie awards for his part in the film – for Worst Supporting Actor and, with his pants zipper for Worst Screen Combo.
- Disputes surrounding the 2020 United States presidential election results
- Electoral history of Rudy Giuliani
- Political positions of Rudy Giuliani
- Public image of Rudy Giuliani
- Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections
- Timeline of New York City, 1990s–2000s
- Gina M Robertiello, "Giuliani, Rudolph", pp 698–699, in Wilbur R. Miller, ed., The Social History of Crime and Punishment in America: An Encyclopedia (Thousand Oaks CA, New Delhi, London: Sage Publications, 2012).
- "Nomination of Rudolph W. Giuliani To Be an Associate Attorney General | The American Presidency Project". www.presidency.ucsb.edu.
- The crime families were the Genovese, Gambino, Lucchese, Colombo, and Bonanno. For more on this, see Michael Winerip, "High-profile prosecutor", New York Times, June 9, 1985, § 6, p 37.
- Adam Davidson, "Rudy Giuliani and the desperate campaign to protect the president", The New Yorker, May 3, 2018.
- George L. Kelling & Catherine M. Coles, Fixing Broken Windows: Restoring Order And Reducing Crime In Our Communities (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996), pp 143–144.
- Whether lionized or criticized, "Giuliani's cleanup", especially of Manhattan, most famously Times Square, is widely recognized: B. McKee, "Rules and regulations alone can't revive America's downtowns", Architecture (American Institute of Architects), 1998 Mar;87:11; Jane E. Jeffrey, "Dramatic convergence in Times Square", in Phyllis R. Brown, Linda A. McMillin & Katharina M. Wilson, eds., Hrotsvit of Gandersheim: Contexts, Identities, Affinities, and Performances (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004), pp 251–252; Alan Sinfield, Shakespeare, Authority, Sexuality: Unfinished Business in Cultural Materialism (New York Routledge, 2006), p 195; David Freeland, Automats, Taxi Dances, and Vaudeville: Excavating Manhattan's Lost Places of Leisure (New York & London: New York University Press, 2009), p 79; Michael Codella & Bruce Bennett, Alphaville: 1988, Crime, Punishment, and the Battle for New York City's Lower East Side (New York: St. Martin's Press, 2010), indexing "Giuliani's cleanup"; Ramón Rivera-Servera, Performing Queer Latinidad: Dance, Sexuality, Politics (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2012), p 147; Insight Guides Pocket New York (UK: Apa Publications, 2016), indexing "Giuliani's cleanup"; Mark Coran, Opinion: letter to the editor: "Where have you gone, Rudy Giuliani?", New York Times, online June 13, 2018, print June 14, 2018, § A, p 26.
- Christopher M. Donner, "Crime prevention", pp 390–395, in Wilbur R. Miller, ed, The Social History of Crime and Punishment in America: An Encyclopedia (Thousand Oaks CA, New Delhi, London: Sage Publications, 2012), p 393.
- Jane E. Jeffrey, "Dramatic convergence in Times Square", in Phyllis R. Brown, Linda A. McMillin & Katharina M. Wilson, eds., Hrotsvit of Gandersheim: Contexts, Identities, Affinities, and Performances (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004), pp 251–252
- Gail Sheehy, "When Hillary Clinton and Rudy Giuliani did battle for a Senate seat", Vanity Fair, edition June 2000, online December 3, 2007.
- Bumiller, Elisabeth (May 20, 2000). "The Mayor's decision: The overview; cancer is concern". The New York Times.
- "Person Of The Year 2001". Time. Archived from the original on September 28, 2010.
- Vera Bergengruen & Brian Bennett, "How Rudy Giuliani's pursuit of money and power may cost Donald Trump dearly", Time, October 31, 2019.
- Stephen M. Silverman, "Queen Elizabeth knights Rudy Giuliani – Queen Elizabeth II", People, February 13, 2002.
- Cohen et al., "The Party Decides: Presidential Nominations Before and After Reform", Chicago: 2008, p 338.
- "Rudy Giuliani 2010: Ex-Mayor announces that he won't run for office". The Huffington Post. December 22, 2009.
- Eilperin, Juliet (February 8, 2012). "Rudy Giuliani doesn't regret sitting out 2012 race". The Washington Post.
- Andrew Roth, "Unravelling Rudolph Giuliani's labyrinthine ties to Ukraine", The Guardian (US), October 30, 2019.
- Schmidt, Michael S.; Protess, Ben; Vogel, Kenneth P.; Rashbaum, William K. (October 11, 2019). "Giuliani is said to be under investigation for Ukraine work". The New York Times. Retrieved October 16, 2019.
- Tim O'Donnell, "Rudy on the ropes: Money laundering, conspiracy to defraud U.S. reportedly among charges under consideration in investigation related to Rudy Giuliani", The Week, online, The Week Publications Inc., November 25, 2019, citing Rebecca Davis O'Brien, Rebecca Ballhaus & Shelby Holliday, "Federal subpoenas seek information on Giuliani's consulting business", Wall Street Journal, online, Dow Jones & Company Inc., November 5, 2019.
- "Trump impeachment: The short, medium and long story", BBC News, February 5, 2020.
- "Rudy Giuliani baselessly links new election fraud claims to 'communist money' from Venezuela – video". Reuters. November 19, 2020 – via www.theguardian.com.
- Kessler, Glenn (November 23, 2020). "Giuliani keeps peddling debunked falsehoods on behalf of Trump". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 19, 2021.
- "Rudolph Giuliani is suspended from law practice in New York state". Reuters. June 24, 2021. Retrieved July 7, 2021.
- Polantz, Katelyn (July 7, 2021). "Rudy Giuliani suspended from practicing law in Washington, DC". CNN. Retrieved July 7, 2021.
- Burton, Danielle (February 7, 2007). "10 Things You Didn't Know About Rudy Giuliani". U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on March 18, 2007. Retrieved June 21, 2007.
- J.Boyer, Peter. "Mayberry Man Is what New York never liked about Rudy Giuliani exactly what the heartland loves?". The New Yorker. Retrieved March 27, 2018.
- Fairchild, Mary. "Presidential Candidate Rudy Giuliani". About.com. Retrieved June 22, 2010.
- Barrett, Wayne Rudy!: An Investigative Biography Of Rudy Giuliani, Basic Books; ISBN 0465005241, ISBN 978-0465005246 
- Bock, Wally. "Rudy Giuliani: The Long View of Leadership". Wally Bock's Monday Memo. Archived from the original on May 7, 2002. Retrieved October 26, 2007.
- Barrett, Wayne (July 4, 2000). "Thug Life". The Village Voice. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
- The New York Daily News, Monday, September 9, 2002 
- Mott, Gordon. "Rudy Giuliani: America's Mayor". Cigar Aficionado. Archived from the original on October 24, 2007. Retrieved October 26, 2007.
- Barrett, Wayne (July 11, 2000). "A Readers' Guide to the Good Stuff From Rudy!". The Village Voice. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
- Bearak, Barry; Fisher, Ian (October 19, 1997). "A Mercurial Mayor's Confident Journey". The New York Times. Retrieved June 10, 2007.
- "A Biography of Mayor Rudolph W. Giuliani". New York City. Retrieved November 18, 2006.
- "DNC Statement on Giuiliani's Potential Presidential Bid-Nov. 13, 2006". p2008.org. Archived from the original on July 25, 2008.
- Jack Newfield, "The Full Rudy: The Man, the Mayor, the Myth", The Nation, May 30, 2002; retrieved June 2, 2007
- "What an anti-Giuliani ad should say". Salon.com. March 13, 2007. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
- Giuliani, Rudy (2002). Leadership. Hyperion. ISBN 978-0-7868-6841-4.
- "Rudolf W. Giuliani Vulnerability Study". The Smoking Gun. April 8, 1993. Archived from the original on February 14, 2007. Retrieved February 12, 2007.
- "The Sunshine Patriots". The Village Voice. August 24, 2004. Archived from the original on February 4, 2007. Retrieved February 7, 2007.
- "Convicted Politician Bertram Podell, 79". The Washington Post. August 22, 2005.
- "Doing Rudy Justice". National Review. November 7, 2007. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
- "Around the World; U.S. Official Finds No Repression in Haiti". The New York Times. April 3, 1982.
- Mitchelson Jr., William (March 21, 2006). "How to Avoid Letting a 'Perp Walk' Turn Into a Parade". National Law Journal. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
- Lattman, Peter (March 22, 2006). "Breaking Down the "Perp Walk"". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved June 1, 2007.
- "No more 'perp walks'" (PDF). National Law Journal. August 5, 2002. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 14, 2007. Retrieved June 1, 2007.
- Boyer, Peter J. (August 20, 2007). "Mayberry Man". The New Yorker. Retrieved June 6, 2014.
- Collins, Heidi; Chernoff, Allan; Anthony, Crystal McCrary (May 23, 2007). "Body Found in Military Fatigues in Euphrates River; Helmet Boxing; Early Learning in Iraq". Transcripts. CNN. Retrieved April 10, 2018.
- Nocera, Joseph (August 6, 1995). "Junk Bondage". The New York Times. Retrieved June 8, 2007.
- Stengel, Richard (June 24, 2001). "The Passionate Prosecutor". Time. Archived from the original on December 4, 2007. Retrieved November 15, 2006.
- Lubasch, Arnold H. (November 20, 1986). "U.S. Jury Convicts Eight as Members of Mob Commission". The New York Times. Retrieved August 2, 2015.
- Lubasch, Arnold H. (January 14, 1987). "Judge Sentences 8 Mafia Leaders to Prison Terms". The New York Times. Retrieved August 2, 2015.
- "Crime Bosses Considered Hit on Giuliani". The New York Times The Caucus blog. October 5, 2018. Retrieved May 3, 2018.
- "Mob Murder FAQ: Do Mafioso ever put out contracts on law enforcement officials?". National Geographic Society. Retrieved August 25, 2013.
- "Inside the Mob Plot to Kill Rudy". New York Post. Retrieved May 3, 2018.
- "Giovanni Falcone, who has died aged 53, spent most of his life doggedly fighting the mafiosi responsible for murdering him". The Telegraph. May 25, 1992. Archived from the original on May 29, 2009. Retrieved May 19, 2018.
- "Obituary: Paolo Borsellino". The Independent. July 20, 1992. Retrieved May 19, 2018.
- "Sicilian mafia 'plotted to kill' former New York mayor Rudy Giuliani". The Telegraph. Retrieved May 3, 2018.
- Hall, John. "Rudy Giuliani says mafia put $800,000 bounty on his head – but ex-New York mayor admits Islamist terrorists scare him more than the mob". The Independent. Retrieved May 3, 2018.
- Trumbore, Brian. "Ivan Boesky". BUYandHOLD. Archived from the original on November 11, 2006. Retrieved November 15, 2006.
- Labaton, Stephen (March 30, 1989). "'Junk Bond' Leader Is Indicted by U.s. in Criminal Action". The New York Times. Retrieved August 3, 2015.
- Rudolph W. Giuliani Archived December 15, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, Bracewell & Giuliani
- Katharine Q. Seeley "In G.O.P. Debate Today, Which Tack for Giuliani?", The New York Times, May 3, 2007. Retrieved March 31, 2008.
- Frank Lynn, "Giuliani Files 2 Challenges To Take Lauder off Ballot", The New York Times, July 21, 1989. Retrieved March 30, 2007.
- McKinley Jr., James C. (April 9, 1989). "Liberal Party Backs Giuliani". The New York Times. Retrieved August 3, 2015.
- "In Their First Debate, Dinkins and Giuliani Go At It, Gently", The New York Times, November 5, 1989. Retrieved June 24, 2007.
- David Dinkins Elected First Black Mayor of New York AfroTimes, November 11, 1989 Archived May 9, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
- "Q&A: George Marlin" Archived March 19, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, The New York Sun, March 21, 2007; Retrieved June 24, 2007
- "NYC crime rate cut with penalties", BCHeights.com, November 3, 2005
- "Why Dinkins Lost", Newsday, November 4, 1993 Archived February 22, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
- "In an Endorsement, a Search for Signals", The New York Times, November 1, 1993.
- Ehrlich, M. Avrum (2004). The Messiah of Brooklyn: Understanding Lubavitch Hasidim Past and Present. KTAV Publishing. p. 109. ISBN 0-88125-836-9.
- "Elected Mayors of New York City". NYC.gov. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved October 26, 2007.
- "Giuliani Wins With Ease", CNN, November 4, 2007.
- "Giuliani Approval, Satisfaction With City Hit New Highs, Quinnipiac College Poll Finds; Mayor's Lead Over Messinger Nears 2–1". Quinnipiac University. October 29, 1997. Archived from the original on November 20, 2015. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
- Beinart, Peter (November 10, 1997). "The Last of the Liberals". Time. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- "Giuliani Goes After Voters In Messinger's Stronghold", The New York Times, October 27, 1997; Retrieved June 24, 2007
- Adam Nagourney, "The 1997 Elections: The Overview; Giuliani Sweeps To Second Term As Mayor; Whitman Holds On By A Razor-Thin Margin", The New York Times, November 5, 1997; Retrieved June 24, 2007
- David Firestone, "The 1997 Elections: The Voters; Big Victory, But Gains For Mayor Are Modest", The New York Times, November 6, 1997; Retrieved June 24, 2007
- Bratton, William; Knobler, Peter (1998). Turnaround : How America's Top Cop Reversed the Crime Epidemic. New York: Random House. ISBN 978-0-679-45251-5. OCLC 477251273.
- "Jack Maple: Betting on Intelligence". GovTech. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- Langan, Patrick A.; Durose, Matthew R. (October 21, 2004). "The Remarkable Drop in Crime in New York City" (PDF). Bureau of Justice Statistics. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 15, 2009. Retrieved December 5, 2006.
- "Compstat: A Crime Reduction Management Tool". Harvard Kennedy School Ash Center. Retrieved July 4, 2017.
- "Uniform Crime Reports". Federal Bureau of Investigation. Archived from the original on October 24, 2004. Retrieved October 24, 2004. These data are from the FBI's Uniform Crime Reports; most of the recent ones are online. Under the header, "Crime in the United States", click on a year, then use Table 6. Data from pre-1995 is from the same FBI publication, Crime in the United States, in hardcover book.
- Levitt, Steven D.: "Understanding Why Crime Fell in the 1990s: Four Factors that Explain the Decline and Six that Do Not", Journal of Economic Perspectives, 18(1), 163–90
- Langan, Patrick A.; Durose, Matthew R. (December 2003). "The Remarkable Drop in Crime in New York City" (PDF). In Linda Laura Sabbadini; Maria Giuseppina Muratore; Giovanna Tagliacozzo (eds.). Towards a Safer Society: The Knowledge Contribution of Statistical Information. Rome: Istituto Nazionale di Statistica (published 2009). pp. 131–174. ISBN 978-88-458-1640-6. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 7, 2018. Retrieved May 7, 2018.
According to NYPD statistical analysis, crime in New York City took a downturn starting around 1990 that continued for many years, shattering all the city's old records for consecutive-year declines in crime rates. [See also Appendix: Tables 1–2.]
- Dinkins, David N.; Knobler, Peter (2013). A Mayor's Life: Governing New York's Gorgeous Mosaic. PublicAffairs Books. ISBN 978-1-61039-301-0. Retrieved May 24, 2017.
- Barrett, Wayne (June 25, 2001). "Giuliani's Legacy: Taking Credit For Things He Didn't Do". Gotham Gazette. Retrieved November 15, 2007.
- Roberts, Sam. "As Police Force Adds to Ranks, Some Promises Still Unfulfilled". The New York Times.
- Greene Crime Delinquency 1999; 45: pp. 171–87 "Zero Tolerance: A Case Study of Police Policies and Practices in New York City". Retrieved December 5, 2006.
- Rudy! – An Investigative Biography of Rudolph Giuliani by Wayne Barrett
- MacDonald, Heather (Summer 2006). "New York Cops: Still the Finest". City Journal. Retrieved May 25, 2017.
- Zimring, Franklin E. (November 3, 2006). The Great American Crime Decline (Studies in Crime and Public Policy). Oxford University Press. p. 272. ISBN 978-0-19-518115-9.
- "Finally, We're Winning The War Against Crime. Here's Why". Time. January 15, 1996. Archived from the original on July 17, 2006. Retrieved May 25, 2017.
- Zengerie, Jason (November 22, 2000). "Repeat Defender". New York. Retrieved July 5, 2017.
Bratton ... became embroiled in a battle of egos with Giuliani, and after just 27 months as police commissioner, the mayor forced him out.
- Pérez-Peña, Richard (March 8, 2007). "Giuliani Mends Fences With Bratton". The Caucus. The New York Times. Retrieved July 5, 2017.
a pair of outsized talents and egos whose relationship crumbled; ... administration that prized unwavering loyalty to the mayor could not stomach Mr. Bratton's celebrity; Bratton left the job after just two years – it was generally acknowledged that he was forced out
- Pérez-Peña, Richard (March 9, 2007). "Giuliani Courts Former Partner and Antagonist". The New York Times. Retrieved March 14, 2007.
- "NYC Police Shootings 1999". saxakali.com. July 9, 2000. Archived from the original on August 30, 2000. Retrieved December 5, 2006.
- Newman, Andy (August 31, 1999). "Disturbed Man Wielding A Hammer Is Killed By Police In Brooklyn". The New York Times. Retrieved June 25, 2018.
Many residents also demanded to know why Mayor Rudolph W. Giuliani, who has enjoyed strong support in the city's Hasidic neighborhoods, did not go to Brooklyn last night to address their concerns. Their anger could pose a delicate political challenge for the Mayor, who has generally been a staunch defender of the Police Department
- "Giuliani, New York police under fire after shooting of unarmed man". CNN. March 19, 2000. Archived from the original on June 27, 2006. Retrieved December 5, 2006.
- "Rudy Giuliani on Education". On The Issues. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- Officials: Let illegal immigrants report crimes USA Today, December 5, 2007
- Boehlert, Eric (February 26, 2004). "What will Rudy say to his gay friends?". Salon. Archived from the original on May 2, 2009. Retrieved May 24, 2017 – via isebrand.com.
- Miringoff, Lee M. (January 31, 2000). "Losing the Women". The New York Times. Retrieved September 27, 2007.
- Gates, George (November 6, 1999). "Looking for the Senator From All of New York". The New York Times. Retrieved September 27, 2007.
- Gerth, Jeff; Van Natta Jr., Don (2007). Her Way: The Hopes and Ambitions of Hillary Rodham Clinton. New York: Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 978-0-316-01742-8., p. 211.
- Nagourney, Adam (April 8, 2000). "Despite Polls, Giuliani Says That He Won't Alter His Campaign Style". The New York Times. Retrieved September 27, 2007.
- Bumiller, Elisabeth (May 20, 2000). "Giuliani Quits Race for Senate, and G.O.P. Rallies Around Lazio". The New York Times. Retrieved August 3, 2015.
- Pooley, Eric (December 31, 2001). "Mayor of the world". Time. Archived from the original on August 14, 2007. Retrieved October 5, 2007.
- "Content Removed". Retrieved November 15, 2005.
- "Conservative Party and Courts May Hold Key to NYC Mayor's Race – October 1, 2001". Archived from the original on January 16, 2002. Retrieved November 15, 2005.
- Katz, Celeste (August 10, 2007). "9/11 workers outraged by new Rudy claim". New York Daily News. Retrieved October 5, 2007.
- Quaid, Libby (August 12, 2007). "Giuliani in firing line". Sunday Herald Sun (Australia). Retrieved October 5, 2007.
- Sewell, Dan (August 10, 2007). "Giuliani's 'I'm one of them' remark angers 9-11 workers". The Cincinnati Post. Associated Press. p. A1.
- Buettner, Russ (August 17, 2007). "For Giuliani, Ground Zero as Linchpin and Thorn". The New York Times. Retrieved October 5, 2007.
- "Giuliani rejects $10 million from Saudi prince". CNN. October 12, 2001. Archived from the original on December 9, 2007. Retrieved October 5, 2007.
- "World Trade Center: Profile". Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved June 12, 2007.
- Barrett, Wayne (August 8, 2007). "Rudy Giuliani's 5 Big Lies About 9/11: On the Stump, Rudy Can't Help Spreading Smoke and Ashes About His Dubious Record". The Village Voice. pp. 35–36. Archived from the original on August 22, 2009.[permanent dead link]
- Barentt, Wayne; Collins, Dan (September 2006). "The Grand Illusion: The untold story of Rudy Giuliani and 9/11". The Village Voice. Retrieved September 6, 2006.
- "Open and Shut". Archived from the original on June 11, 2007. Retrieved June 12, 2007.
- "Transcript: Rudy Giuliani on Fox News Sunday". May 14, 2007. Archived from the original on October 10, 2007. Retrieved September 29, 2007.
- audio and video from interview available on Robert Greenwald's "The REAL Rudy: Command Center"
- Buettner, Russ (May 22, 2007). "Onetime Giuliani Insider Is Now a Critic". The New York Times. Retrieved June 12, 2007.
- "Angry Giuliani Aide Lashes Back". The New York Times. May 15, 2007. Retrieved June 12, 2007.
- Barrett, Wayne; Collins, Dan (September 11, 2006). "The Real Rudy: From the September print issue: The image of Rudy Giuliani as the hero of September 11 has never been seriously challenged. That changes now". The American Prospect. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007.
- "Giuliani Blames Aide for Poor Emergency Planning". Retrieved June 12, 2007.
- Rashbaum, William K. (January 26, 2008). "Memo Details Objections to Command Center Site". The New York Times. Politics (sec.). Retrieved January 27, 2008.
- Saltonstall, David (April 24, 2007). "Rudy gets earful at stop here: Some FDNY survivors rally against him". New York Daily News. Retrieved June 12, 2007.
- "Video: Giuliani's 'Hero' Reputation Burned?". ABC News. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- "NY firefighters attack Giuliani". BBC News. July 12, 2007. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- Kevin Baker, "A Fate Worse than Bush: Rudy Giuliani and the Politics of Personality", Harpers, August 2007, p. 37, citing Jim Dwyer and Kevin Flynn, 102 Minutes (Times Books, 2002)
- "Giuliani Faces 9/11 Questions". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on May 6, 2007. Retrieved June 12, 2007.
- "Razzle Dazzle: Rudy Ducking and Running". Archived from the original on July 21, 2009.
- Williams, Timothy (August 6, 2006). "9/11 Commissioners Say They Went Easy on Giuliani to Avoid Public's Anger". The New York Times. Retrieved June 12, 2007.
- "New Yorkers Tell Federal Officials To Stop Ignoring 9/11's Health Effects". Archived from the original on November 15, 2007.
- "Rudolph Giuliani – America's Mayor: Review of The Prince of the City: Giuliani, New York and the Genius of American Life By Fred Siegel". The Economist. July 28, 2005. Retrieved November 15, 2006. [subscription site]
- "Quinnipiac University Poll". Quinnipiac University. October 24, 2001. Archived from the original on September 3, 2007. Retrieved March 4, 2007.
- "Quinnipiac University Poll". Quinnipiac University. March 2, 2000. Archived from the original on January 13, 2008. Retrieved November 30, 2007.
- "Giuliani rejects $10 million from Saudi prince". War Against Terror. CNN. October 12, 2001. Retrieved September 3, 2018.
- "City Mourns at Stadium Prayer Service". Archived from the original on November 9, 2006. Retrieved November 15, 2006.
- Hardt Jr., Robert; Topousis, Tom; Weinstein, Farrah; Haberman, Maggie (September 30, 2001). "Rev. Al in New Slam at Rudy". New York Post. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
- Wilson, Michael; Hammer, Kate; Lee, Trymaine; Sweeney, Matthew (June 17, 2007). "Among Firefighters in New York, Mixed Views on Giuliani". The New York Times. Politics (sec.). Retrieved December 1, 2007.
- "Many Wonder, Did Giuliani Profit From 9/11?". WBBM-TV. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007.
- Kirkpatrick, David D. (May 17, 2007). "Wealth Is a Common Factor Among GOP Hopefuls". The New York Times. Retrieved May 25, 2017.
- Solomon, John; Mosk, Matthew (May 13, 2007). "In Private Sector, Giuliani Parlayed Fame Into Wealth". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 3, 2015.
- "Rudy Giuliani: "Time's Person of the Year"". Mornings with Paula Zahn. CNN Transcripts. December 24, 2001. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- Cannato, Vincent J. (September 3, 2006). "Crisis Management". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- Reynolds, Dylan (February 13, 2002). "Giuliani joins a distinguished club". CNN. Retrieved November 6, 2007.
- Ben Smith, "Rudy's Black Cloud", New York Daily News, September 18, 2006, p. 14
- Anita Gates, "Buildings Rise from Rubble while Health Crumbles", The New York Times, September 11, 2006, reporting on the documentary, "Dust to Dust: The Health Effects of 9/11"
- Anthony DePalma, "Ground Zero Illness Clouding Giuliani's Legacy", The New York Times, May 14, 2007 or
- Macho Mistakes at Ground Zero, The New York Times, May 22, 2007.
- "Christie blasts Rudy on WTC air". New York Daily News. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- Murray, Mark (June 25, 2007). "Pushing Back Against Whitman". Archived from the original on November 10, 2007. Retrieved July 9, 2007.
- "Ground Zero Illness Clouding Giuliani's Legacy", The New York Times, May 14, 2007
- "Giuliani & New York firefighters". Archived from the original on April 4, 2007.
- Wallsten, Peter. "Giuliani foes see another side to his 9/11 activities". Archived from the original on June 21, 2007. Retrieved May 24, 2017.
- "Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg and Rnc Chairman Marc Racicot Sign City-Site Agreement for 2004 Republican National Convention" (Press release). New York City. January 31, 2003. Archived from the original on September 26, 2015. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- "Giuliani: 'Thank God that George Bush is our president'". CNN. August 31, 2004. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
- Bernstein, Nina; Stein, Robin (December 16, 2004). "Mystery Woman in Kerik Case: Nanny". The New York Times. Retrieved August 3, 2015.
- Baker, James A.; Hamilton, Lee H.; Eagleburger, Lawrence S.; Jordan, Vernon E. Jr.; Meese, Edwin III; O'Connor, Sandra Day; Panetta, Leon E.; Perry, William J.; Robb, Charles S.; Simpson, Alan K. "Iraq Study Group report" (PDF). United States Institute of Peace. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 1, 2009. Retrieved May 25, 2017.
- Gordon, Craig (June 18, 2007). "Rudy missing in action for Iraq panel". Newsday.
- Amanda Ripley, "Mr. Tough Talk", Time, September 3, 2007, p. 31.
- "Edwin Meese Replaces Rudolph Giuliani on Iraq Study Group" (Press release). United States Institute of Peace. May 31, 2006. Archived from the original on February 14, 2007. Retrieved March 4, 2007.
- "Giuliani Left Group on Iraq After Warning, Article Says", The New York Times, June 20, 2007.
- Kaplan, Fred (June 21, 2007). "The Man Who Knows Too Little: What Rudy Giuliani's Greedy Decision to Quit the Iraq Study Group Reveals about his Candidacy". Slate. Retrieved March 19, 2021.
- "More Campaign Troubles for Giuliani", Newsweek Politics
- "Giuliani: Iraq war 'absolutely the right thing to do'". CNN. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- "Iranian exile group removed from U.S. terror list". CNN. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- "Delisting of the Mujahedin-e Khalq". United States Department of State. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- "U.S. Supporters of Iranian Group Face Scrutiny". The New York Times. March 13, 2012. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- "MEK Is Not a Terrorist Group". National Review. January 10, 2011. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
- "Canada drops Iranian group MEK from terror list". CBC News. December 20, 2012. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
- "Giuliani 'not confident' war will turn around". CNN. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- "WH2008: Republicans". Polling Report. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- Steinhauser, Paul (November 7, 2007). "Giuliani, McCain pick up key Christian conservative backing". CNN. Retrieved November 8, 2007.
- "Pat Robertson endorses Giuliani". NBC News. November 7, 2007. Retrieved November 7, 2007.
- Buettner, Russ & Rashbaum, William K. (November 10, 2007). "A Defiant Kerik Vows to Battle U.S. Indictment". The New York Times. Retrieved November 10, 2007.
- Smith, Ben (November 30, 2007). "Giuliani billed obscure agencies for trips". The Politico. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
- "Giuliani's shifted money around? Yes. To hide Hamptons trips? Unlikely". The New York Times. December 20, 2007. Retrieved December 26, 2007.
- Brune, Tom (December 5, 2007). "Rudy no longer firm CEO". Newsday. Archived from the original on December 6, 2007. Retrieved December 6, 2007.
- "Hospital health scare latest of Giuliani's woes". Agence France-Presse. December 20, 2007. Archived from the original on January 8, 2008. Retrieved December 21, 2007.
- Montopoli, Brian (January 29, 2008). "For Giuliani, A Disappointing Fade To Exit". CBS News via CBS Interactive Inc. Retrieved January 30, 2008.
- Tapper, Jake; Travers, Karen (January 8, 2008). "Rudy Focused on N.H., Despite Claims". ABC News. Retrieved January 9, 2008.
- "Election Center 2008: Primary Results for New Hampshire". CNN. January 9, 2008. Retrieved January 9, 2008.
- "Giuliani Staffers Forgo Paychecks". USA Today. Associated Press. January 11, 2008.
- "McCain wins Florida, Giuliani expected to drop out". CNN. January 30, 2008. Retrieved March 3, 2008.
- "Election 2008: California Republican Presidential Primary California: McCain 24% Romney 17%". Rasmussen Reports. January 17, 2008. Archived from the original on January 19, 2008. Retrieved May 24, 2017.
- "New Jersey Republican Presidential Primary New Jersey: McCain 29% Giuliani 27%". Rasmussen Reports. January 17, 2008. Archived from the original on January 19, 2008. Retrieved July 25, 2012.
- Bumiller, Elisabeth (January 20, 2008). "G.O.P. Rivals Open Final Assault in Florida". The New York Times. Retrieved March 19, 2021.
- Holland, Steve (January 30, 2008). "Giuliani, Edwards quit White House Race". Reuters. Retrieved January 30, 2008.
- Hernandez, Raymond (June 17, 2008). "Giuliani Plans to Aid Hopefuls, for His Share". The New York Times.
- "Giuliani: Palin More Qualified Than Obama". CBS News. August 31, 2008. Retrieved August 31, 2008.
- Hakim, Danny (October 18, 2008). "Governor Giuliani? Some State Republicans Are Hoping He'll Try". The New York Times. Retrieved December 11, 2008.
- Greenbaum, Mark (April 3, 2011). "Why Mitch Daniels is the Republican to watch for '12". Salon.com. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
- Santora, Marc (August 16, 2008). "How's Life for Giuliani These Days? Quite Busy". The New York Times. Retrieved December 11, 2008.
- Alexander Burns (June 6, 2011). "Giuliani loses election – in Peru". Politico. Retrieved February 21, 2021.
- Pilkington, Ed (December 22, 2008). "Republican contenders finally find voice: as radio talk hosts". The Guardian. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- "Thompson joins talk radio opposition". FirstPost. December 22, 2008. Archived from the original on February 9, 2009.
- "Giuliani Scolds Geithner, Dodd". Sean Hannity. Fox News. March 23, 2009. Archived from the original on March 28, 2009. Retrieved March 31, 2009.
- "Giuliani won't rule out runs for NY governor or president". CNN. November 16, 2008. Retrieved December 11, 2008.
- Lovett, Kenneth (November 17, 2008). "Giuliani gains ground against Paterson in governor's race in recent poll". New York Daily News. Retrieved December 11, 2008.
- "New York governor trails rival Cuomo in latest poll". Reuters. February 24, 2009. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- Steinhauser, Paul (January 13, 2009). "Giuliani says decision on governor's race unlikely before summer". CNN. Retrieved January 16, 2009.
- Vogel, Kenneth P. (April 15, 2009). "FEC: Debt for Giuliani, Dodd, Clinton". The Politico. Retrieved April 21, 2009.
- Dicker, Fredric U. (April 20, 2009). "Rudy Rips Gov's Bid for Gay Nups". New York Post. Archived from the original on April 22, 2009. Retrieved April 20, 2009.
- Isenstadt, Alex (August 25, 2009). "Doubts cast on Rudy Giuliani governor bid". The Politico. Retrieved August 25, 2009.
- Hakim, Danny (November 20, 2009). "Giuliani Said to Decide Against Run for Governor". The New York Times. Retrieved March 30, 2010.
- Powell, Michael (December 22, 2009). "Giuliani Says Farewell, for Now, to Politics". The New York Times.
- Martin, Jonathan; Smith, Ben (December 23, 2009). "Rudy Giuliani exits national stage". The Politico.
- "Giuliani Endorses Ehrlich, Bloomberg to Stump with O'Malley in Maryland 2010 Governor's Race". TBD. September 2010.[permanent dead link]
- Hamby, Peter (April 2, 2010). "Giuliani backs Rubio over Crist in Florida contest". CNN. Retrieved May 25, 2017.
- "Giuliani not running for U.S. president in 2012". Reuters. October 11, 2011. Archived from the original on February 16, 2012. Retrieved October 15, 2011.
- Haberman, Maggie; Confessore, Nicholas. "Giuliani: Obama Had a White Mother, So I'm Not a Racist". The New York Times. Retrieved February 25, 2015.
- "Giuliani says he's received death threats over Obama remarks". Politico. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- "Giuliani blasts Clinton, touts Trump for American security". Retrieved July 28, 2016.
- Schleifer, Theodore. "Trump super PACs battle in Cleveland". CNN. Retrieved July 28, 2016.
- Great America Pac (July 26, 2016), Leadership 30 sec TV spot, retrieved July 28, 2016
- Partlow, Joshua; Sullivan, Sean; DeYoung, Karen (September 1, 2016). "After subdued trip to Mexico, Donald Trump talks tough on immigration in Phoenix". Tampa Bay Times. The Washington Post.
Trump was joined in the meeting by former New York mayor Rudolph Giuliani and Sen. Jeff Sessions, R-Alabama, who have become fixtures at his campaign rallies.
- "Former NYC Mayor Rudy Giuliani attacks Hillary Clinton in Republican National Convention speech". WPIX. CNN Wire. July 19, 2016. Retrieved May 25, 2017.
- "For Rudy Giuliani, Embrace of Donald Trump Puts Legacy at Risk". The New York Times. September 9, 2016.
- Bradner, Eric (October 9, 2016). "Rudy Giuliani on Donald Trump tape: "Men at times talk like that"". CNN. Retrieved May 2, 2018.
- "Donald Trump and His Allies Struggle to Move Past Tax Revelation". The New York Times. October 2, 2016.
- Diamond, Jeremy; Killough, Ashley. "Giuliani wrong about terror attacks and Obama". CNN. Retrieved June 7, 2018.
- Edelman, Adam. "Rudy Giuliani blames his use of 'abbreviated' language for 9/11-forgetting gaffe, claim no terror attacks happened 'before Obama came along'". New York Daily News. Retrieved June 7, 2018.
- Qiu, Linda. "Aside from 9/11, Rudy Giuliani is wrong about no terrorist attacks before Obama". Politifact. Retrieved June 7, 2018.
- Landler, Mark; Lipton, Eric; Becker, Jo (November 15, 2016). "Rudolph Giuliani's Business Ties Viewed as Red Flag for Secretary of State Job". The New York Times. Retrieved April 19, 2018.
- Kopan, Tal; Diaz, Daniella (December 9, 2016). "Trump: No Cabinet post for Rudy Giuliani". CNN. Retrieved December 10, 2016.
- Phillip, Abby (January 12, 2017). "Trump names Rudy Giuliani as cybersecurity adviser". The Washington Post PowerPost blog. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
- Schapiro, Rich (October 31, 2019). "Rudy Giuliani needed Apple genius help to unlock his iPhone after being named Trump cybersecurity adviser". NBC News. Retrieved November 18, 2020.
- King, Ben (January 28, 2017), Judge Jeanine Pirro Rudy Giuliani FULL Interview – 1/28/17, archived from the original on May 21, 2017, retrieved May 25, 2017
- Dawsey, Josh; Hamburger, Tom; Parker, Ashley (July 10, 2018). "Giuliani works for foreign clients while serving as Trump's attorney". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 16, 2018.
- Fabian, Jordan (April 19, 2018). "Giuliani joins Trump legal team". The Hill. Retrieved May 5, 2018.
- Visser, Nick (May 2, 2018). "Giuliani Says Trump Repaid Lawyer For $130,000 Payment To Stormy Daniels". The Huffington Post. Retrieved May 5, 2018.
- Schouten, Fredreka (March 10, 2018). "Trump lawyer Michael Cohen says he paid Stormy Daniels with his home-equity line". USA Today. Retrieved May 5, 2018.
- Liptak, Kevin (April 6, 2018). "Trump says he didn't know about Stormy Daniels payment". CNN. Retrieved May 5, 2018.
- Goldschlag, William; Janison, Dan. "Giuliani: I'm still winging it on Trump's Stormy payoff story". Newsday. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
- Bach, Natasha (May 28, 2018). "'It Is for Public Opinion.' Rudy Giuliani May Have Admitted That Trump's 'Spygate' Is a PR Ploy". Fortune. Archived from the original on May 28, 2018. Retrieved May 28, 2018.
- Date, S.V. (June 4, 2018). "Giuliani: Trump Could Have Shot Comey And Still Couldn't Be Indicted For It". The Huffington Post. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
- Vazquez, Maegan (June 3, 2018). "Giuliani says Trump shouldn't testify because 'our recollection keeps changing'". CNN. Retrieved June 6, 2018.
- Vazquez, Maegan (August 13, 2018). "Giuliani: 'There was no conversation' between Trump and Comey on Flynn". CNN. Retrieved August 14, 2018.
- "Trump lawyer Rudy Giuliani defends 'truth isn't truth' remark". BBC News. August 20, 2018. Retrieved August 22, 2018.
- Chait, Jonathan (July 30, 2018). "Rudy: Trump Is Innocent Because He Did Not Personally Hack Democratic Emails". Daily Intelligencer. New York Magazine. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
- Blake, Aaron (July 31, 2018). "Rudy Giuliani keeps admitting that he's just saying stuff". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
- Cassidy, John (June 30, 2018). "What Is Rudy Giuliani Talking About?". The New Yorker. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
- Morin, Rebecca (July 30, 2018). "'Never happened': Giuliani walks back confusing claim of secret Trump Tower meeting". Politico. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
- Miller, Hayley (July 30, 2018). "Rudy Giuliani Stuns Fox News Hosts With Rambling Account Of Trump Tower Meetings". The Huffington Post. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
- Prokop, Andrew (July 30, 2018). "Rudy Giuliani's rambling new statements on Michael Cohen and the Trump Tower meeting, decoded". Vox. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
- Samuels, Brett (August 19, 2018). "Giuliani: Trump Tower meeting was 'originally for the purpose of getting information about Clinton'". The Hill. Retrieved August 22, 2018.
- Krawczyk, Kathryn (July 27, 2018). "Rudy Giuliani called Michael Cohen an 'honest, honorable lawyer' in May. Now, he's an 'incredible liar'". The Week. Retrieved August 13, 2018.
- Kasperowicz, Pete (August 13, 2018). "Rudy Giuliani: No chance Mueller has anything on Trump". The Washington Examiner. Retrieved August 14, 2018.
- Toobin, Jeffrey (September 10, 2018). "How Rudy Giuliani Turned Into Trump's Clown". The New Yorker.
- Leonnig, Carol D.; Nakashima, Ellen; Dawsey, Josh; Hamburger, Tom. "Giuliani pressed Trump to eject Muslim cleric from U.S., a top priority of Turkish president, former officials say". The Washington Post.
- Helderman, Rosalind S.; Barrett, Devlin; Zapotosky, Matt; Hamburger, Tom. "A wealthy Venezuelan hosted Giuliani as he pursued Ukraine campaign. Then Giuliani lobbied the Justice Department on his behalf". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved November 20, 2020.
- Rudy Giuliani Asks Not To Be Called Anti-Semitic Right Before Saying, "I'm More of a Jew Than [George] Soros" by Eoin Higgins, Common Dreams, December 23, 2019
- Rudy Giuliani insists he's 'more of a Jew' than George Soros, who survived the Holocaust Sonam Seth, Business Insider, December 23, 2019
- Baragona, Justin (December 23, 2019), "Anti-Defamation League Slams Rudy Giuliani for Claiming George Soros Is 'Hardly a Jew'", The Daily Beast
- Schmidt, Michael S.; Vogel, Kenneth P. (January 17, 2021). "Prospect of Pardons in Final Days Fuels Market to Buy Access to Trump". New York Times. Retrieved January 21, 2021.
- Acosta, Jim; LeBlanc, Paul (February 18, 2021). "Giuliani not currently representing Trump 'in any legal matters,' adviser says". CNN. Retrieved February 19, 2021.
- Pinkington, Ed; Roth, Andrew (September 29, 2019). "Rudy Giuliani: Ukraine sources detail attempt to construct case against Biden". The Guardian. Retrieved October 2, 2019.
- Vogel, Kenneth P. (May 9, 2019). "Rudy Giuliani Plans Ukraine Trip to Push for Inquiries That Could Help Trump". The New York Times. Retrieved September 20, 2019.
- "Trump Repeatedly Pressed Ukraine President to Investigate Biden's Son". The Wall Street Journal. September 20, 2019. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
- O'Brien, Rebecca Ballhaus and Rebecca Davis (May 1, 2021). "WSJ News Exclusive | Rudy Giuliani's Contacts With Former Ukrainian Officials Sought" – via www.wsj.com.
- Stern, David (December 5, 2019). "Ukraine lawmaker seeking Biden probe meets with Giuliani in Kyiv". The Washington Post.
- Brady, Jeff (September 27, 2019). "Meet The Businessman Helping Giuliani Try To Find Dirt On Democrats In Ukraine". npr.org. Retrieved September 28, 2019.
- Sallah, Michael; Kozyreva, Tanya; Belford, Aubrey (July 22, 2019). "Two Unofficial US Operatives Reporting To Trump's Lawyer Privately Lobbied A Foreign Government In A Bid To Help The President Win In 2020". Buzzfeed News. Retrieved July 23, 2019.
- Budryk, Zack (July 22, 2019). "Ukrainian officials and Giuliani are sharing back-channel campaign information: report". The Hill. Retrieved July 23, 2019.
- Multiple sources:
- "Trump: I want to meet my accuser". Agence France Presse. September 30, 2019. Retrieved October 1, 2019.
US President Donald Trump said on Sunday he wants and deserves to meet the anonymous whistleblower at the center of the fast-moving scandal that has triggered an impeachment probe against him ... Brandishing what he said were affidavits incriminating Biden's son Hunter over his work at a Ukrainian company, Giuliani said Trump was duty bound to raise the issue with Kiev. Trump and his allies claim Biden, as Barack Obama's vice president, pressured Kiev to fire the country's top prosecutor to protect his son Hunter, who sat on the board of a gas company, Burisma Holdings, accused of corrupt practices. Those allegations have largely been debunked and there has been no evidence of illegal conduct or wrongdoing in Ukraine by the Bidens.
- Matthias, Williams; Polityuk, Pavel (September 26, 2019). "Zelenskiy opponents say comments about Europeans to Trump could hurt Ukraine". Reuters. Retrieved October 1, 2019.
Trump pressed Zelenskiy to investigate the business dealings of the son of his political rival, former vice president Joe Biden, the Democratic front-runner to challenge Trump in an election next year. Zelenskiy agreed. Biden's son Hunter worked for a company drilling for gas in Ukraine. There has been no evidence of wrongdoing by either Biden.
- Isachenkov, Vladimir (September 27, 2019). "Ukraine's prosecutor says there is no probe into Biden". Associated Press. Retrieved October 1, 2019.
Though the timing raised concerns among anti-corruption advocates, there has been no evidence of wrongdoing by either the former vice president or his son.
- "White House 'tried to cover up details of Trump-Ukraine call'". BBC News. September 26, 2019. Retrieved October 1, 2019.
There is no evidence of any wrongdoing by the Bidens.
- Timm, Jane (September 25, 2019). "There's no evidence for Trump's Biden-Ukraine accusations. What really happened?". NBC News. Retrieved October 1, 2019.
But despite Trump's continued claims, there's no evidence of wrongdoing on the part of either Biden.
- "Trump: I want to meet my accuser". Agence France Presse. September 30, 2019. Retrieved October 1, 2019.
- Samuelsohn, Darren (October 1, 2019). "Giuliani hires Watergate prosecutor to represent him in House impeachment probe". Politico. Retrieved October 1, 2019.
- Basu, Zachary (October 1, 2019). "Giuliani hires attorney to represent him in Ukraine investigation". Axios. Retrieved October 1, 2019.
- Fandos, Nicholas (September 30, 2019). "House Subpoenas Giuliani, Trump's Lawyer, for Ukraine Records". The New York Times.
- Strohm, Chris; Fabian, Jordan (November 14, 2019). "Giuliani faces U.S. probe on campaign finance, lobbying breaches". Bloomberg. Retrieved November 15, 2019.
- O'Brien, Rebecca Davis (November 15, 2019). "Federal Prosecutors Probe Giuliani's Links to Ukrainian Energy Projects". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 25, 2019.
- Musto, Julia (November 23, 2019). "Rudy Giuliani says he's not afraid of being indicted, labels Joe Biden a 'liar'". Fox News. Retrieved November 23, 2019.
- Barrett, Devlin; Wagner, John (October 10, 2019). "Two business associates of Trump's personal lawyer Giuliani have been arrested on campaign finance charges". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on October 10, 2019. Retrieved October 10, 2019.
- Orden, Erica [@eorden] (October 10, 2019). "The two Giuliani associates detained yesterday at Dulles were en route to Frankfurt to connect to another flight, according to a law enforcement source, per @ShimonPro. Lev Parnas and Igor Fruman purchased their one-way tickets recently, the source said" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Faulders, Katherine [@KFaulders] (October 10, 2019). "Lev Parnas and Igor Fruman were arrested at Dulles International airport last night as they attempted to leave the country, a DOJ official tells @PierreTABC. AG Barr was told last night they were being arrested" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Multiple sources:
- Schmidt, Michael S.; Protess, Ben; Vogel, Kenneth P.; Rashbaum, William K. (October 11, 2019). "Giuliani Is Said to Be Under Investigation for Ukraine Work". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 10, 2019.
- Dawsey, Josh. "Giuliani was paid $500,000 by company founded by arrested associate". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 10, 2019.
- "Exclusive: Trump lawyer Giuliani was paid $500,000 to consult on indicted associate's firm". Reuters. October 16, 2019. Retrieved November 10, 2019.
- "Giuliani says he has 'nothing to do with' oligarch at edges of Trump-Ukraine affair". NBC News. Retrieved November 10, 2019.
- "Giuliani's relationship with arrested men subject of criminal investigation: Sources". ABC News. Retrieved November 10, 2019.
- "Giuliani says he was paid $500,000 to work for indicted associate's firm Fraud Guarantee". Axios. Retrieved November 10, 2019.
- Johnson, Kevin McCoy and Kevin. "Federal investigators have been looking into Giuliani's dealings in Ukraine since early 2019". USA TODAY. Retrieved November 10, 2019.
- Viswanatha, Aruna; O'Brien, Rebecca Davis; Ballhaus, Rebecca. "Federal Prosecutors Scrutinize Rudy Giuliani's Ukraine Business Dealings, Finances". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 10, 2019.
- Vogel, Kenneth P.; Protess, Ben; Nir, Sarah Maslin (November 6, 2019). "Behind the Deal That Put Giuliani Together With a Dirt-Hunting Partner". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 10, 2019.
- "New York lawyer is source of $500,000 paid to Trump attorney Giuliani". Reuters. November 8, 2019. Retrieved November 10, 2019.
- Orden, Erica (September 10, 2021). "Giuliani associate Igor Fruman pleads guilty to solicitation of a contribution by a foreign national". CNN. Retrieved September 10, 2021.
- Przybyla, Heidi; Smith, Allan (October 2, 2019). "Giuliani turns on 'honest' Ukrainian prosecutor who says Bidens did nothing illegal". NBC News. Retrieved October 2, 2019.
- Frazin, Rachel (September 19, 2019). "Giuliani says 'of course' he asked Ukraine to look into Biden seconds after denying it". The Hill. Retrieved September 20, 2019.
- Rupar, Aaron (September 20, 2019). "Rudy Giuliani's viral CNN meltdown over Trump and Ukraine, briefly explained". Vox. Retrieved September 20, 2019.
- Collinson, Stephen (September 12, 2019). "New revelations deepen scandal over Trump whistleblower complaint". CNN. Retrieved September 20, 2019.
- Samuels, Brett; Chaflant, Morgan (October 1, 2019). "GOP uneasy with Giuliani". The Hill. Retrieved October 2, 2019.
- "READ: Letter from House Democrats announcing subpoena for Rudy Giuliani". CNN.
- Entous, Adam (December 16, 2019). "The Ukrainian Prosecutor Behind Trump's Impeachment". The New Yorker. Retrieved December 16, 2019.
- Shesgreen, Deirdre; Wu, Nicholas; Cummings, William (October 2, 2019). "'Mysterious' packet of Ukraine disinformation arrives on Capitol Hill amid Trump impeachment inquiry". USA Today. Retrieved November 10, 2019.
- O'Brien, Rebecca Ballhaus and Rebecca Davis (April 30, 2021). "WSJ News Exclusive | Rudy Giuliani's Contacts With Former Ukrainian Officials Sought" – via www.wsj.com.
- Protess, Ben; Rashbaum, William K.; Vogel, Kenneth P. (April 29, 2021). "Firing of U.S. Ambassador Is at Center of Giuliani Investigation" – via NYTimes.com.
- Fandos, Nicholas; Schmidt, Michael S. (October 17, 2019). "Gordon Sondland, E.U. Envoy, Testifies Trump Delegated Ukraine Policy to Giuliani". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 10, 2019.
- Dwyer, Jim; Becker, Jo; Vogel, Kenneth P.; Haberman, Maggie; Nir, Sarah Maslin (December 8, 2019). "The Indispensable Man: How Giuliani Led Trump to the Brink of Impeachment". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 9, 2019.
- Dawsey, Josh; Helderman, Rosalind S.; Hamburger, Tom; Barrett, Devlin (December 8, 2019). "Inside Giuliani's dual roles: Power-broker-for-hire and shadow foreign policy adviser". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on December 9, 2019. Retrieved December 8, 2019.
- Schultz, David (October 9, 2019). "Commentary: The case for Rudy Giuliani's disbarment". Minnesota Lawyer. Retrieved December 10, 2019.
- Shapiro, Rich (September 27, 2019). "Rudy Giuliani's former DOJ colleagues believe he committed crimes". NBC News. Retrieved December 10, 2019.
- Hudson, John (September 25, 2019). "Giuliani's role as unofficial envoy faces scrutiny with rough transcript release". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on September 26, 2019. Retrieved December 9, 2019.
- Rocah, Mimi (September 24, 2019). "Opinion | Trump won't be prosecuted for extorting and bribing Ukraine – but Rudy Giuliani can". NBC News. Retrieved December 9, 2019.
- Farrell, Greg; Voreacos, David (September 25, 2019). "Giuliani Hunted Corruption. Now the Legal Peril May Be His". bloomberg.com. Bloomberg. Retrieved December 9, 2019.
- "Giuliani letter to Sen. Graham | Joe Biden | United States Government". Scribd. Retrieved November 23, 2019.
- Everett, Burgess (December 14, 2019). "Lindsey Graham invites Rudy Giuliani to Judiciary panel to discuss recent Ukraine visit". Politico. Retrieved December 31, 2019.
- Banco, Erin; Suebsaeng, Asawin (December 29, 2019). "Graham: Rudy Should Scrub Evidence for Russian Propaganda". The Daily Beast. Retrieved December 31, 2019.
- Stanglin, Doug (July 26, 2017). "Feds call ex-Manafort associate Dmytro Firtash a top-tier player in Russian organized crime". USA Today. Retrieved November 19, 2019.
- Grey, Stephen; Bergin, Tom; Musaieva, Sevgil; Anin, Roman (November 26, 2014). Woods, Richard; Williams, Michael (eds.). "SPECIAL REPORT-Putin's allies channelled billions to Ukraine oligarch". Reuters. Moscow/Kyiv.
- "Witness Statement of Victor Micolajovich Shokin" (PDF). Factcheck.org. September 4, 2019. Retrieved May 21, 2021.
- Shuster, Simon (October 15, 2019). "How a Ukrainian Oligarch Wanted by U.S. Authorities Helped Giuliani Attack Biden". Time. Retrieved October 18, 2019.
- Giuliani, Rudy [@RudyGiuliani] (November 25, 2019). "The NYT today has so much #FAKENEWS! 1. I did not ask anyone to dig up dirt on Joe Biden and certainly not with Dimitry Firtash, who I have never met or talked to. 2. I never heard of Shokin meeting w/Congressman Nunes. How many times can a source lie? Law suit?" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Kaczynski, Andrew. "Rudy Giuliani gives shifting answers on seeking information from Ukrainian oligarch". CNN.
- Dilanian, Ken; De Luce, Dan; Winter, Tom (October 16, 2019). "Oligarch Firtash linked to Giuliani pals' gas deals and Biden research". NBC News. Retrieved October 18, 2019.
- Becker, Jo; Bogdanich, Walt; Haberman, Maggie; Protess, Ben (November 25, 2019). "Why Giuliani Singled Out 2 Ukrainian Oligarchs to Help Look for Dirt" – via NYTimes.com.
- Baker, Stephanie; Reznik, Irina (October 18, 2019). "To Win Giuliani's Help, Oligarch's Allies Pursued Biden Dirt". Bloomberg News. Retrieved October 19, 2019.
- Ward, Vicky; Cohen, Marshall (November 1, 2019). "'I'm the best-paid interpreter in the world': Indicted Giuliani associate touted windfall from Ukrainian oligarch". CNN.
- Zapotosky, Matt; Helderman, Rosalind S. Helderman (October 22, 2019). "Prosecutors flagged possible ties between Ukrainian gas tycoon and Giuliani associates". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 25, 2019.
- Vogel, Kenneth P.; Schmidt, Michael S.; Benner, Katie (October 18, 2019). "Giuliani Mixes His Business With Role as Trump's Lawyer". The New York Times. Retrieved October 25, 2019.
- Friedman, Dan [@dfriedman33] (October 18, 2019). "Asked Giuliani if the recent meeting he had at DOJ involved Firtash or his case, as many people are speculating. Rudy texted: "It did not."" (Tweet). Retrieved October 25, 2019 – via Twitter.
- Perez, Evan (October 21, 2019). "Justice Department distances itself from Giuliani". CNN. Retrieved October 25, 2019.
- House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence (December 3, 2019). "Report of the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, Pursuant to H. Res. 660 in Consultation with the House Committee on Oversight and Reform and the House Committee on Foreign Affairs" (PDF). U.S. House of Representatives Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. Retrieved December 5, 2019.
- Wire, Sarah D.; Haberkorn, Jennifer (December 4, 2019). "Schiff says probe will continue after impeachment report finds 'overwhelming evidence' Trump abused office". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 6, 2019.
- LaFraniere, Sharon; Barnes, Julian E. (December 3, 2019). "A Mysterious '-1' and Other Call Records Show How Giuliani Pressured Ukraine". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 6, 2019.
- Bump, Philip (December 4, 2019). "Analysis | Why Giuliani's calls with '-1' are likely calls with Trump". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on December 5, 2019. Retrieved December 6, 2019.
- Vogel, Kenneth P.; Novak, Benjamin (December 4, 2019). "Giuliani, Facing Scrutiny, Travels to Europe to Interview Ukrainians". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 6, 2019.
- Sonne, Paul; Dawsey, Josh; Nakashima, Ellen; Miller, Greg (December 5, 2019). "Phone logs in impeachment report renew concern about security of Trump communications". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on December 6, 2019. Retrieved December 6, 2019.
- Webster, William (December 16, 2019). "Opinion | I Headed the F.B.I. and C.I.A. There's a Dire Threat to the Country I Love" – via NYTimes.com.
- Holliday, Rebecca Davis O'Brien, Rebecca Ballhaus and Shelby (November 25, 2019). "Federal Subpoenas Seek Information on Giuliani's Consulting Business" – via www.wsj.com.
- Ainsley, Julia; Winter, Tom; Ferri, Lisa (December 22, 2020). "Feds have discussed obtaining Giuliani's electronic communications". NBC News.
- Protess, Ben (February 10, 2021). "Trump Justice Department Sought to Block Search of Giuliani Records". The New York Times.
- Rashbaum, William K.; Protess, Ben; Haberman, Maggie (April 28, 2021). "Federal Investigators Execute Search Warrant at Rudy Giuliani's Apartment". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 28, 2021.
- Orden, Erica (April 28, 2021). "Federal agents execute search warrant on Rudy Giuliani's apartment". CNN. Retrieved April 28, 2021.
- Suebsaeng, Asawin; Rawnsley, Adam (April 30, 2021). "Lawyer: Feds Got Into Rudy's iCloud With 'Covert Warrant' While He Repped Trump in 2019" – via www.thedailybeast.com.
- Orden, Erica (May 17, 2021). "Giuliani's attorneys argue recent search warrants are 'fruit of this poisoned tree' after 'illegal' iCloud search review in 2019". CNN.
- Neumeister, Larry (May 20, 2021). "Feds: 18 electronic devices seized from Giuliani and firm". Associated Press.
- Scannell, Kara; Orden, Erica (May 20, 2021). "Prosecutors took 18 electronic devices from Rudy Giuliani's home and office in April raid". CNN.
- Klasfeld, Adam (May 21, 2021). "Rudy Giuliani and Victoria Toensing Are Not 'Above the Law' Because of Their 'Important Clients,' Feds Say". Law and Crime. Retrieved May 28, 2021.
- Klasfeld, Adam (May 28, 2021). "Judge Approves Special Master, Denies Rudy Giuliani and Victoria Toensing's Requests for Details of Government's Probe". Law and Crime. Retrieved May 28, 2021.
- Shuster, Simon (April 29, 2021). "Long Before Raiding Rudy Giuliani's Home, Investigators Sought 'Everything' From His Associates". Time. Retrieved May 28, 2021.
- Zachary Cohen, Marshall Cohen and Katelyn Polantz. "US intelligence report says Russia used Trump allies to influence 2020 election with goal of 'denigrating' Biden". CNN.
- Shesgreen, Deirdre. "Russia, Iran aimed to sway 2020 election through covert campaigns, US intelligence reports". USA TODAY.
- Stern, David L.; Dixon, Robyn. "Ukraine lawmaker seeking Biden probe meets with Giuliani in Kyiv" – via www.washingtonpost.com.
- Stedman, Scott; Bernardini, Matt (April 30, 2021). "Giuliani Probe Expands, Ukrainian Ally Under Criminal Investigation". Forensic News. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
- Rashbaum, William K.; Protess, Ben; Vogel, Kenneth P.; Hong, Nicole (May 27, 2021). "Prosecutors Investigating Whether Ukrainians Meddled in 2020 Election". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
- Chance, Matthew; Cohen, Marshall. "Exclusive: New audio of 2019 phone call reveals how Giuliani pressured Ukraine to investigate baseless Biden conspiracies". CNN. Retrieved June 8, 2021.
- Massie, Graeme (November 14, 2020). "Trump puts personal lawyer Rudy Giuliani in charge of all election lawsuits". The Independent. Retrieved November 14, 2020.
- Stracqualursi, Veronica (November 16, 2020). "Trump puts Giuliani in charge of post-election legal fight after series of losses". CNN. Retrieved November 20, 2020.
- Cheney, Kyle (November 22, 2020). "Trump campaign cuts Sidney Powell from president's legal team". Politico. Retrieved November 22, 2020.
- Subramaniam, Tara; Lybrand, Holmes (November 19, 2020). "Fact checking Giuliani and the Trump legal team's wild, fact-free press conference". CNN. Retrieved November 20, 2020.
- Swanson, Ali (November 20, 2020). "AP Fact Check: Trump legal team's batch of false vote claims". Associated Press. Retrieved November 20, 2020.
- Kessler, Glenn (November 19, 2020). "Analysis | Fact-checking the craziest news conference of the Trump presidency". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 20, 2020.
- Farhi, Paul; Izadi, Elahe (November 19, 2020). "Rudy Giuliani floated 'dangerous' and incendiary false claims of election conspiracy – and Fox News broadcast it live". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 20, 2020.
- Steck, Em; Kaczynski, Andrew (January 18, 2021). "Rudy Giuliani voted with an affidavit ballot, which he bashed in failed effort to overturn election". CNN. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
- "PolitiFact – Joe Biden is right that more than 60 of Trump's election lawsuits lacked merit". @politifact. January 8, 2021. Retrieved September 24, 2021.
- Papenfuss, Mary (August 2, 2021). "Rudy Giuliani Is Reportedly Almost Broke And Trump's Shutting Him Out". HuffPost. Retrieved August 2, 2021.
- Polantz, Katelyn (October 13, 2021). "Top conservative lawyers steer clear of Trump's latest legal fight". CNN. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
- Mangan, Dan; Breuninger, Kevin (November 17, 2020). "'Disgraceful!' – Lawyer blasts Trump attorney Giuliani for seeking to toss Pa. votes to reverse Biden win". CNBC. Retrieved November 20, 2020.
- Cant, Ash (November 11, 2020), Donald Trump's lawyer makes bombshell claim over 'evidence' of voter fraud, Yahoo News Australia, retrieved November 14, 2020
- Levy, Marc; Scolford, Mark (November 18, 2020). "A rusty Giuliani returns to the courtroom on Trump's behalf". The Associated Press. Retrieved November 20, 2020.
- Shamsian, Jacob; Sheth, Sonam (November 17, 2020). "Pennsylvania lawyers shredded Rudy Giuliani's arguments in Trump's biggest election lawsuit, calling them 'disgraceful' and 'really inventive'". Business Insider. Retrieved November 20, 2020.
- Roebuck, Jeremy (November 17, 2020). "Rudy Giuliani and Trump's last-stand push to overturn Pa.'s election results get a frosty reception in court". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved November 20, 2020.
- Roebuck, Jeremy (November 21, 2020). "'Not how the Constitution works': Federal judge tosses Trump suit seeking to disrupt Pa. election results". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Archived from the original on November 22, 2020. Retrieved December 10, 2020.
- Swaine, Jon. "In scathing opinion, federal judge dismisses Trump campaign lawsuit in Pennsylvania". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 22, 2020. Retrieved December 10, 2020.
- Watson, Kathryn (November 28, 2020). "Trump loses appeal in Pennsylvania: 'Calling an election unfair does not make it so'". CBS News. Archived from the original on November 28, 2020. Retrieved November 29, 2020.
- "U.S. appeals court rejects Trump appeal over Pennsylvania race". Post-Gazette. Associated Press. November 28, 2020. Retrieved December 10, 2020.
- Scannell, Kara (November 27, 2020). "Federal appeals court slams Trump campaign efforts to turn tide in Pennsylvania ruling, saying 'claims have no merit'". CNN. Archived from the original on November 27, 2020. Retrieved November 29, 2020.
- Cheney, Kyle; Gerstein, Josh (November 27, 2020). "'Voters, not lawyers, choose the president': Appeals court shoots down Trump suit in Pennsylvania". Politico. Archived from the original on November 28, 2020. Retrieved December 10, 2020.
- Kessler, Glenn (November 16, 2020). "Giuliani's fantasy parade of false voter-fraud claims". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 16, 2020. Retrieved November 16, 2020.
- "Did a Dominion Voting Systems Employee Brag About Rigging the Election Against Trump?". Snopes.com. Retrieved November 21, 2020.
- Polantz, Katelyn (January 25, 2021). "Dominion sues Giuliani for $1.3 billion over 'Big Lie'". CNN. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
- Polantz, Katelyn (August 11, 2021). "Judge allows defamation lawsuits against Sidney Powell, Rudy Giuliani and MyPillow CEO to go forward". CNN.
- Folkenflik, David; Romo, Vanessa (May 18, 2021). "Fox News Moves To Have Dominion Voting Systems Lawsuit Dismissed". NPR. Retrieved September 24, 2021.
- Darcy, Oliver (February 4, 2021). "Voting technology company Smartmatic files $2.7 billion lawsuit against Fox News, Rudy Giuliani and Sidney Powell over 'disinformation campaign'". CNN. Retrieved February 5, 2021.
- Shalvey, Kevin (June 19, 2021). "Rudy Giuliani, Sidney Powell, and Fox News have August date confirmed for court bid to dismiss $2.7 billion Smartmatic lawsuit". Business Insider. Retrieved August 2, 2021.
- Palmeri, Tara (September 24, 2021). "POLITICO Playbook: Scoop: Fox to Rudy: You're banned". POLITICO. Retrieved September 24, 2021.
- Palma, Bethania (January 6, 2021). "Did Rudy Giuliani Call for 'Trial By Combat' Before Trump Mob Broke Into Capitol?". Snopes. Archived from the original on January 9, 2021. Retrieved January 6, 2021.
- Freiman, Jordan (January 7, 2021). "4 dead after Trump supporters storm U.S. Capitol". CBS News. Retrieved January 7, 2021.
- Date, Jack; Osborne, Mark; Shapiro, Emily (January 8, 2021). "Federal murder probe opened for Capitol Police officer Brian Sicknick who died following riots". ABC News. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
- Rappeport, Alan (January 6, 2021). "Congress Did Not Finish Certifying the Election Results. What Happens Next?". The New York Times. Retrieved January 8, 2021.
- Hayes, Steve. "Giuliani to Senator: 'Try to Just Slow it Down'". thedispatch.com. Retrieved January 12, 2021.
- Perlstein, Rick [@rickperlstein] (January 11, 2021). "Sedition. Open and shut" (Tweet). Retrieved January 12, 2021 – via Twitter.
- Gstalter, Morgan (January 7, 2021). "Scarborough calls for arrest of Trump, Giuliani and Trump Jr. for insurrection against US". The Hill. Archived from the original on January 8, 2021. Retrieved January 7, 2021.
- "Message from the President: Storming of the Capitol Building | Manhattan College | Riverdale, NY". manhattan.edu. Retrieved January 9, 2021.
- DeSantis, Susan (January 11, 2021). "New York State Bar Association Launches Historic Inquiry Into Removing Trump Attorney Rudy Giuliani From Its Membership". New York State Bar Association. Retrieved January 11, 2021.
- Feuer, Alan (January 11, 2021). "A state senator referred Rudy Giuliani for disbarment". The New York Times.
- "Attorney Verification". New York State Bar Association. Retrieved January 11, 2021.
- Wester, Jane (January 13, 2021). "Will Rudy Giuliani Be Disbarred in New York? An 'Unusual' Case Heads to Disciplinary Committee". New York Law Journal. Retrieved January 14, 2021.
- "Lawyers want Giuliani investigated, license suspended". AP News. January 22, 2021. Retrieved March 19, 2021.
- "DC attorney general considers riot incitement charges against Donald Trump Jr., Giuliani, GOP Rep. Brooks". CNBC. Archived from the original on January 13, 2021. Retrieved January 12, 2021.
- Lambe, Jerry (January 29, 2021). "Rudy Giuliani Desperately Tries to Pin Pro-Trump Capitol Siege on the Lincoln Project". Law & Crime. Retrieved January 31, 2021.
- O'Connell, Oliver (January 30, 2021). "Lincoln Project says it will sue Rudy Giuliani over Capitol riot claims". The Independent. Retrieved January 31, 2021.
- Jansen, Bart (June 3, 2021). "Unanswered calls and a thwarted private detective: Swalwell's lawsuit over Jan. 6 has trouble getting started". USA Today. Retrieved July 28, 2021.
- "Matter of Giuliani, 2021 NY Slip Op 04086 (1st Dep't June 24, 2021)". New York Official Reports. New York State Law Reporting Bureau. Retrieved June 24, 2021.
- Hong, Nicole; Protess, Ben (June 24, 2021). "New York Suspends Giuliani's Law License". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 24, 2021.
- Katelyn Polantz (July 7, 2021). "Rudy Giuliani suspended from practicing law in Washington, DC". CNN.
- Saltonstall, David (January 7, 2007). "Rudy Inc., or Rudy sink? Mayor's client roster could hurt '08 hopes". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on February 11, 2007.
- Smith, Chris. "American Idol". New York magazine. p. 3. Retrieved May 25, 2017.
- "In Private Sector, Giuliani Parlayed Fame Into Wealth". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- Solomon, John & Mosk, Matthew (May 13, 2007). "In Private Sector, Giuliani Parlayed Fame Into Wealth". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 8, 2007.
- "Giuliani resigns as head of firm, calls his work there 'totally legal'". The Boston Globe. Associated Press. December 5, 2007. Archived from the original on June 26, 2009. Retrieved December 6, 2007.
- Kirchick, James (May 24, 2012). "Rudy Giuliani's New Low". Tablet Magazine. Retrieved May 25, 2012.
- Healy, Patrick D. (March 30, 2005). "Giuliani to Be Partner in Texas Law Firm". The New York Times.
- Buettner, Russ (May 2, 2007). "Giuliani's Tie to Texas Law Firm May Pose Risk". The New York Times.
- Meier, Barry (June 19, 2007). "Big Part of OxyContin Profit Was Consumed by Penalties". The New York Times.
- Theimer, Sharon (May 15, 2007). "Giuliani's firm's work could be ethics problem". Oakland Tribune. Associated Press. Archived from the original on September 4, 2015.
- "Ex-New York Mayor Rudolph Giuliani Leaves Bracewell Law Firm". Retrieved May 12, 2016.
- Moyer, Liz (January 19, 2016). "Rudolph Giuliani to Join Greenberg Traurig Law Firm". The New York Times. Retrieved April 10, 2018.
- Moyer, Liz. "Rudolph Giuliani to Join Greenberg Traurig Law Firm". The New York Times dealbook blog. Retrieved January 19, 2016.
- Samuelsohn, Darren (May 10, 2018). "Trump attorney Giuliani resigns from private law firm". Politico. Retrieved May 11, 2018.
- Schmidt, Michael S.; Haberman, Maggie (May 10, 2018). "Giuliani's Law Firm Undercuts His Statements as They Part Ways". The New York Times.
- Levine, Marianne; Bayer, Lili (August 29, 2018). "Giuliani got paid for advocacy in Romania". Politico. Retrieved August 29, 2018.
- Condrut, Petriana (August 26, 2018). "Rudolph Giuliani, avocatul lui Donald Trump, scrisoare către Klaus Iohannis: Protocoalele promovate de Kovesi şi Maior subminează statul de drept" (in Romanian). Mediafax. Retrieved August 29, 2018.
- "Rudy Giuliani's Vulnerabilities". The Smoking Gun. February 12, 2007. Archived from the original on April 1, 2007. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- Lynda Richardson, "A Scholarly Fund-Raiser's Stroll to the Park", The New York Times, May 4, 2001. Retrieved March 31, 2008.
- Powell, Michael and Goldfarb, Zachary A. Powell, Michael; Goldfarb, Zachary A. (March 8, 2006). "On 'Feeling Thermometer', Giuliani is the Hottest'". The Washington Post. p. A04. Retrieved November 15, 2006.
- "Giuliani To Wed At Gracie Mansion". CBS News. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- "All not in the family for GOP hopeful Giuliani". CNN. March 6, 2007. Retrieved December 12, 2007.
- "Donna's Riskiest Role". New York. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- Giuliani, Rose Caroline (October 15, 2020). "Rudy Giuliani Is My Father. Please, Everyone, Vote for Joe Biden and Kamala Harris". Vanity Fair.
- Eric Konigsberg, "Drawing Fire, Judith Giuliani Gives Her Side", The New York Times, August 5, 2007; Retrieved August 14, 2007
- Margaret Carlson, "In Rudy's Playground", Time, July 11, 1999. Retrieved February 15, 2007.
- Heidi Evans, "Eager Judi left coal town in dust", Daily News, April 29, 2007; Retrieved May 6, 2007 Archived June 29, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
- Saul, Michael; Evans, Heidi & Saltonstall, David (December 7, 2007). "Mayor's Gal Got Security Earlier than We Knew". New York Daily News. Retrieved December 7, 2007.
- Bumiller, Elisabeth (May 4, 2000). "Mayor Acknowledges 'Very Good Friend'". The New York Times. Retrieved December 7, 2007.
- Purnick, Joyce (May 8, 2000). "Metro Matters; 'Good Friend', A Marriage, And Voters". The New York Times. Retrieved March 31, 2008.
- Drucker, Jesse (May 4, 2000). "Rudy's "very good friend"". Salon. Archived from the original on February 9, 2008. Retrieved December 18, 2007.
- "The Mayor's Separation; Excerpts From the Mayor's News Conference Concerning His Marriage". The New York Times. May 11, 2000. Retrieved March 31, 2008.
- Wadler, Joyce (July 14, 2002). "Pronounced "Ex and Ex"". The New York Times. Retrieved January 5, 2007.
- Bumiller, Elisabeth (May 11, 2000). "The Mayor's Separation: The Overview; Giuliani and His Wife of 16 Years Are Separating". The New York Times. Retrieved January 5, 2007.
- The Softer, Gentler Rudy Giuliani "The Softer, Gentler Rudy Giuliani" (PDF).
- Lloyd Grove, "The Thunderbolt", New York Magazine. Retrieved June 12, 2007
- "Giuliani fears ex-wife will hit presidential bid". The Sunday Times. January 7, 2007. Archived from the original on February 14, 2007. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- Heyman, Jed (August 24, 2004). "Three's Company: Picking Up After Rudy". New York. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
- "Giuliani Divorce Settlement Reached". CBS News. Associated Press. July 10, 2002. Archived from the original on December 28, 2002.
- Carlson, Margaret (May 20, 2001). "No Grace At Gracie Mansion". Time. Archived from the original on February 23, 2007. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
- Capehart, Jonathan (March 6, 2007). "Hizzoner the Curmudgeon". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 30, 2010.
- Bumiller, Elisabeth (May 18, 2001). "Giuliani Breaks Silence, Citing 'Adult' and 'Mature' Relationship". The New York Times. Retrieved June 12, 2007.
- Barrett, Wayne (August 15, 2007). "Public Displays of Disaffection". The Village Voice. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
- "Giuliani settles divorce out of court". BBC News Online. July 10, 2002. Retrieved January 4, 2010.
- Buettner, Russ; Perez-Pena, Richard (March 3, 2007). "Noticeably Absent From the Giuliani Campaign: His Children". The New York Times. Retrieved June 12, 2007.
- Daniel Saltonstall, "Wife Makes Strive: Judi cause of tension with Dad – Rudy's son", Daily News, March 3, 2007
- Smith, Emily (December 22, 2014). "Giuliani and formerly estranged son now on 'great terms'". Page Six. New York Post. Retrieved December 2, 2015.
- Heil, Emily (April 4, 2018). "Judith Giuliani files for divorce from Rudy Giuliani". Reliable Source. The Washington Post. Retrieved April 10, 2018.
- Durkin, Tish (August 31, 2018). "The Giulianis Break Up". New York. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
- "Report: Giuliani settles long divorce from his third wife". Associated Press. December 11, 2019. Retrieved March 25, 2020.
- Sommerfeldt, Chris (October 2, 2020). "Rudy Giuliani and girlfriend test negative for COVID-19 after traveling with Trump to debate". New York Daily News. Retrieved October 23, 2020.
- Marsh, Julia; Fenton, Reuven; Fonrouge, Gabrielle (June 12, 2018). "Rudy Giuliani's wife filed for divorce after his affair with married woman". Page Six. Retrieved October 23, 2020.
- Bumiller, Elisabeth (April 28, 2000). "Giuliani fighting prostate cancer; Unsure on Senate". The New York Times. p. A1.
- Bumiller, Elisabeth (September 16, 2000). "Mayor undergoes cancer treatment; Radioactive seeds implanted in Giuliani's prostate gland". The New York Times. p. A1.
- Bumiller, Elisabeth (November 22, 2000). "Giuliani starts final phase of cancer treatment". The New York Times. p. B4.
- "Giuliani: From survivor to cancer spokesman", CNBC News, June 18, 2005. Retrieved November 28, 2020.
- Haberman, Maggie (December 6, 2020). "Covid-19 Live Updates: Chief of Operation Warp Speed Sets Ambitious Timetable for U.S. Vaccinations". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 6, 2020.
- Cole, Devan (December 9, 2020). "Giuliani leaves hospital after being treated for coronavirus". CNN. Retrieved December 10, 2020.
- Diamond, Jeremy; Fossum, Sam; Stracqualursi, Veronica (December 7, 2020). "Giuliani hospitalized after testing positive for coronavirus". CNN. Retrieved December 9, 2020.
- Olmstead, Molly (December 6, 2020). "Rudy Giuliani Has Tested Positive for COVID, Trump Says". Slate Magazine. Retrieved December 6, 2020.
- Rosenblatt, Dillon; Shumway, Julia (December 6, 2020). "Giuliani COVID-19 diagnosis closes Arizona Legislature". Arizona Capital Times. Retrieved December 6, 2020.
- "Outspoken Catholic Archbishop Raymond Burke Says He'd Deny Rudy Giuliani Communion – Fox News". Fox News. October 3, 2007. Archived from the original on May 27, 2013. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
- "100 Year Association of New York". Archived from the original on August 27, 2009.
- "Events: 2001". House of Savoy. Retrieved April 1, 2009.
- "Transcripts". CNN. February 7, 2001. Retrieved March 30, 2010.
- "NY Episcopal Diocese Honors Former Mayor Giuliani With The Fiorello LaGuardia Public Service Award At St. Paul's Chapel For September 11 Leadership". PR Newswire/HighBeam Research.[dead link]
- "Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation & Library". Archived from the original on October 14, 2008.
- "Past Winners". Jefferson Awards Foundation. Archived from the original on May 11, 2017. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
- Early, Tracy (September 13, 2004). "Naming center at Catholic hospital for Giuliani raises questions". Catholic News Service. Archived from the original on September 15, 2004.
- Anderson, Nick; Cooperman, Alan (May 20, 2005). "Cardinal Denounces Honor for Giuliani". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 30, 2010.
- "Giuliani Speaks at College After Controversy". Fox News. Associated Press. May 22, 2005. Archived from the original on December 4, 2007. Retrieved November 8, 2007.
- Folley, Aris (January 12, 2021). "Vermont college revokes honorary degree for Giuliani". The Hill. Retrieved January 13, 2021.
- "Italian-American Awards Gala". c-spanvideo.org. C-SPAN. October 13, 2007. Retrieved February 3, 2010.
- Baxter, Sarah (September 16, 2007). "Rudy Giuliani mocks Hillary claim to be Iron Lady". The Sunday Times. London. p. A1. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
- "Earle Mack School of Law Inaugural Commencement". Daily Digest. Drexel University. May 22, 2009. Retrieved November 18, 2015.
- "Drexel University Rescinds Honorary Degree Awarded to Rudy Giuliani". Drexel University Office of the President. Drexel University. August 13, 2021. Retrieved August 14, 2021.
- Burnham, Johnny J. (March 15, 2003). "Giuliani speaks at Vance Lecture series". New Britain Herald. Archived from the original on March 22, 2017. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
- Seinfeld Season 5: Inside Look – "The Non-Fat Yogurt" (DVD). Sony Pictures Home Entertainment. 2005.
- Crist, Allison (May 18, 2018). "Kate McKinnon Explains Why Her Rudy Giuliani Impression Came Naturally". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved December 2, 2018.
- Wilstein, Matt (October 6, 2019). "SNL Turns Kate McKinnon's Rudy Giuliani Into the Joker". The Daily Beast. Retrieved February 8, 2020.
- Adams, Sam (July 21, 2020). "Netflix's New Mafia Doc Features Cameos From Giuliani and Trump". Slate. Archived from the original on July 23, 2020. Retrieved July 24, 2020.
- Chang, Justin (October 21, 2020). "Review: Sacha Baron Cohen takes on Trump and coronavirus in clever, scattershot 'Borat' sequel". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 21, 2020.
- Shoard, Catherine (October 21, 2020). "Rudy Giuliani faces questions after compromising scene in new Borat film". The Guardian. Retrieved October 22, 2020.
- Arkin, Daniel (October 27, 2020). "Sacha Baron Cohen hits back at Rudy Giuliani over 'Borat' scene". NBC News. Retrieved October 28, 2020.
- Colbert, Claire (April 24, 2021). "Rudy Giuliani and the MyPillow Guy among 'winners' in 41st Annual Razzie Awards for worst in cinema". CNN. Retrieved May 1, 2021.
- Ammann, Daniel (2009). The King of Oil: The Secret Lives of Marc Rich. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-57074-3.
- Barrett, Wayne, (2000). Rudy!: An Investigative Biography of Rudolph Giuliani. Basic Books; ISBN 0-7567-6114-X (Reprint by Diane Publishing Co.).
- Barrett, Wayne & Collins, Dan (2006). Grand Illusion: The Untold Story of Rudy Giuliani and 9/11. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-053660-2.
- Bratton, William; Knobler, Peter (1998). Turnaround: How America's Top Cop Reversed the Crime Epidemic. New York: Random House. ISBN 978-0-679-45251-5.
- Brodeur, Christopher X. (2002). Perverted Little Creep: Mayor Giuliani vs Mayor Brodeur. ExtremeNY books, ISBN 0-9741593-0-1.
- Dinkins, David N.; Knobler, Peter (2013). A Mayor's Life: Governing New York's Gorgeous Mosaic. PublicAffairs, ISBN 978-1-61039-301-0
- Doney, Kristin; Giuliani, Rudolph W. (1998). What Will You Be?. Public/Private Initiatives Inc.
- Giuliani, Rudolph W.; Kurson, Ken (2002). Leadership. Miramax Books. ISBN 978-0-7868-6841-4.
- Gonzalez, Juan, (2002). Fallout: The Environmental Consequences of the World Trade Center Collapse. New Press, ISBN 1-56584-754-7.
- Heilemann, John; Halperin, Mark (2010). Game Change: Obama and the Clintons, McCain and Palin, and the Race of a Lifetime. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-173363-5.
- Kirtzman, Andrew (2001). Rudy Giuliani: Emperor of the City. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-009389-1.
- Koch, Edward I. (1999). Giuliani: Nasty Man. Barricade Books. ISBN 1-56980-155-X.
- Mandery, Evan (1999). The Campaign: Rudy Giuliani, Ruth Messinger, Al Sharpton, and the Race to Be Mayor of New York City. Westview Press, ISBN 0-8133-6698-4.
- Newfield, Jack, (2003). The Full Rudy: The Man, the Myth, the Mania. Thunder's Mouth Press, ISBN 1-56025-482-3.
- Paterson, David "Black, Blind, & In Charge: A Story of Visionary Leadership and Overcoming Adversity."Skyhorse Publishing. New York, New York, 2020.
- Polner, Robert, (2005). America's Mayor: The Hidden History of Rudy Giuliani's New York. Soft Skull Press, ISBN 1-932360-58-1.
- Polner, Robert, (2007). America's Mayor, America's President? The Strange Career of Rudy Giuliani. [Preface by Jimmy Breslin] Soft Skull Press, ISBN 1-933368-72-1.
- Siegel, Fred (2005). The Prince of the City: Giuliani, New York, and the Genius of American Life. Encounter Books. ISBN 978-1-59403-084-0.
- Strober, Deborah Hart; Strober, Gerald S. (2007). Giuliani: Flawed Or Flawless? The Oral Biography. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-73835-0.
- Financial information (federal office) at the Federal Election Commission
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Rudy Giuliani at Curlie
- La Guardia and Wagner Archives/The Giuliani Collection Archived August 8, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
- TPM infographic: Tracking Rudy Giuliani's Foreign Dealings
- Suspension of Giuliani's New York State law license — Attorney Grievance Committee for the Supreme Court of the State of New York Appellate Division