Rudy Giuliani presidential campaign, 2008

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Rudy Giuliani for President 2008
Rudy08.png
Campaign U.S. presidential election, 2008
Candidate Rudy Giuliani
Mayor of New York City
(1994–2001)
Affiliation Republican Party
Status Withdrawn
Headquarters Los Angeles
Key people Mike DuHaime (Manager)
Pat Oxford (Chairman)
Tony Carbonetti (Chief Political Advisor)
Mark Campbell (Political Director)
Katie Levinson (Communications Director)
Chris Henick (Senior Advisor)
Receipts US$60.9 million (2007-12-31)
Slogan Tested · Ready · Now
Website
www.joinrudy2008.com
(archived - Jan. 26, 2008)

The 2008 presidential campaign of Rudy Giuliani began following the formation of the Draft Giuliani movement in October 2005. The next year, Giuliani opened an exploratory committee and formally announced in February 2007 that he was actively seeking the presidential nomination of the Republican Party.

At the onset of the campaign, Giuliani had held a significant lead in the nationwide polls by January 2007.[1] His runner up in the polls, Senator John McCain, had his candidacy falter, and throughout 2007, Giuliani maintained his lead in both national polls and fundraising. Political observers predicted that Giuliani's position would fall, either due to Republican base voters discovering his liberal positions on certain social issues, his personality, management style or the entrance of former Senator Fred Thompson into the race.[citation needed] Giuliani did not campaign actively in the early voting states, hoping to simply survive in these states, and focused instead on the later, larger states. He campaigned in Florida throughout the primary season, hoping a win in the state's primary on January 29, 2008, would give him enough momentum to win the primaries on Super Tuesday (February 5),[2] where he had also campaigned heavily.

After finishing third in the Florida primary, Giuliani's campaign indicated he would withdraw from the race.[3][4] On January 29, 2008, Giuliani exited the race and endorsed the eventual Republican nominee John McCain.[5]

Background[edit]

Mayor Giuliani (right) at Ground Zero following the 9/11 attacks, with Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld.

Giuliani's public profile started to rise when he was appointed as the United States Associate Attorney General by President Ronald Reagan. He held the position from 1981 to 1983, when he was appointed United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York. He held this post until 1989, when he resigned to run his first campaign for Mayor of New York City. He lost the race but won four years later, and served as the city's mayor from 1994 to 2001. As mayor, he was best known for his leadership role during the September 11 attacks, when he coordinated and managed the immediate emergency response,[6] earning him the title as Time magazine Person of the Year in 2001. He also positioned himself as "tough on crime" and was often credited with the reduction in offenses that occurred during his tenure in office. Giuliani briefly ran for U.S. Senate in New York to fill the vacancy left by the retiring Daniel Patrick Moynihan in 2000, but was forced to withdraw from the race after being diagnosed with prostate cancer. Although he held traditional views on defense and economics, Giuliani was considered socially liberal, holding pro-choice views on abortion, supporting same-sex civil unions and embryonic stem cell research. As mayor, the abortion rate in New York City dropped by 16% in comparison to the 12% drop nationally; adoptions raised by 133%.

A draft movement began in late 2005 to convince Giuliani to run for President of the United States in 2008. "Draft Rudy Giuliani for President, Inc." filed with the Federal Election Commission (FEC), and became the first federal committee formed with the sole purpose of encouraging Giuliani to run. During this time, pro-life groups, such as the Republican National Coalition for Life, had already announced their intention to oppose Giuliani, because of his stance on abortion. However, evidence suggested that even among those voters, he enjoyed some support for his possible run.[7] Some social conservatives contended that Giuliani's emphasis on lowering the abortion rate, was a pragmatic pro-life view.[8] Among the overall public, Giuliani was perceived to be a moderate. An August 2006 Rasmussen Reports poll found that 36% of the American public identified the potential candidate as a moderate, while 29% identified him as a conservative and 15% as a liberal.[9] Early polls showed Giuliani with one of the highest levels of name recognition and support, and he was considered a front-runner in the race for the Republican nomination.[10]

Throughout 2006, rumors circulated regarding a possible Giuliani presidential campaign, abetted by hints from the former mayor himself. Over the Independence Day holiday weekend in July 2006, Giuliani declared that he would run for president in 2008 if he could raise sufficient funds. On November 13, 2006, Giuliani announced during a leadership conference in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania that he had taken the first step toward a potential 2008 White House bid by forming the Rudy Giuliani Presidential Exploratory Committee, Inc., allowing him to raise money for national travel and for a presidential campaign.

Campaign developments 2007[edit]

On February 5, 2007, Giuliani officially entered the race for the 2008 U.S. presidential election after filing a "statement of candidacy" with the Federal Election Commission.[11] He confirmed his candidacy on the February 14 edition of Larry King Live, firmly stating: "Yes, I'm running."[12] No Italian American had ever been elected president, and Giuliani's run was the most notable by a member of the ethnic group (the only Italian American to be a major-party national ticket nominee was Geraldine Ferraro, the 1984 Democratic Party nominee for vice-president; also, Al Smith's grandfather was Italian).[citation needed]

February - May 2007: Early stages[edit]

Following a series of criticisms from conservatives about his views on abortion, Giuliani made a pledge in February 2007 to nominate Supreme Court Justices in the mold of John Roberts, Sam Alito, Antonin Scalia, and Anthony Kennedy (all Ronald Reagan appointees, former colleagues of his in the Reagan Justice Department or both).[13]

Giuliani and the nine other Republican presidential contenders participated in the first MSNBC 2008 Republican Presidential Candidates Debate on May 3, 2007, held at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library. In the non-scientific six-part MSNBC online vote following the debate,[14] Giuliani finished in 3rd place (15%).

Giuliani portrayed himself as the candidate who could beat Hillary Clinton in the general election by being competitive in traditional blue states such as New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Delaware.[15] A May 10, 2007 Quinnipiac University Polling Institute poll put Giuliani ahead of Hillary Clinton, 48% to 42% in Connecticut.[16]

Giuliani participated at the May 15, 2007 GOP debate in South Carolina where the notable exchange occurred when the former mayor challenged a statement made by Congressman Ron Paul. Paul claimed that the United States' presence in the Middle East over the past decade incited hatred towards the United States among many Middle Easterners and provided terrorists with extra incentive to commit the September 11 attacks. The debate was sponsored by Fox News. News Corporation, the parent company of Fox News, is a client of the Bracewell & Giuliani law firm.[17] Accuracy in Media editor Cliff Kincaid charged after the debate that this represented a conflict of interest, and that Fox News moderators Chris Wallace and Wendell Goler and post-debate interviewer Sean Hannity failed to ask Giuliani pertinent follow-up questions regarding the Ron Paul exchange about the causes of the September 11 attacks.[18]

In May, influential Christian conservative leader James Dobson, wrote that he could not fathom Giuliani's stance on the abortion issue and he would not vote for him if he were the Republican presidential nominee. He also cited Giuliani's three marriages and the former mayor's support for civil unions for gays as reasons why he could not support the candidate. Dobson wrote, "I cannot, and will not, vote for Rudy Giuliani in 2008. It is an irrevocable decision."[19]

According to the Federal Elections Commission, Giuliani raised $18,029,974 in the first quarter of 2007, second to Mitt Romney among Republicans and fourth overall. Out of that money he spent only $6,080,239. Among that money he raised the second-most from Wall Street of all presidential candidates, with $1.8 million raised.[20]

Summer 2007: The campaign heats up[edit]

In June 2007, Giuliani drew some criticism for dropping out of the August Iowa Straw Poll.[21] Some Republican officials felt the move could be seen as "dissing Iowa."[21] In response, a man in a chicken suit, known as the Iowa Chicken, began demonstrating at Giuliani's appearances in Iowa.[22][23] Despite this, Giuliani maintained that he was still planning on competing in the Iowa Caucus.[24] Some political observers have opined that the Straw Poll results are bought by campaigns.[21]

Giuliani had emerged as the frontrunner after overtaking John McCain in the polls. With the exposure and eventual entrance of Fred Thompson into the field, Giuliani's poll numbers began to drop. But he held on to his status as frontrunner. According to the CBS News Poll taken June 26–28, Giuliani held the lead over Thompson 34% to 21%.[25]

In the second quarter, Giuliani revealed that he raised $17 million, first among Republicans and third overall behind Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton.[26]

September 2007: Frontrunner status[edit]

On September 21, 2007, numerous news agencies reported on Giuliani's interruption by, presumably, a phone call from his wife during a publicized National Rifle Association speech.[27][28][29] Shortly thereafter a vast array of Internet blogs criticized the call as being a phony political gimmick. A source from within Giuliani's camp said, "what you saw today was a candidate in a spontaneous moment on the campaign trail."[30] While Jeff Barker, a campaign spokesman confirmed, "the call was not planned."[31] The official stance from Giuliani was not concrete, as during the same day Mitt Romney's political camp revealed a prior video wherein June, he had again left his cell phone on and received another call from his wife. [32] According to the Wall Street Journal editorial page, Giuliani has taken approximately 40 calls during speeches.[33] A fact checker piece by The Washington Post surveyed other reports of such calls and concluded, "This is a puzzling one. Without more information, it is difficult to divine Giuliani's true motivations for taking these calls."[34]

In September, reports surfaced of a coordinated grassroots campaign "$9.11 for Rudy", which attempted to solicit $9.11 in the form of donations. One of their supporters, Abraham Sofaer, attempted to hold a fundraiser for Giuliani during the "National House Party Night", and drew criticism.[35] Democratic presidential candidate Chris Dodd called the theme "unconscionable, shameless and sickening."[36] However, Giuliani's campaign spokeswoman Maria Comella stated, "These are two volunteers who acted independently of and without the knowledge of the campaign, their decision to ask individuals for that amount was an unfortunate choice."[37]

Perhaps because of Giuliani's frontrunner status, some national leaders of the Christian right including James Dobson, Richard Viguerie, Tony Perkins and Morton Blackwell,[38] attended a meeting of the Council for National Policy in September 2007, at the Grand America Hotel in Salt Lake City. At this meeting, they decided that they would consider supporting a third-party candidate for president if a pro-choice candidate were to win the Republican nomination.[39][39][40][41] The CNP's official statement read, "If the Republican Party nominates a pro-abortion candidate, we will consider running a third-party candidate."[38]

By the end of September 2007, most polls showed Giuliani to have more support than any of the other declared Republican candidates, with only Senator Thompson and Governor Romney showing greater support in some state polls.[42] Specifically, state-by-state polls for the 2008 Republican nomination showed that Giuliani polled ahead of all other candidates in a majority of states including the delegate-rich states of California,[43] New York,[44] and Florida.[45] A September 26, 2007 Quinnipiac poll taken in New Jersey gave the mayor a slight lead over Hillary Clinton in the traditional blue state, 45% to 44%.[46]

Fall 2007: Under attack[edit]

On November 9, 2007, Bernard Kerik, whom Giuliani had appointed to several top positions during his mayoralty, brought in as a partner at Giuliani Partners, and recommended for Secretary of Homeland Security, was indicted on 16 counts of tax fraud and other federal charges.[47] Due to questions about Giuliani's judgement in promoting Kerik's career, The New York Times said that the forthcoming legal proceedings could "cast a shadow" on Giuliani's presidential campaign,[47] while The Washington Post said the indictment "was expected to provide an opening for political rivals" of Giuliani.[48] Giuliani said that "I made a mistake of not clearing him effectively enough. I take the responsibility for that", and defended Kerik's performance in the city positions he had held.[48] Giuliani also declined to say whether he might one day issue a presidential pardon for Kerik.[49] On November 13, 2007, former publisher Judith Regan, with whom Kerik had had an extramarital affair, filed a $100 million defamation lawsuit against News Corporation, the affiliate of Fox News, claiming among other things that the corporation's executives told her in 2004 to lie to federal investigators about her relationship with Kerik, in order to protect Giuliani's future presidential campaign.[50]

In late November 2007, The Politico reported that while Mayor of New York in 1999 and 2000, Giuliani had billed to obscure city agencies several tens of thousands of dollars of mayoral security expenses incurred while visiting Judith Nathan, with whom he was having an extramarital affair, in The Hamptons.[51] Giuliani denied that he or his administration had done anything improper, and called the charges a "political hit job".[52] Questions continued in the press not over his need for the security, but over the appearance of trying to hide the expenses in the city budget, which Giuliani aides eventually said was due to vendor payment efficiencies.[53] Shortly thereafter, the New York Daily News reported another angle on the story, stating that Giuliani had ordered police department protection and chauffeuring services for Nathan in early 2000, before her relationship with him had even become public.[54]

During late November and early December 2007, several stories were published in the press regarding clients of Giuliani's consultancy firm, Giuliani Partners, and his law firm, Bracewell & Giuliani.[55] The Village Voice and others reported that Giuliani Partners had been given contracts from the Qatar Ministry of the Interior for security advice and consulting since 2005, and these contracts had been overseen by then-Minister of Religious Affairs Abdullah Bin Khalid Al-Thani,[56][57] a member of Qatar's royal family who is considered sympathetic to Al Qaeda and who had sheltered future September 11 mastermind Khalid Sheikh Mohammed from the FBI in 1996.[57][58][59] The New York Times reported that Bracewell & Giuliani had lobbied for an Ethiopian political faction opposing its government and in opposition to goals of American foreign policy.[60] In fact, Giuliani had already stepped down as CEO and chairman of Giuliani Partners in June 2007,[55] although this action was not disclosed publicly. On December 4, 2007, in the wake of the latest attention to the firm's client base, Giuliani Partners announced the stepping down,[61] with Giuliani defending his work there, saying, "Everything I did at Giuliani Partners was totally legal, totally ethical. There's nothing for me to explain about. We acted honorably, decently."[61] Giuliani maintained his equity interest in the firm.[55]

The Nathan security billing and Giuliani client base stories dominated Giuliani's press coverage for much of a week and coincided with a significant drop in his national poll figures[2][53][62] and a worsening of his fortunes in the first caucus and primary states.[2] Combined with the Kerik developments, they associated an air of political-personal doubt around the candidate.[63] The Wall Street Journal stated that "These are perilous times for Rudy Giuliani."[62] In a lengthy interview on the nationally televised Meet the Press, Giuliani defended the security detail decisions, saying they were warranted by threat assessments at the time, and defended his refusal to release a full Giuliani Partners client list, saying every client of significance had already been pointed out in the press.[64] Within a month after the original Nathan report, an investigation of city records by The New York Times revealed that the billing of mayoral travel-related expenses to obscure city agencies had started two years before the Nathan visits began, and totaled a hundred times more than what was spent for the Nathan visits, thus strongly suggesting that the Nathan visits "had nothing to do with any accounting legerdemain."[65] Nevertheless, the political damage had been done.[66]

Winter 2007: A strategy in peril[edit]

Rudy Giuliani campaign events by state[67]

By mid-December 2007, Giuliani was keeping to his strategy of campaigning in big states such as New York, New Jersey, Florida, California, Illinois, Missouri, and other Super Duper Tuesday states, while the other contenders focused on the earlier states of Iowa, New Hampshire, and South Carolina.[68] However, the strategy was now seen as at risk.[69] Not only were his poll numbers in the early states falling — despite an attempt for a while to boost his standing in New Hampshire[68] with $3 million of radio and television advertising, which ended up not having any effect[70] — but he had lost his national lead and had fallen into statistical ties with Mike Huckabee.[69] Most dangerously, his lead in Florida, the first state that he planned to heavily contest, was dwindling as well.[71] Furthermore, changes in Giuliani's campaign messaging went largely unnoticed by the press, given that they were focused on Iowa and New Hampshire developments.[70] Giuliani's woes were further symbolized when he got sick with flu-like symptoms during a campaign flight and was admitted overnight to Barnes-Jewish Hospital in St. Louis, Missouri as a precaution.[72] Giuliani resumed limited campaigning in subsequent days; the campaign would not give precise details of tests done;[73] Giuliani then stated it had been a "terrible headache", not flu, and a full medical report would be given after Christmas;[74] but the health question had become an ongoing campaign story.[70] Giuliani did indeed get a clean bill of health from his doctor on the day after Christmas,[75] but again a minor amount of political damage had been done.

Giuliani's voter appeal continued to be hurt by the previous month's stories about his personal and business life, as well as the reduced level of civil strife in Iraq undercutting his security-based campaign messages.[70] When the close proximity of the first contests to the holidays led to many candidates putting out Christmas videos — allowing them to keep presenting their message but in a more appropriate setting[76] — Giuliani chose two videos which combined his policy goals with humorous asides with Santa Claus regarding fruit cakes as gifts or the vain hope that "all the presidential candidates can just get along."[76]

Caucuses and primaries 2008[edit]

Iowa and New Hampshire[edit]

Giuliani at a campaign event in Derry, New Hampshire, on January 7, the day before the New Hampshire primary.

In the January 3 Iowa Republican caucus, in which Giuliani essentially did not compete,[77] he finished a distant sixth out of seven candidates with 4 percent of the vote.[78] He had been second in polls in the state as late as early October.[66]

Giuliani did compete, off and on, in the January 8 New Hampshire primary,[79] making the second most appearances there of any Republican after Mitt Romney and spending the third most money there after Romney and John McCain.[79] He had been second in the polls in the state as late as the start of December,[66] but finished fourth in the primary with 9 percent of the vote, far behind McCain and Romney and trailing as well third-place finisher Mike Huckabee.[80]

Giuliani continued to maintain that his strategy of focusing on later, larger primaries would result in his winning the nomination. Before the New Hampshire votes had been counted, Giuliani's campaign moved to Florida in preparation for the state's January 29 primary. "I want you to come join us there and help us", he said. "And help us in Connecticut. Help us in New York. Help us in New Jersey."[81] By January 2008, Giuliani's popularity had slipped significantly, both in the polls and media attention. Measurements by the University of Navarra indicated that throughout the month, Giuliani's amount of global media attention was a distant fourth among Republican candidates, trailing Huckabee, Romney, and McCain.[82]

Michigan, Nevada, South Carolina[edit]

Meanwhile, Giuliani's results in the early primaries and caucuses were very low: sixth place with 3% of the vote in the Michigan primary[83] (where he had leading in polls as recently as mid-December),[66] sixth place with 4% of the vote in the Nevada caucuses,[84] and sixth place with 2% of the vote in the South Carolina primary[85] (where he had been tied for the lead in polls as late as mid-December).[66]

Florida[edit]

Rudy Giuliani speaking during his campaign in Florida.

Giuliani said on January 8 that Florida was "real important" to the campaign, and that they would put "almost everything" into Florida.[86] Several senior staffers in the campaign went without their January paychecks in order to assure that more funds could be spent in the state.[87]

A January 14, 2008 poll from Rasmussen Reports showed that Giuliani, Mike Huckabee, John McCain and Mitt Romney were all tied within the margin of error[88] On January 23, 2008, the Miami-Herald reported that Giuliani's Florida support was in "freefall" as polls showed him fighting Huckabee (who was only campaigning part-time in the state[89]) for third place, well behind front-runners McCain and Romney.[90] By a January 24, 2008 poll, Giuliani was in third place in Florida with 20% of the vote, compared to 23% for John McCain and 27% for Mitt Romney.

Another blow to Giuliani was the late endorsements for McCain of Florida Senator and former Chairman of the Republican National Committee Mel Martinez on January 25[91] and the highly popular Governor of Florida, Charlie Crist, on January 26.[91] Crist had planned to endorse Giuliani in the early autumn,[92] and had still been expected to do so in early January.[89] The Giuliani camp had placed much emphasis on the value of a Crist endorsement, and had focused their campaign strategies around it.[93] They were thus visibly upset by Crist's endorsement of McCain.[92] Whereas previously Giuliani had declared that he would campaign on regardless of the Florida results, he now was more vague.[89] By the day before the Florida vote, a new Quinnipiac University Polling Institute final poll showed Giuliani's slide continuing down to 14 percent, 18 points behind McCain.[94] Giuliani chartered a Boeing 727 to conduct a barnstorming tour of airports: Orlando Sanford International Airport, St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport, Southwest Florida International Airport (near Fort Myers), and Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport,[95][96] with actor-surrogate Jon Voight along with him,[97] but the crowds for the tarmac rallies usually struggled to reach one hundred.[95][96][97] Giuliani's staff handed out gifts to members of the press on the plane, which one reporter said seemed like a "going-away present".[97] By that night, it was being reported that Giuliani might quit the race if he failed to pull off a surprise win there.[98][99]

Withdrawal[edit]

Although he hoped to win most of the necessary delegates for the nomination on Super Tuesday, February 5, late January polls by Rasmussen Reports showed that he was in 5th place in California with 11% support,[100] and a Rasmussen Reports poll out of New Jersey showed him in 2nd place with 27% support.[101] One New Jersey poll had him losing a 32-point lead since October and trailing McCain there.[102] Perhaps the biggest concern for Giuliani was the fact that two polls released on January 20 showed McCain with a double-digit lead in Giuliani's home state of New York.[103] A Zogby poll showed a close race in New York, but also put McCain ahead.[104]

Thus, following his Florida defeat, there was no reason to continue on. Giuliani flew cross-country to give his withdrawal announcement on January 30 at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library in Simi Valley, California, endorsing McCain at the same time.[105] The endorsement was done with enthusiasm, as Giuliani and McCain were genuine friends as well as allied on many political issues.[106]

Giuliani's defeat continued a long tradition of Mayors of New York not succeeding at attempts for higher office.[107]

Endorsements[edit]

Rudy Giuliani's presidential campaign was endorsed by some notable individuals including businessmen, politicians, athletes, and actors.

Aftermath[edit]

Giuliani's run for the presidency ended with a considerable debt. Over a year later, he was still paying it back. During the first quarter of 2009, he gave his campaign $200,000 of his own money, the first time he had done this, but the campaign was still $2.4 million in arrears, the largest such remaining debt for any of the 2008 contenders.[167] In addition to this considerable debt, Giuliani's "high appearance fees dropped like a stone" following his failure to win the nomination.[168]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Cillizza, Chris (2007-01-27). "Post-ABC Poll: Clinton, Giuliani Lead Primary Fields". The Washington Post. 
  2. ^ a b c Brian C. Mooney (2007-12-09). "Giuliani loses ground in some polls". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2007-12-09. 
  3. ^ Whitesides, John (2008-01-29). "Giuliani in trouble as Florida votes". Reuters. 
  4. ^ "Giuliani Hints Loss In Fla. May End Run, GOP Candidate Says He Expects To Win Tuesday; Polls Show Him Well Behind". CBS News. 2008-01-29. 
  5. ^ "Giuliani To Drop Out, Endorse McCain". Associated Press. 2008-01-30. Archived from the original on 2008-02-04. 
  6. ^ Corsaro, Ryan (September 11, 2007). "9/11 Image Drives Giuliani's Campaign". CBS News. CBS Interactive Inc. Retrieved 30 May 2010. 
  7. ^ "CBS News: Early Signs Point To Giuliani '08". December 10, 2004. Retrieved 2005-11-15. 
  8. ^ "Giuliani Proposes New Policies To Ease Adoptions, Reduce Abortions". So-Cons For Rudy Blog. August 7, 2007. Retrieved 30 May 2010. 
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-04-21. Retrieved 2007-06-16. 
  10. ^ https://news.yahoo.com/s/nm/20070303/pl_nm/usa_republicans_poll_dc
  11. ^ "Giuliani joins race for president". BBC News. 2007-02-05. Retrieved 2010-05-23. 
  12. ^ "Giuliani 'not confident' war will turn around - CNN.com". CNN. Retrieved 2010-05-23. 
  13. ^ "He's Ready! Rudy Giuliani Talks with Sean Hannity". Fox News. 2007-02-06. 
  14. ^ "Vote on the California Republican debate". msn.com. 4 May 2007. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  15. ^ "Both Right: Why Giuliani's the Right Choice". both-right.blogspot.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  16. ^ "Connecticut (CT) Poll * May 10, 2007 * Obama Runs Closest To Giuliani - Quinnipiac University". quinnipiac.edu. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  17. ^ Sharon Theimer & Devlin Barrett (2007-05-15). "Giuliani's Firm Lobbied Government". Foxnews.com. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2007-10-08. Retrieved 2007-11-10. 
  18. ^ Cliff Kincaid (2007-05-16). "Fox News' Pro-Giuliani Conflict of Interest". Accuracy in Media. Archived from the original on 2007-10-12. Retrieved 2007-11-10. 
  19. ^ "Christian right leader writes off Giuliani". CNN, May 18, 2007.
  20. ^ Dodge, Catherine (2007-06-22). "Giuliani, Once Wall Street Crime Fighter, Seeks Funds (Update1)". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2007-06-26. 
  21. ^ a b c "McCain, Giuliani skip Iowa straw poll". The Des Moines Register, June 7, 2007.
  22. ^ "Chickens, bunnies, felons and other candidate stalkers Archived 2007-06-24 at the Wayback Machine.". Scripps News, June 2007.
  23. ^ "All-points-bulletin". Archived from the original on 2007-06-30. Retrieved 2007-06-21. 
  24. ^ "Giuliani dismisses idea skipping Straw Poll hurts his Caucus chances". Radio Iowa News, June 20, 2007.
  25. ^ "CBS News Poll" (PDF). cbsnews.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  26. ^ "404. Page Not Found - Bloomberg". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  27. ^ Mooney, Alexander; Brusk, Steve (2007-09-21). "When Judith calls, Rudy answers". CNN Political Ticker. Retrieved 2007-11-03. 
  28. ^ "Rudy's Speech to the NRA". MSNBC First Read. 2007-09-21. Archived from the original on 2007-11-11. Retrieved 2007-11-03. 
  29. ^ Rudy Giuliani (orator) (2007-09-21). Giuliani Takes Phone Call From Wife During NRA Speech". NRA Convention in Washington, D.C.: C-SPAN. Retrieved 2007-09-22. 
  30. ^ "Rudy Giuliani Interrupts Speech to Take Wife's Phone Call". FOXNews.com. Associated Press. 2007-09-21. Retrieved 2007-09-22. What you saw today was a candidate in a spontaneous moment on the campaign trail 
  31. ^ "During big speech, Giuliani answers the call of the wife". The Boston Globe. The Associated Press. 2007-09-22. Archived from the original on 2007-09-25. Retrieved 2007-09-22. The call was not planned 
  32. ^ Rudy's June phone interruption (video). September 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-22. 
  33. ^ "Rude Giuliani". WSJ Opinion Journal. 2007-10-01. Retrieved 2007-11-03. 
  34. ^ Dobbs, Michael (2007-10-08). "Rudy's 'Spontaneous' Cell Phone 'Stunt'". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2011-03-23. 
  35. ^ "Is Giuliani Exploiting 9/11 With $9.11 Fundraiser?". CBS13. 2007-09-26. Archived from the original on November 6, 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-03. 
  36. ^ "Anger at Giuliani 9/11 fundraiser". BBC. 2007-09-26. Retrieved 2007-11-03. 
  37. ^ News, A. B. C. "Politics News - Breaking Political News, Video & Analysis". ABC News. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  38. ^ a b "Christian Conservatives Vow To Back Third Party Candidate If Giuliani Wins GOP Nomination," Bismarck, SD CBS affiliate, http://www.kxmb.com/News/Nation/167321.asp
  39. ^ a b Scherer, Michael (September 30, 2007). "Religious right may blackball Giuliani". Salon.com. Retrieved 2007-10-01. 
  40. ^ Dobson, James (October 4, 2007). "The Values Test". The New York Times. 
  41. ^ Kirkpatrick, David D. (2007-10-01). "Giuliani Inspires Threat of a Third-Party Run". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-05-23. 
  42. ^ "WH2008: Republicans". pollingreport.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  43. ^ Opinion polling for the Republican Party (United States) presidential primaries, 2008#California
  44. ^ Opinion polling for the Republican Party (United States) presidential primaries, 2008#New York
  45. ^ Opinion polling for the Republican Party (United States) presidential primaries, 2008#Florida
  46. ^ "New Jersey (NJ) Poll * September 26, 2007 * Clinton, Giuliani Neck And Nec - Quinnipiac University". quinnipiac.edu. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  47. ^ a b RUSS BUETTNER & WILLIAM K. RASHBAUM (2007-11-10). "A Defiant Kerik Vows to Battle U.S. Indictment". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-11-10. 
  48. ^ a b Alec MacGillis (2007-11-09). "McCain Takes Aim at Kerik - and Giuliani". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2007-11-10. 
  49. ^ Mary Rae Bragg; David Saltonstall (2007-11-09). "Rudy Giuliani won't say if he'd pardon Kerik as President". New York Daily News. Retrieved 2007-11-09. 
  50. ^ Josh Getlin (2007-11-14). "Regan says she was told to lie to protect Giuliani". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2015-12-19. 
  51. ^ Ben Smith (2007-11-30). "Giuliani billed obscure agencies for trips". The Politico. Archived from the original on 2007-12-01. Retrieved 2007-12-06. 
  52. ^ Tom Brune; Craig Gordon (2007-11-29). "Rudy calls report on Hamptons security 'a hit job'". Newsday. Retrieved 2007-12-06. 
  53. ^ a b Jason Horowitz (2007-12-04). "Queasy Giuliani Faithful Ask For Truth On Trips". The New York Observer. Archived from the original on 2007-12-07. Retrieved 2007-12-06. 
  54. ^ Michael Saul; Heidi Evans & David Saltonstall (December 7, 2007). "Mayor's Gal Got Security Earlier than We Knew". New York Daily News. Retrieved 2007-12-07. 
  55. ^ a b c Tom Brune (2007-12-05). "Rudy no CEO, politics, candidate, campaign, president, longer firm CEO". Newsday. Archived from the original on December 6, 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-06. 
  56. ^ Wayne Barrett (2007-11-27). "Rudy's Ties to a Terror Sheikh". Village Voice. Retrieved 2007-11-28. 
  57. ^ a b Marcus Baram (2007-11-29). "Giuliani's Ties to Qatar Raise Questions for Mr. 9/ll". ABC News. Archived from the original on 2007-12-01. Retrieved 2007-12-09. 
  58. ^ Russ Buettner, "New York Times", March 15, 2007 https://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/15/us/politics/15rudy.html?ref=politics&pagewanted=all
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  65. ^ "Giuliani's shifted money around? Yes. To hide Hamptons trips? Unlikely". The New York Times. 2007-12-20. Retrieved 2007-12-26. 
  66. ^ a b c d e Byron York (2008-01-25). "Has Rudy Blown It?". National Review Online. Retrieved 2008-01-25. 
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  68. ^ a b Michael Cooper; Marjorie Connelly (2007-12-20). "Giuliani Has Decided to Zag While the Other Candidates Zig". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-12-21. 
  69. ^ a b "Hospital health scare latest of Giuliani's woes". Agence France-Presse. 2007-12-20. Archived from the original on 2008-01-08. Retrieved 2007-12-21. 
  70. ^ a b c d Adam Nagourney (2007-12-24). "Giuliani Hits a Rocky Stretch as Voting Approaches". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-12-24. 
  71. ^ John Kennedy (2007-12-20). "New Poll Shows Clinton Solid in Florida; Rudy Shrinking". Orlando Sentinel. Archived from the original on December 23, 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-21. 
  72. ^ Michael Cooper; Graham Bowley (2007-12-21). "Giuliani Treated for Flu Symptoms". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-12-21. 
  73. ^ Rebecca Sinderbrand (2007-12-22). "Giuliani: 'I'm in very good health' after hospital stay". CNN.com. Retrieved 2007-12-23. 
  74. ^ Cooper, Michael (2007-12-23). "Giuliani's Doctor t..." The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-12-23. 
  75. ^ "Giuliani's doctor says his health is good". Reuters. 2007-12-26. Retrieved 2007-12-27. 
  76. ^ a b Brian Montopoli (2007-12-21). "Politics, Now Wrapped In Holiday Cheer". CBS News. Retrieved 2007-12-26. 
  77. ^ "Giuliani vows to fight on after bad Iowa showing". Agence France-Presse. 2008-01-04. Archived from the original on 2008-01-07. Retrieved 2008-01-04. 
  78. ^ "Election Center 2008: Primary Results for Iowa". CNN.com. 2008-01-04. Retrieved 2008-01-04. 
  79. ^ a b Jake Tapper, Karen Travers (2008-01-08). "Rudy Focused on N.H., Despite Claims". ABC News. Retrieved 2008-01-09. 
  80. ^ "Election Center 2008: Primary Results for New Hampshire". CNN. 2008-01-09. Retrieved 2008-01-09. 
  81. ^ Ramer, Holly (9 January 2008). "Giuliani Focuses on Florida After Loss". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 12 January 2008. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  82. ^ Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales (2008-01-29). "Republican Candidates Media Attention". University of Navarra. Archived from the original on 2013-02-13. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 
  83. ^ "Election Center 2008: Primary Results - Elections & Politics news from CNN.com". CNN. Retrieved 2010-05-23. 
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  85. ^ "Election Center 2008: Primary Results - Elections & Politics news from CNN.com". CNN. Retrieved 2010-05-23. 
  86. ^ Ramer, Holly, Associated Press (January 8, 2008). "Giuliani focuses on Florida after loss". USA Today. Tysons Corner, VA. 
  87. ^ Giuliani Staffers Forgo Paychecks ABC Owned Television Stations, January 11, 2008
  88. ^ "Rasmussen Reports: The most comprehensive public opinion coverage ever provided for a mid-term election". rasmussenreports.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  89. ^ a b c Tom Brune (2008-01-26). "Giuliani vague about post-Fla. campaign plans". Newsday. Retrieved 2008-01-27. 
  90. ^ Poll: Giuliani slips to third in Florida, Miami Herald, January 23, 2008
  91. ^ a b Chris Cillizza (2008-01-26). "Florida Gov. Crist Endorses McCain". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2008-01-27. 
  92. ^ a b Matthew E. Berger (2008-01-26). "Rudy Camp Shaken by Crist News". MSNBC.com. Archived from the original on 2008-01-28. Retrieved 2008-01-27. 
  93. ^ Heilemann and Halperin, Game Change, pp. 291–293.
  94. ^ Mark Silva (2008-01-28). "Election-eve: McCain-Romney tied, Giuliani fades". Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on 2008-01-31. Retrieved 2008-01-28. 
  95. ^ a b Michael Cooper (2008-01-29). "Less of a Draw, a Subdued Giuliani Stays Upbeat". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 
  96. ^ a b Dana Milbank (2008-01-29). "Jon Voight, Yes. Deliverance, No". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2008-02-02. 
  97. ^ a b c Matthew E. Berger (2008-01-28). "A Going-away Gift From Rudy?". MSNBC.com. Archived from the original on 2008-01-29. Retrieved 2008-01-28. 
  98. ^ Campaign chair: Poor Florida showing may doom Giuliani Dallas News, January 28, 2008
  99. ^ Breaking News: Rudy Giuliani Hints at Dropping Out LA Times, January 28, 2008
  100. ^ "Rasmussen Reports: The most comprehensive public opinion coverage ever provided for a mid-term election". rasmussenreports.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  101. ^ "Rasmussen Reports: The most comprehensive public opinion coverage ever provided for a mid-term election". rasmussenreports.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  102. ^ Michael Powell, McCain, Obama gain in NJ Newsday, Jan. 15, 2008
  103. ^ Elisabeth Bumiller, G.O.P. Rivals Open Final Assault in Florida NY Times, Jan. 20, 2008
  104. ^ Zogby New York Poll: McCain Leads Rudy in Giuliani's Home State Zogby.com, Jan. 20, 2008
  105. ^ "Giuliani Abandons Bid, Endorses McCain". CBS News. 2008-01-30. 
  106. ^ Heilemann, John; Halperin, Mark (2010). Game Change: Obama and the Clintons, McCain and Palin, and the Race of a Lifetime. New York: HarperCollins. pp. 287–289. ISBN 0-06-173363-6. 
  107. ^ "Political Radar: Koch on Giuliani's Florida Loss: 'The Beast Is Dead'". abcnews.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  108. ^ "JoinRudy2008 :: National Troopers Coalition Endorses Rudy Giuliani for President". joinrudy2008.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  109. ^ "JoinRudy2008 :: U.S. Port Police Endorse Rudy Giuliani for President". joinrudy2008.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  110. ^ "JoinRudy2008 :: Police Officers Association of Michigan Endorses Mayor Giuliani for President". joinrudy2008.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  111. ^ "AOL Video - Serving the best video content from AOL and around the web". video.aol.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  112. ^ "JoinRudy2008 :: Rudy Giuliani Endorsed by New York 10-13 Associations of America". joinrudy2008.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  113. ^ "JoinRudy2008 :: International Brotherhood of Police Officers Local 911 Endorses Giuliani for President". joinrudy2008.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  114. ^ "Texas governor endorses Rudy - The Body Odd - msnbc.com". msn.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  115. ^ "JoinRudy2008 :: Senator Kit Bond Announces His Support for Rudy Giuliani". joinrudy2008.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  116. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v "TheHill.com - Endorsements 2008". thehill.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  117. ^ "JoinRudy2008 :: Senator Norm Coleman Endorses Rudy Giuliani for President". joinrudy2008.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  118. ^ "JoinRudy2008 :: Veteran Missouri Congresswoman Endorses Giuliani for President". joinrudy2008.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  119. ^ a b "JoinRudy2008 :: New York State Senate Majority Leader and Assembly Republican Leader Endorse Rudy Giuliani for President". joinrudy2008.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  120. ^ "JoinRudy2008 :: Missouri House Majority Leader Endorses Giuliani for President". joinrudy2008.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  121. ^ "JoinRudy2008 :: N.J. Assembly GOP Leader Endorses Giuliani for President". joinrudy2008.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  122. ^ "JoinRudy2008 :: Georgia Speaker Glenn Richardson Endorses Rudy Giuliani". joinrudy2008.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  123. ^ http://www.joinrudy2008.com/article/pr/139 http://www.joinrudy2008.com/article/pr/158
  124. ^ "JoinRudy2008 :: Manchester Mayor Frank Guinta Backs Giuliani for President". joinrudy2008.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  125. ^ "JoinRudy2008 :: Bismarck Mayor Endorses Rudy Giuliani for President". joinrudy2008.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  126. ^ Steven L. Abrams
  127. ^ "Newsblog - Thompson (Tommy, that is) endorses Giuliani". signonsandiego.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  128. ^ Marc, Ambinder. "From The Trail: Romney v. Rudy - The Atlantic". www.theatlantic.com. Retrieved 20 March 2017. Former Massachusetts Gov. and Giuliani supporter Paul Cellucci responded to Romney's criticism in a conference call Thursday. 
  129. ^ "Giuliani to Get Former Governor's Nod". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 1 December 2007. 
  130. ^ "JoinRudy2008 :: Former Florida Governor Endorses Rudy Giuliani for President". joinrudy2008.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  131. ^ "JoinRudy2008 :: Former Governor Jim Edgar Endorses Giuliani for President". joinrudy2008.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  132. ^ "JoinRudy2008 :: Former Maryland Governor Bob Ehrlich Endorses Giuliani". joinrudy2008.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  133. ^ "Las Vegas Review-Journal". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  134. ^ "JoinRudy2008 :: Jim Ryan Endorses Giuliani for President". joinrudy2008.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  135. ^ "JoinRudy2008 :: Former FL Commissioner of Education Endorses Giuliani for President". joinrudy2008.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  136. ^ "JoinRudy2008 :: Rudy Giuliani Unveils California Mayors for Rudy". joinrudy2008.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  137. ^ http://www.joinrudy2008.com//news/pr/39/
  138. ^ a b c "Milwaukee Journal Sentinel". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Archived from the original on 25 June 2016. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  139. ^ a b "JoinRudy2008 :: NY GOP Leaders Bill Powers and Guy Molinari Endorse Giuliani". joinrudy2008.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  140. ^ "JoinRudy2008 :: Giuliani Campaign Announces South Carolina Regional Chairs". joinrudy2008.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  141. ^ "JoinRudy2008 :: Anne Northup Endorses Rudy Giuliani for President". joinrudy2008.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  142. ^ "JoinRudy2008 :: Former IL Congressman Tom Ewing Endorses Giuliani". joinrudy2008.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  143. ^ "JoinRudy2008 :: Nancy Johnson Endorses Rudy Giuliani for President". joinrudy2008.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  144. ^ "JoinRudy2008 :: Rep. Clay Shaw Endorses Rudy Giuliani for President". joinrudy2008.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  145. ^ "JoinRudy2008 :: Former Congressman Jim Nussle to Lead Rudy Giuliani's Efforts in Iowa". joinrudy2008.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  146. ^ "JoinRudy2008 :: Former Illinois Lt. Governor Endorses Giuliani for President". joinrudy2008.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  147. ^ "JoinRudy2008 :: Former Top New Hampshire Legislative Leader Endorses Giuliani". joinrudy2008.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  148. ^ "JoinRudy2008 :: New York Republican State Committee Chairman Joseph Mondello Endorses Rudy Giuliani". joinrudy2008.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  149. ^ "JoinRudy2008 :: Former Massachusetts Republican Party Chairman Endorses Rudy Giuliani for President". joinrudy2008.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  150. ^ "JoinRudy2008 :: Former New Hampshire Republican Chair Endorses Giuliani". joinrudy2008.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  151. ^ "A Bush for Giuliani". CNN. 2007-10-18. Retrieved 2010-05-23. 
  152. ^ "JoinRudy2008 :: Louis Freeh Endorses Rudy Giuliani for President". joinrudy2008.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  153. ^ "JoinRudy2008 :: Republican Activist Peter Monroe Endorses Rudy Giuliani". joinrudy2008.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  154. ^ "Election Center 2008: Candidates - Election & Politics News from CNN.com". CNN. Retrieved 2010-05-23. 
  155. ^ "Rudy Giuliani". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 22 September 2012. Retrieved 2010-05-23. 
  156. ^ "JoinRudy2008 :: Prominent Michigan Economist and Business Leader Endorses Rudy Giuliani for President". joinrudy2008.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  157. ^ "JoinRudy2008 :: Pat Robertson Endorses Rudy Giuliani for President". joinrudy2008.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  158. ^ "NEWSMEAT ▷ Adam Sandler's Federal Campaign Contribution Report". newsmeat.com. Archived from the original on 5 July 2007. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  159. ^ "NEWSMEAT ▷ Kelsey Grammer's Federal Campaign Contribution Report". newsmeat.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  160. ^ "JoinRudy2008 :: Actress Bo Derek Endorses Rudy Giuliani for President". joinrudy2008.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  161. ^ "NEWSMEAT ▷ Kevin James's Federal Campaign Contribution Report". newsmeat.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  162. ^ "JoinRudy2008 :: Academy Award-Winning Actor Jon Voight Endorses Mayor Giuliani". joinrudy2008.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  163. ^ "NEWSMEAT ▷ Joel Surnow's Federal Campaign Contribution Report". newsmeat.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  164. ^ http://www.newsmeat.com/celebrity_political_donations/John_Elway.php
  165. ^ "NEWSMEAT ▷ Jeff Gordon's Federal Campaign Contribution Report". newsmeat.com. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  166. ^ Corsaro, Ryan (2008-01-21). "Yankee Heads South To Endorse Giuliani". CBS News. 
  167. ^ Vogel, Kenneth P. (2009-04-15). "FEC: Debt for Giuliani, Dodd, Clinton". The Politico. Retrieved 2009-04-21. 
  168. ^ Greenbaum, Mark (2011-04-03) Why Mitch Daniels is the Republican to watch for '12, Salon.com

External links[edit]