|107th Mayor of New York City|
January 1, 1994 – December 31, 2001
|Preceded by||David Dinkins|
|Succeeded by||Michael Bloomberg|
|United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York|
June 3, 1983 – January 1, 1989
|Preceded by||John Martin|
|Succeeded by||Benito Romano (Acting)|
|United States Associate Attorney General|
|Preceded by||John Shenefield|
|Succeeded by||Delwen Jensen|
|Born||Rudolph William Louis Giuliani
May 28, 1944
Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
|Political party||Democratic (Before 1975)
|Spouse(s)||Regina Peruggi (1968–1982)
Donna Hanover (1984–2002)
Judith Nathan (2003–present)
|Alma mater||Manhattan College (B.A.)
New York University (J.D.)
|This article is part of a series
Rudolph William Louis "Rudy" Giuliani (/ /; born May 28, 1944) is an American lawyer, businessman, former politician, and public speaker from New York. Politically a Democrat and then an Independent in the 1970s, but a Republican since the 1980s, Giuliani was the United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York during the 1980s and prosecuted pivotal cases against the Italian Mafia and against corrupt corporate financiers. Giuliani tamed organized crime—most famously leading the case that sent boss John Gotti, the "Teflon Don," to prison for life based on testimony brokered in a deal with Sammy "The Bull" Gravano. That accomplishment, which won Giuliani a reputation for being tough on crime, helped to launch his political career.
During his first term as Mayor of New York City, Giuliani hired a new police commissioner, William Bratton, who applied the broken windows theory of urban decay, which holds that minor disorders and violations create a permissive atmosphere that leads to further and more serious crimes that can threaten the safety of a city. Within several years, Giuliani was widely credited for major improvements in the city's quality of life and rates of violent crimes, although later researchers have found the timing largely coincidental. While still mayor, he ran for U.S. Senate in 2000, but withdrew upon diagnosis of prostate cancer. Still, he gained international fame as New York City's leader in the immediate aftermath of the 9/11 attacks in 2001. Giuliani was named Time magazine's Person of the Year for 2001, and was given an honorary knighthood in 2002 by the United Kingdom's Queen Elizabeth II.
In 2002, Giuliani founded Giuliani Partners (security consulting), acquired and later sold Giuliani Capital Advisors (investment banking), and joined a Texas firm while opening a New York office for the firm renamed Bracewell & Giuliani (legal services). Giuliani sought the Republican Party's 2008 presidential nomination, and was considered the early front runner in the race, before withdrawing from the race to endorse the eventual nominee John McCain. Giuliani was considered a potential candidate for New York governor in 2010 and for the Republican presidential nomination in 2012. However, Giuliani declined all races and instead remained in the business sector.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Legal career
- 3 Mayoral campaigns
- 4 Mayoralty
- 5 Post-mayoralty
- 6 Personal life
- 7 Awards and honors
- 8 Media references
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
Giuliani was born in an Italian-American enclave in East Flatbush in the New York City borough of Brooklyn, the only child of working-class parents, Harold Angelo Giuliani (1908–1981) and Helen (née D'Avanzo; 1909–2002), both first-generation Americans, children of Italian immigrants. He was raised a Roman Catholic. Harold Giuliani had trouble holding a job and had been convicted of felony assault and robbery and served time in Sing Sing; after his release he worked as an enforcer for his brother-in-law Leo D'Avanzo, who ran an organized crime operation involved in loan sharking and gambling at a restaurant in Brooklyn.
In 1951, when Giuliani was seven, his family moved from Brooklyn to Garden City South, where he attended the local Catholic school, St. Anne's. Later, he commuted back to Brooklyn to attend Bishop Loughlin Memorial High School, graduating in 1961 with an 85 percent average.
Giuliani attended Manhattan College in Riverdale, Bronx, where he majored in political science with a minor in philosophy. There he considered becoming a priest, after having studied theology for four years in college. Giuliani was elected president of his class in his sophomore year, but was not re-elected in his junior year. He joined the Phi Rho Pi fraternity, and was active in shaping its direction. He graduated in 1965. Giuliani eventually decided to forego the priesthood, instead attending New York University School of Law in Manhattan, where he made law review and graduated cum laude with a Juris Doctor in 1968.
Giuliani started his political life as a Democrat. He has stated that he admires the Kennedy family, and volunteered for Robert F. Kennedy's presidential campaign in 1968. He also worked as a Democratic Party committeeman on Long Island in the mid-1960s, and voted for George McGovern for president in 1972.
Giuliani did not serve in the military during the Vietnam War. His conscription was deferred while he was enrolled at Manhattan College and NYU Law. Upon graduation from the latter in 1968, he was classified by the Selective Service System as 1-A, available for military service. He applied for a deferment but was rejected. In 1969, Judge MacMahon wrote a letter to Giuliani's draft board, asking that he be reclassified as 2-A, civilian occupation deferment, because Giuliani, who was a law clerk for MacMahon, was an essential employee. The deferment was granted. In 1970, Giuliani received a high draft lottery number; he was not called up for service although by then he had been reclassified 1-A. In 1970, Giuliani joined the United States Attorney's Office for the Southern District of New York. In 1973, he was named Chief of the Narcotics Unit and became executive U.S. attorney.
In 1975 Giuliani switched his party registration from Democratic to Independent as he was recruited to Washington, D.C. during the Ford administration, where he was named Associate Deputy Attorney General and chief of staff to Deputy Attorney General Harold "Ace" Tyler. His first high-profile prosecution was of Democratic U.S. Representative Bertram L. Podell (NY-13), who was convicted of corruption. From 1977 to 1981, during the Carter Administration, Giuliani practiced law at the Patterson, Belknap, Webb and Tyler law firm, as chief of staff to his previous DC boss, Ace Tyler. Tyler later became critical of Giuliani's turn as a prosecutor, calling his tactics "overkill".
On December 8, 1980, one month after the election of Ronald Reagan brought Republicans back to power in Washington, he switched his party affiliation from Independent to Republican. Giuliani later said the switches were because he found Democratic policies "naïve", and that "by the time I moved to Washington, the Republicans had come to make more sense to me". Others suggested that the switches were made in order to get positions in the Justice Department. Giuliani's mother maintained in 1988 that:
He only became a Republican after he began to get all these jobs from them. He's definitely not a conservative Republican. He thinks he is, but he isn't. He still feels very sorry for the poor.
In 1981 Giuliani was named Associate Attorney General in the Reagan administration, the third-highest position in the Department of Justice. As Associate Attorney General, Giuliani supervised the U.S. Attorney Offices' federal law enforcement agencies, the Department of Corrections, the Drug Enforcement Administration, and the United States Marshals Service. In a well-publicized 1982 case, Giuliani testified in defense of the federal government's "detention posture" regarding the internment of over 2,000 Haitian asylum seekers who had entered the country illegally. The U.S. government disputed the assertion that most of the detainees had fled their country due to political persecution, alleging instead that they were "economic migrants". In defense of the government's position, Giuliani testified that "political repression, at least in general, does not exist" under President of Haiti Jean-Claude Duvalier's regime.
In 1983 Giuliani was appointed U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York, which was technically a demotion but was sought by Giuliani because of his desire to personally litigate cases. It was in this position that he first gained national prominence by prosecuting numerous high-profile cases, resulting in the convictions of Wall Street figures Ivan Boesky and Michael Milken. He also focused on prosecuting drug dealers, organized crime, and corruption in government. He amassed a record of 4,152 convictions and 25 reversals. As a federal prosecutor, Giuliani was credited with bringing the "perp walk", parading of suspects in front of the previously alerted media, into common use as a prosecutorial tool. After Giuliani "patented the perp walk", the tool was used by increasing numbers of prosecutors nationwide.
Giuliani's critics claim he arranged public arrests of people, then dropped charges for lack of evidence on high-profile cases rather than going to trial. In a few cases, his public arrests of alleged white-collar criminals at their workplaces with charges later dropped or lessened, sparked controversy, and damaged the reputations of the alleged "perps". He claimed that veteran stock trader Richard Wigton, of Kidder, Peabody & Co., was guilty of insider trading; in February 1987 he had officers handcuff Wigton and march him through the company's trading floor, with Wigton in tears. Giuliani had his agents arrest Tim Tabor, a young arbitrageur and former colleague of Wigton, so late that he had to stay overnight in jail before posting bond. Within three months charges were dropped against both Wigton and Tabor; Giuliani said, "We're not going to go to trial. We're just the tip of the iceberg", but no further charges were forthcoming and the investigation did not end until Giuliani's successor was in place. Giuliani's high-profile raid of the Princeton/Newport firm ended with the defendants having their cases overturned on appeal on the grounds that what they had been convicted of were not crimes.
Mafia Commission trial
In the Mafia Commission Trial (February 25, 1985 – November 19, 1986), Giuliani indicted eleven organized crime figures, including the heads of New York's so-called "Five Families", under the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO) on charges including extortion, labor racketeering, and murder for hire. Time magazine called this "Case of Cases" possibly "the most significant assault on the infrastructure of organized crime since the high command of the Chicago Mafia was swept away in 1943", and quoted Giuliani's stated intention: "Our approach is to wipe out the five families." Eight defendants were found guilty on all counts and subsequently sentenced on January 13, 1987 to hundreds of years of prison time.
According to an FBI memo revealed about 20 years later, leaders of the five New York mob families voted in 1987 on whether to issue a contract for the death of U.S. attorney Rudolph Giuliani. Heads of the Lucchese, Bonanno, and Genovese families rejected the idea, though Gambino leader John Gotti encouraged assassination.
Boesky, Milken trials
Ivan Boesky was a Wall Street arbitrageur who had amassed a fortune of about $200 million by betting on corporate takeovers. He was investigated by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) for making investments based on tips received from corporate insiders. These stock acquisitions were sometimes brazen, with massive purchases occurring only a few days before a corporation announced a takeover. Although insider trading of this kind was illegal, laws prohibiting it were rarely enforced until Boesky was prosecuted. Boesky cooperated with the SEC and informed on several others, including junk bond trader Michael Milken. Per agreement with Giuliani, Boesky received a 3 1⁄2-year prison sentence along with a $100 million fine. In 1989, Giuliani charged Milken under the RICO Act with 98 counts of racketeering and fraud. In a highly publicized case, Milken was indicted by a grand jury on these charges.
Giuliani was U.S. Attorney until January 1989, resigning as the Reagan Administration ended. He garnered criticism until he left office for his handling of cases, and was accused of prosecuting cases to further his political ambitions. He joined the law firm White & Case in New York City as a partner. He remained with White & Case until May 1990, when he joined the law firm Anderson Kill Olick & Oshinsky, also in New York City.
Giuliani first ran for New York City Mayor in 1989, attempting to unseat three-term incumbent Ed Koch. He won the September 1989 Republican Party primary election against business magnate Ronald Lauder, in a campaign marked by claims that Giuliani was not a true Republican and by an acrimonious debate. In the Democratic primary, Koch was upset by Manhattan Borough President David Dinkins.
In the general election, Giuliani ran as the fusion candidate of both the Republican and Liberal Parties. The Conservative Party, which had often co-lined the Republican party candidate, withheld support from Giuliani and ran Lauder instead. Conservative Party leaders were unhappy with Giuliani on ideological grounds. They cited the Liberal Party's endorsement statement that Giuliani "agreed with the Liberal Party's views on affirmative action, gay rights, gun control, school prayer and tuition tax credits."
During two televised debates, Giuliani framed himself as an agent of change, saying, "I'm the reformer", that "If we keep going merrily along, this city's going down", and that electing Dinkins would represent "more of the same, more of the rotten politics that have been dragging us down". Giuliani also accused Dinkins of not having paid his taxes for many years and of several other ethical missteps, in particular a stock transfer to his son. Dinkins said the tax matter had been fully paid off, denied other wrongdoing, and said that "what we need is a mayor, not a prosecutor", and that Giuliani refused to say "the R-word—he doesn't like to admit he's a Republican." Dinkins won the endorsements of three of the four daily New York newspapers, while Giuliani won approval from the New York Post.
In the end, Giuliani lost to Dinkins by a margin of 47,080 votes out of 1,899,845 votes cast, in the closest election in New York City's history.
Four years after he was beaten by Dinkins, Giuliani again ran for mayor. Once again, Giuliani also ran on the Liberal Party line but not the Conservative Party line, which ran activist George Marlin. The city was suffering from a spike in unemployment associated with the nationwide recession, with local unemployment rates going from 6.7% in 1989 to 11.1% in 1992.
Giuliani promised to focus the police department on shutting down petty crimes and nuisances as a way of restoring the quality of life:
It's the street tax paid to drunks and panhandlers. It's the squeegee men shaking down the motorist waiting at a light. It's the trash storms, the swirling mass of garbage left by peddlers and panhandlers, and open-air drug bazaars on unclean streets.
Dinkins and Giuliani never debated during the campaign, because they were never able to agree on how to approach a debate. Dinkins was endorsed by The New York Times and Newsday, while Giuliani was endorsed by the New York Post and, in a key switch from 1989, the Daily News. Giuliani came to visit the late Lubavitcher Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson, seeking his blessing and endorsement.
Giuliani's opponent in 1997 was Democratic Manhattan Borough President Ruth Messinger, who had beaten Al Sharpton in the September 9, 1997 Democratic primary. In the general election, Giuliani once again had the Liberal Party and not the Conservative Party listing. Giuliani ran an aggressive campaign, parlaying his image as a tough leader who had cleaned up the city. Giuliani's popularity was at its highest point to date, with a late October 1997 Quinnipiac University Polling Institute poll showing him as having a 68 percent approval rating; 70 percent of New Yorkers were satisfied with life in the city and 64 percent said things were better in the city compared to four years previously.
Throughout the campaign he was well ahead in the polls and had a strong fund-raising advantage over Messinger. On her part, Messinger lost the support of several usually Democratic constituencies, including gay organizations and large labor unions. The local daily newspapers—The New York Times, Daily News, New York Post and Newsday—all endorsed Giuliani over Messinger.
In the end, Giuliani won 59% of the vote to Messinger's 41%, and became the first registered Republican to win a second term as mayor while on the Republican line since Fiorello H. La Guardia in 1941. Voter turnout was the lowest in 12 years, with 38% of registered voters casting ballots. The margin of victory included gains in his share of the African American vote (20% compared to 1993's 5%) and the Hispanic vote (43% from 37%) while maintaining his base of white ethnic, Catholic and Jewish voters from 1993.
Giuliani served as mayor of New York City from 1994 through 2001.
In Giuliani's first term as mayor, the New York City Police Department at the instigation of Commissioner Bill Bratton adopted an aggressive enforcement/deterrent strategy based on James Q. Wilson's "Broken Windows" approach. This involved crackdowns on relatively minor offenses such as graffiti, turnstile jumping, cannabis possession, and aggressive panhandling by "squeegee men", on the theory that this would send a message that order would be maintained. The legal underpinning for removing the "squeegee men" from the streets was developed under Giuliani's predecessor, Mayor David Dinkins. Bratton, with Deputy Commissioner Jack Maple, also created and instituted CompStat, a computer-driven comparative statistical approach to mapping crime geographically and in terms of emerging criminal patterns, as well as charting officer performance by quantifying criminal apprehensions. Critics of the system assert that it creates an environment in which police officials are encouraged to underreport or otherwise manipulate crime data. The CompStat initiative won the 1996 Innovations in Government Award from the Kennedy School of Government.
During Giuliani's administration, crime rates continued to drop in New York City, which Giuliani's presidential campaign website credited to his leadership. The extent to which Giuliani deserves the credit is disputed. Crime rates in New York City had started to drop in 1991 under previous mayor David Dinkins, three years before Giuliani took office. Under Dinkins's Safe Streets, Safe Cities program, crime in New York City decreased more dramatically and more rapidly, both in terms of actual numbers and percentage, than at any time in modern New York City history. The rates of most crimes, including all categories of violent crime, made consecutive declines during the last 36 months of Dinkins's four-year term, ending a 30-year upward spiral. A small nationwide drop in crime preceded Giuliani's election, and critics say that he may have been the beneficiary of a trend already in progress. Additional contributing factors to the overall decline in New York City crime during the 1990s were the addition of 7,000 officers to the NYPD, lobbied for and hired by the Dinkins administration, and an overall improvement in the national economy. Changing demographics were a key factor contributing to crime rate reductions, which were similar across the country during this time. Because the crime index is based on that of the FBI, which is self-reported by police departments, some have alleged that crimes were shifted into categories that the FBI doesn't collect.
Giuliani's supporters cite studies concluding that the decline in New York City's crime rate in the 1990s and 2000s exceeds all national figures and therefore should be linked with a local dynamic that was not present as such anywhere else in the country: what University of California sociologist Frank Zimring calls "the most focused form of policing in history". In his book The Great American Crime Decline, Zimring argues that "up to half of New York's crime drop in the 1990s, and virtually 100 percent of its continuing crime decline since 2000, has resulted from policing."
Bratton was featured on the cover of Time in 1996. Giuliani reportedly forced Bratton out after two years, in what was generally seen as a battle of two large egos in which Giuliani was not tolerant of Bratton's celebrity. Bratton went on to become chief of the Los Angeles Police Department. Giuliani's term also saw allegations of civil rights abuses and other police misconduct under other commissioners after Bratton's departure. There were police shootings of unarmed suspects, and the scandals surrounding the torture of Abner Louima and the killings of Amadou Diallo and Patrick Dorismond. Giuliani supported the New York Police Department, for example by releasing what he called Dorismond's "extensive criminal record" to the public, including a sealed juvenile file.
The Giuliani administration advocated the privatization of failing public schools and increasing school choice through a voucher-based system. Giuliani supported protection for illegal immigrants. He continued a policy of preventing city employees from contacting the Immigration and Naturalization Service about immigration violations, on the grounds that illegal aliens should be able to take actions such as sending their children to school or reporting crimes to the police without fear of deportation.
During his mayoralty, gay and lesbian New Yorkers received domestic partnership rights. Giuliani induced the city's Democratic-controlled New York City Council, which had avoided the issue for years, to pass legislation providing broad protection for same-sex partners. In 1998, he codified local law by granting all city employees equal benefits for their domestic partners.
Appointees as defendants
Several of Giuliani's appointees to head City agencies became defendants in criminal proceedings.
In 2000, Giuliani appointed 34-year-old Russell Harding, the son of Liberal Party of New York leader and longtime Giuliani mentor Raymond Harding, to head the New York City Housing Development Corporation, although Harding had neither a college degree nor relevant experience. In 2005, Harding pleaded guilty to defrauding the Housing Development Corporation and to possession of child pornography. He was sentenced to five years in prison. Russell Harding committed suicide in 2012.
In a related matter, Richard Roberts, appointed by Giuliani as Housing Commissioner and as chairman of the Health and Hospitals Corporation, pleaded guilty to perjury after lying to a grand jury about a car that Harding bought for him with City funds.
Giuliani was a longtime backer of Bernard Kerik, who started out as a NYPD detective driving for Giuliani's campaign. Giuliani appointed him as the Commissioner of the Department of Correction and then as the Police Commissioner. Giuliani was also the godfather to Kerik's two youngest children. After Giuliani left office, Kerik pleaded guilty to state corruption charges dating from his Corrections days. Kerik is currently awaiting trial on related federal charges of conspiracy, tax fraud and obstruction of justice. Giuliani has not been implicated in any of the Kerik scandals.
2000 U.S. Senate campaign
Due to term limits, Giuliani could not run in 2001 for a third term as Mayor. In November 1998, four-term incumbent Democratic U.S. Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan announced his retirement and Giuliani immediately indicated an interest in running in the 2000 election for the now-open seat. Due to his high profile and visibility Giuliani was supported by the state Republican Party, even though he had irritated many by endorsing incumbent Democratic Governor Mario Cuomo over Republican George Pataki in 1994. Giuliani's entrance led Democratic Congressman Charles Rangel and others to recruit then-U.S. First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton to run for Moynihan's seat, hoping she might combat his star power.
An early January 1999 poll showed Giuliani trailing Clinton by 10 points. In April 1999, Giuliani formed an exploratory committee in connection with the Senate run. By January 2000, Giuliani had reversed the polls situation, pulling nine points ahead after taking advantage of several campaign stumbles by Clinton. Nevertheless, the Giuliani campaign was showing some structural weaknesses; so closely identified with New York City, he had somewhat limited appeal to normally Republican voters in Upstate New York. The New York Police Department's fatal shooting of Patrick Dorismond in March 2000 inflamed Giuliani's already strained relations with the city's minority communities, and Clinton seized on it as a major campaign issue. By April 2000, reports showed Clinton gaining upstate and generally outworking Giuliani, who stated that his duties as mayor prevented him from campaigning more. Clinton was now 8 to 10 points ahead of Giuliani in the polls.
Then followed four tumultuous weeks, in which Giuliani's medical life, romantic life, marital life, and political life all collided at once in a most visible fashion. Giuliani discovered that he had prostate cancer and needed treatment; his extramarital relationship with Judith Nathan became public and the subject of a media frenzy; he announced a separation from his wife Donna Hanover; and, after much indecision, on May 19, 2000 he announced his withdrawal from the Senate race.
September 11 terrorist attacks
Prior to September 11, Giuliani reportedly never referred to the 1993 bombing publicly except for a single metaphorical reference in his inaugural address not referring to terrorism. Giuliani also reportedly never discussed the threat of terrorism with the U.S. Attorney in his district, and had to ask Henry Kissinger for background information on Osama Bin Laden after the September 11th attacks despite the fact that Bin Laden had previously declared a Fatwa against the United States; the Clinton administration had established a section of the CIA devoted exclusively to hunting Bin Laden.
Jerome Hauer, Giuliani's emergency management chief between 1996 and 2000, later said that "We never talked about Islamic terrorism. We talked about chemical terrorism, biological terrorism. We did talk about car bombs every now and then. [But] I don't think there was much interest on his part [in Islam terrorism]."
Giuliani was prominent in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center. He made frequent appearances on radio and television on September 11 and afterwards—for example, to indicate that tunnels would be closed as a precautionary measure, and that there was no reason to believe that the dispersion of chemical or biological weaponry into the air was a factor in the attack. In his public statements, Giuliani said:
Tomorrow New York is going to be here. And we're going to rebuild, and we're going to be stronger than we were before... I want the people of New York to be an example to the rest of the country, and the rest of the world, that terrorism can't stop us.
The 9/11 attacks occurred on the scheduled date of the mayoral primary to select the Democratic and Republican candidates to succeed Giuliani. The primary was immediately delayed two weeks to September 25. During this period, Giuliani sought an unprecedented three-month emergency extension of his term from January 1 to April 1 under the New York State Constitution (Article 3 Section 25). He threatened to challenge the law imposing term limits on elected city officials and run for another full four-year term, if the primary candidates did not consent to the extension of his mayoralty. In the end leaders in the State Assembly and Senate indicated that they did not believe the extension was necessary. The election proceeded as scheduled, and the winning candidate, the Giuliani-endorsed Republican convert Michael Bloomberg, took office on January 1, 2002 per normal custom.
Giuliani claimed to have been at the Ground Zero site "as often, if not more, than most workers.... I was there working with them. I was exposed to exactly the same things they were exposed to. So in that sense, I'm one of them." Some 9/11 workers have objected to those claims. While his appointment logs were unavailable for the six days immediately following the attacks, Giuliani spent a total of 29 hours over three months at the site. This contrasted with recovery workers at the site who spent this much time at the site in two to three days.
When Saudi Prince Alwaleed bin Talal suggested that the attacks were an indication that the United States "should re-examine its policies in the Middle East and adopt a more balanced stand toward the Palestinian cause", Giuliani asserted, "There is no moral equivalent for this act. There is no justification for it... And one of the reasons I think this happened is because people were engaged in moral equivalency in not understanding the difference between liberal democracies like the United States, like Israel, and terrorist states and those who condone terrorism. So I think not only are those statements wrong, they're part of the problem." Giuliani subsequently rejected the prince's $10 million donation to disaster relief in the aftermath of the attack.
Giuliani has been widely criticized for his decision to locate the Office of Emergency Management headquarters on the 23rd floor inside the 7 World Trade Center building. Those opposing the decision perceived the office as a target for a terrorist attack in light of the previous terrorist attack against the World Trade Center in 1993. The office was unable to coordinate efforts between police and firefighters properly while evacuating its headquarters. Large tanks of diesel fuel were placed in 7 World Trade to power the command center. In May 1997, Giuliani put responsibility for selecting the location on Jerome M. Hauer, who had served under Giuliani from 1996 to 2000 before being appointed by him as New York City's first Director of Emergency Management. Hauer has taken exception to that account in interviews and provided Fox News and New York Magazine with a memo demonstrating that he recommended a location in Brooklyn but was overruled by Giuliani. Television journalist Chris Wallace interviewed Giuliani on May 13, 2007, about his 1997 decision to locate the command center at the World Trade Center. Giuliani laughed during Wallace's questions and said that Hauer recommended the World Trade Center site and claimed that Hauer said that the WTC site was the best location. Wallace presented Giuliani a photocopy of Hauer's directive letter. The letter urged Giuliani to locate the command center in Brooklyn, instead of lower Manhattan. The February 1996 memo read, "The [Brooklyn] building is secure and not as visible a target as buildings in Lower Manhattan."
In January 2008, an eight-page memo was revealed which detailed the New York City Police Department's opposition in 1998 to location of the city's emergency command center at the Trade Center site. The Giuliani administration overrode these concerns.
The 9/11 Commission Report noted that lack of preparedness could have led to the deaths of first responders at the scene of the attacks. The Commission noted that the radios in use by the fire department were the same radios which had been criticized for their ineffectiveness following the 1993 World Trade Center bombings. Family members of 9/11 victims have said that these radios were a complaint of emergency services responders for years. The radios were not working when Fire Department chiefs ordered the 343 firefighters inside the towers to evacuate, and they remained in the towers as the towers collapsed. However, when Giuliani testified before the 9/11 Commission he said that the firefighters ignored the evacuation order out of an effort to save lives. Giuliani testified to the Commission, where some family members of responders who had died in the attacks appeared to protest his statements. A 1994 mayoral office study of the radios indicated that they were faulty. Replacement radios were purchased in a $33 million no-bid contract with Motorola, and implemented in early 2001. However, the radios were recalled in March 2001 after a probationary firefighter's calls for help at a house fire could not be picked up by others at the scene, leaving firemen with the old analog radios from 1993. A book later published by Commission members Thomas Kean and Lee H. Hamilton, Without Precedent: The Inside Story of the 9/11 Commission, argued that the Commission had not pursued a tough enough line of questioning with Giuliani.
In the wake of the attacks, Giuliani gained international attention and was widely hailed for his leadership during the crisis. When polled just six weeks after the attack Giuliani received a 79 percent approval rating among New York City voters, a dramatic increase over the 36 percent rating he had received a year earlier—average at the end of a two-term mayorship. Oprah Winfrey called him "America's Mayor" at a 9/11 memorial service held at Yankee Stadium on September 23, 2001. Other voices denied it was the mayor who had pulled the city together. "You didn't bring us together, our pain brought us together and our decency brought us together. We would have come together if Bozo was the mayor", said civil rights activist Al Sharpton, in a statement largely supported by Fernando Ferrer, one of three main candidates for the mayoralty at the end of 2001. "He was a power-hungry person", Sharpton also said.
Time Person of the Year
On December 24, 2001, Time magazine named Giuliani its Person of the Year for 2001. Time observed that, prior to 9/11, the public image of Giuliani had been that of a rigid, self-righteous, ambitious politician. After 9/11, and perhaps owing also to his bout with prostate cancer, his public image had been reformed to that of a man who could be counted on to unite a city in the midst of its greatest crisis. Historian Vincent J. Cannato concluded in September 2006:
With time, Giuliani's legacy will be based on more than just 9/11. He left a city immeasurably better off—safer, more prosperous, more confident—than the one he had inherited eight years earlier, even with the smoldering ruins of the World Trade Center at its heart. Debates about his accomplishments will continue, but the significance of his mayoralty is hard to deny.
Giuliani was praised by some for his close involvement with the rescue and recovery efforts, but others argue that "Giuliani has exaggerated the role he played after the terrorist attacks, casting himself as a hero for political gain." Giuliani has collected $11.4 million from speaking fees in a single year (his demand increasing after the attacks). Before September 11, Giuliani's assets were estimated to be somewhat less than $2 million, but his net worth could now be as high as 30 times that amount. He has made most of his money since leaving office.
Giuliani initially downplayed the health effects arising from the September 11 attacks in the Financial District and lower Manhattan areas in the vicinity of the World Trade Center site. He moved quickly to reopen Wall Street, and it was reopened on September 17. In the first month after the attacks, he said "The air quality is safe and acceptable." However, in the weeks after the attacks, the United States Geological Survey identified hundreds of asbestos 'hot spots' of debris dust that remained on buildings. By the end of the month the USGS reported that the toxicity of the debris was akin to that of drain cleaner. It would eventually be determined that a wide swath of lower Manhattan and Brooklyn had been heavily contaminated by highly caustic and toxic materials. The city's health agencies, such as the Department of Environmental Protection, did not supervise or issue guidelines for the testing and cleanup of private buildings. Instead, the city left this responsibility to building owners.
Giuliani took control away from agencies such as the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the Army Corps of Engineers and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, leaving the "largely unknown" city Department of Design and Construction in charge of recovery and cleanup. Documents indicate that the Giuliani administration never enforced federal requirements requiring the wearing of respirators. Concurrently, the administration threatened companies with dismissal if cleanup work slowed. In June 2007, Christie Todd Whitman, former Republican Governor of New Jersey and director of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), reportedly stated that the EPA had pushed for workers at the WTC site to wear respirators but that she had been blocked by Giuliani. She stated that she believed that the subsequent lung disease and deaths suffered by WTC responders were a result of these actions. However, former deputy mayor Joe Lhota, then with the Giuliani campaign, replied, "All workers at Ground Zero were instructed repeatedly to wear their respirators."
Giuliani asked the city's Congressional delegation to limit the city's liability for Ground Zero illnesses be limited to a total of $350 million. Two years after Giuliani finished his term, FEMA appropriated $1 billion to a special insurance fund, called the World Trade Center Captive Insurance Company, to protect the city against 9/11 lawsuits.
In February 2007, the International Association of Fire Fighters issued a letter asserting that Giuliani rushed to conclude the recovery effort once gold and silver had been recovered from World Trade Center vaults and thereby prevented the remains of many victims from being recovered: "Mayor Giuliani's actions meant that fire fighters and citizens who perished would either remain buried at Ground Zero forever, with no closure for families, or be removed like garbage and deposited at the Fresh Kills Landfill", it said, adding: "Hundreds remained entombed in Ground Zero when Giuliani gave up on them." Lawyers for the International Association of Fire Fighters seek to interview Giuliani under oath as part of a federal legal action alleging that New York City negligently dumped body parts and other human remains in the Fresh Kills Landfill.
Before 2008 election
Since leaving office as Mayor, Giuliani has remained politically active by campaigning for Republican candidates for political offices at all levels. He was a speaker at the 2004 Republican National Convention, where he endorsed President George W. Bush for re-election by recalling that immediately after the World Trade Center towers fell,
Without really thinking, based on just emotion, spontaneous, I grabbed the arm of then-Police Commissioner Bernard Kerik, and I said to him, 'Bernie, thank God George Bush is our president'.
Similarly, in June 2006, Giuliani started a website called Solutions America to help elect Republican candidates across the nation.
After campaigning on Bush's behalf in the U.S. presidential election of 2004, he was reportedly the top choice for Secretary of Homeland Security after Tom Ridge's resignation. When suggestions were made that Giuliani's confirmation hearings would be marred by details of his past affairs and scandals, he turned down the offer and instead recommended his friend and former New York Police Commissioner Bernard Kerik. After the formal announcement of Kerik's nomination, information about Kerik's past—most notably, that he had ties to organized crime, failed to properly report gifts he had received, had been sued for sexual harassment and had employed an undocumented alien as a domestic servant—became known, and Kerik withdrew his nomination.
2008 presidential campaign
In November 2006 Giuliani announced the formation of an exploratory committee toward a run for President of the United States in 2008. In February 2007 he filed a "statement of candidacy" and confirmed on the television program Larry King Live that he was indeed running.
Early polls showed Giuliani with one of the highest levels of name recognition and support among the Republican candidates. Throughout most of 2007 he was the leader in most nationwide opinion polling among Republicans. Senator John McCain, who ranked a close second behind the New York Mayor, had faded, and most polls showed Giuliani to have more support than any of the other declared Republican candidates, with only former Senator Fred Thompson and former Governor Mitt Romney showing greater support in some per-state Republican polls. On November 7, 2007, Giuliani's campaign received an endorsement from evangelist, Christian Broadcasting Network founder, and past presidential candidate Pat Robertson. This was viewed by political observers as a possibly key development in the race, as it gave credence that evangelicals and other social conservatives could support Giuliani despite some of his positions on social issues such as abortion and gay rights.
Giuliani's campaign hit a difficult stretch during November and December 2007, during which time Bernard Kerik, whom Giuliani had recommended for the position of Secretary of Homeland Security, was indicted on 16 counts of tax fraud and other federal charges; the media reported that while Mayor of New York, Giuliani had billed to obscure city agencies several tens of thousands of dollars of mayoral security expenses incurred while visiting Judith Nathan, with whom he was having an extramarital affair (later analysis showed the billing to likely be unrelated to hiding Nathan); and several stories were published in the press regarding clients of Giuliani Partners and Bracewell & Giuliani being in opposition to goals of American foreign policy. Giuliani's national poll numbers began steadily slipping and his unusual strategy of focusing more on later, multi-primary big states rather than the smaller, first-voting states was seen at risk.
Despite his strategy, Giuliani did compete to a substantial extent in the January 8, 2008 New Hampshire primary, but finished a distant fourth with 9 percent of the vote. Similar poor results continued in other early contests, as Giuliani's staff went without pay in order to focus all efforts on the crucial late January Florida Republican primary. The shift of the electorate's focus from national security to the state of the economy also hurt Giuliani, as did the resurgence of McCain's similarly themed campaign. On January 29, 2008, Giuliani finished a distant third in the Florida result with 15 percent of the vote, trailing McCain and Romney. Facing declining polls and lost leads in the upcoming large Super Tuesday states, including that of his home New York, Giuliani withdrew from the race on January 30, endorsing McCain.
Giuliani's campaign ended up $3.6 million in arrears, and in June 2008 Giuliani sought to retire the debt by proposing to appear at Republican fundraisers during the 2008 general election, and have part of the proceeds go towards his campaign. During the 2008 Republican National Convention, Giuliani gave a prime-time speech that praised McCain and his running mate, Sarah Palin, while criticizing Democratic nominee Barack Obama. He cited Palin's executive experience as a mayor and governor and belittled Obama's lack of same, and his remarks were met with wild applause from the delegates. Giuliani continued to be one of McCain's most active surrogates during the remainder of McCain's eventually unsuccessful campaign.
After 2008 election
Following the end of his presidential campaign, Giuliani's "high appearance fees dropped like a stone." He returned to work at both Giuliani Partners and Bracewell & Giuliani. Giuliani explored hosting a syndicated radio show, and was reported to be in talks with Westwood One about replacing Bill O'Reilly before that position went to Fred Thompson (another unsuccessful '08 GOP Presidential primary candidate). During the March 2009 AIG bonus payments controversy, Giuliani called for U.S. Treasury Secretary Tim Geithner to step down and said that the Obama administration lacked executive competence in dealing with the ongoing financial crisis.
Giuliani said his political career was not necessarily over, and did not rule out a 2010 New York gubernatorial or 2012 presidential bid. A November 2008 Siena College poll indicated that although Governor David Paterson—promoted to the office via the Eliot Spitzer prostitution scandal a year before—was popular among New Yorkers, he would have just a slight lead over Giuliani in a hypothetical matchup. By February 2009, after the prolonged Senate appointment process, a Siena College poll indicated that Paterson was losing popularity among New Yorkers, and showed Giuliani with a fifteen-point lead in the hypothetical contest. In January 2009, Giuliani said he would not decide on a gubernatorial run for another six to eight months, adding that he thought it would not be fair to the governor to start campaigning early while the governor tries to focus on his job. Giuliani worked to retire his presidential campaign debt, but by the end of March 2009 it was still $2.4 million in arrears, the largest such remaining amount for any of the 2008 contenders. In April 2009, Giuliani strongly opposed Paterson's announced push for same-sex marriage in New York and said it would likely cause a backlash that could put Republicans in statewide office in 2010. By late August 2009 there were still conflicting reports about whether Giuliani was likely to run.
On November 19, 2009, Giuliani decided he would not run for Governor, but did not rule out running in the U.S. Senate special election in 2010 against Kirsten Gillibrand. On December 23, 2009, Giuliani announced that he would not seek the Senate seat in question, or any office in 2010, saying "The main reason has to do with my two enterprises: Bracewell & Giuliani and Giuliani Partners. I'm very busy in both." The decisions signaled a possible end to Giuliani's political career. During the 2010 midterm elections, Giuliani endorsed and campaigned for Bob Ehrlich and Marco Rubio, the latter of whom won his respective election.
As 2011 began, Giuliani was considering a run for the Republican nomination in the United States presidential election, 2012. Many political observers, and some of Giuliani's 2008 staff, were reportedly skeptical that Giuliani would actually do this.
On October 11, 2011, Giuliani announced that he was not running for president. According to Kevin Law, the Director of the Long Island Association, Giuliani believed that "As a moderate, he thought it was a pretty significant challenge. He said it's tough to be a moderate and succeed in GOP primaries", Giuliani said "If it's too late for (New Jersey Governor) Chris Christie, it's too late for me".
Comments about President Obama
At a Republican fund-raising event in February 2015, Giuliani stated "I do not believe, and I know this is a horrible thing to say, but I do not believe that the president loves America", and "He doesn’t love you. And he doesn't love me. He wasn't brought up the way you were brought up and I was brought up, through love of this country." In response to criticism of the remarks, Giuliani said, "Some people thought it was racist—I thought that was a joke, since he was brought up by a white mother... This isn't racism. This is socialism or possibly anti-colonialism." White House deputy press secretary Eric Schultz said he agreed with Giuliani "that it was a horrible thing to say", but said he would leave it up to the people who heard Giuliani directly to assess if the remarks were appropriate for the event. Although he received some support for his controversial comments, Giuliani said he also received several death threats within 48 hours.
Iraq Study Group
On March 15, 2006, Congress formed the Iraq Study Group (ISG). This bipartisan ten-person panel, of which Giuliani was one of the members, was charged with assessing the Iraq War and making recommendations. They would eventually unanimously conclude that contrary to Bush administration assertions, "The situation in Iraq is grave and deteriorating" and called for "changes in the primary mission" that would allow "the United States to begin to move its forces out of Iraq".
On May 24, 2006, after missing all of the group's meetings, including a briefing from General David Petraeus, former Secretary of State Colin Powell and former Army Chief of Staff Eric Shinseki, Giuliani resigned from the panel, citing "previous time commitments". Giuliani's fundraising schedule had kept him from participating in the panel, a schedule which raised $11.4 million in speaking fees over 14 months, and that Giuliani had been forced to resign after being given "an ultimatum to either show up for meetings or leave the group" by group leader James Baker. Giuliani subsequently said that he had started thinking about running for President, and being on the panel might give it a political spin.
Giuliani was described by Newsweek in January 2007 as "one of the most consistent cheerleaders for the president's handling of the war in Iraq" and as of June 2007 remained one of the few candidates for president to unequivocally support both the basis for the invasion and the execution of the war.
After leaving the mayor's office, Giuliani founded a security consulting business, Giuliani Partners LLC, in 2002, a firm that has been categorized by various media outlets as a lobbying entity capitalizing on Giuliani's name recognition, and which has been the subject of allegations surrounding staff hired by Giuliani and due to the firm's chosen client base. Over five years, Giuliani Partners has earned more than $100 million. In June 2007 he stepped down as CEO and Chairman of Giuliani Partners, although this action was not made public until December 4, 2007; he maintained his equity interest in the firm. Giuliani subsequently returned to active participation in the firm following the election. In late 2009, Giuliani announced that they had a security consulting contract with Rio de Janeiro, Brazil regarding the 2016 Summer Olympics. He faced criticism in 2012 for advising people once allied with Slobodan Milošević who had lauded Serbian war criminals.
Bracewell & Giuliani
In 2005, Giuliani joined the law firm of Bracewell & Patterson LLP (renamed Bracewell & Giuliani LLP) as a name partner and basis for the expanding firm's new New York office. When he joined the Texas-based firm he brought Marc Mukasey, the son of Attorney General Michael Mukasey, into the firm.
Despite a busy schedule, Giuliani was highly active in the day-to-day business of the law firm, which was a high-profile supplier of legal and lobbying services to the oil, gas, and energy industries. Its aggressive defense of pollution-causing coal-fired power plants threatened to cause political risk for Giuliani, but association with the firm helped Giuliani achieve fund-raising success in Texas. In 2006, Giuliani acted as the lead counsel and lead spokesmen for Bracewell & Giuliani client Purdue Pharma, the makers of OxyContin, during their negotiations with federal prosecutors over charges that the pharmaceutical company misled the public about OxyContin's addictive properties. The agreement reached resulted in Purdue Pharma and some of its executives paying $634.5 million in fines.
Support for the People's Mujahedin of Iran
Giuliani spoke in support of the removal of the People's Mujahedin of Iran (MEK, also PMOI, MKO) from the United States State Department list of Foreign Terrorist Organizations. The group was on the State Department list from 1997 until September 2012. They were placed on the list for killing six Americans in Iran during the 1970s and attempting to attack the Iranian mission to the United Nations in 1992. Giuliani, along with other former government officials and politicians Ed Rendell, R. James Woolsey, Porter Goss, Louis Freeh, Michael Mukasey, James L. Jones, Tom Ridge, and Howard Dean, were criticized for their involvement with the group. Some were subpoenaed during an inquiry about who was paying the prominent individuals' speaking fees. Giuliani and others wrote an article for the conservative publication National Review stating their position that the group should not be classified as a terrorist organization. They supported their position by pointing out that the United Kingdom and the European Union had already removed the group from their terrorism lists. They further assert that only the United States and Iran still listed it as a terrorist group. However, Canada did not delist the group until December 2012.
Marriages and relationships
Giuliani has been married three times, to Regina Peruggi, Donna Hanover, and to Judith Nathan.
On October 26, 1968, soon after he graduated from law school, he married Regina Peruggi, whom Giuliani had known since childhood. In the mid-70s the marriage was in trouble and in 1975 they agreed to a trial separation. Peruggi did not accompany him to Washington when he accepted the job in the Attorney General's Office.
Giuliani met local television personality Donna Hanover sometime in 1982, and they began dating when she was working in Miami. Giuliani filed for legal separation from Peruggi on August 12, 1982. The Giuliani-Peruggi marriage legally ended in two ways: a civil divorce was issued by the end of 1982, while a Roman Catholic church annulment of the Giuliani-Peruggi marriage was granted at the end of 1983 because he reportedly discovered that he and his wife were second cousins. Giuliani biographer Wayne Barrett reports that Peruggi's brother believes that Giuliani knew at the time of the marriage that they were second cousins. Alan Placa, Giuliani's best man, later became a priest and helped get the annulment. Giuliani and Peruggi did not have any children.
Beginning in 1996, Hanover appeared at few public events. There were reports that Hanover was aware of her husband's personal conduct as early as 1995. On Father's Day Giuliani had told reporters that he was returning to Gracie Mansion to play ball with Andrew, but instead went to City Hall, to a basement suite with his press secretary. Three hours later Hanover went to City Hall to confront Giuliani, but a mayor's aide prevented her from entering the suite.
Still married to Hanover, Giuliani met Judith Nathan, a twice-divorced sales manager for a pharmaceutical company, in May 1999 at Club Macanudo, an Upper East Side cigar bar. They formed an ongoing relationship. To keep his relationship with Nathan from public scrutiny, beginning in summer 1999 Giuliani had the costs for his NYPD security detail charged to obscure city agencies. In early 2000, Nathan began getting city-provided chauffeur services from the police department.
By March 2000, Giuliani had stopped wearing his wedding ring, and his and Nathan's appearances at functions and events became publicly visible although not mentioned in the press. In early May 2000, the Daily News and then the New York Post broke news of Giuliani's relationship with Nathan. Giuliani first publicly acknowledged her on May 3, 2000, stating that Nathan was his "very good friend".
On May 10, 2000, Giuliani called a press conference to announce that he intended to separate from Hanover. Hanover had not been told about his plans before his press conference, an omission for which Giuliani was widely criticized. Giuliani now went on to praise Nathan as a "very, very fine woman", and said about Hanover that "over the course of some period of time in many ways, we've grown to live independent and separate lives". Hours later Hanover said, "I had hoped that we could keep this marriage together. For several years, it was difficult to participate in Rudy's public life because of his relationship with one staff member".
Giuliani moved out of Gracie Mansion[when?] and into a couple's apartment. Giuliani filed for divorce from Hanover in October 2000, and a public battle broke out between their representatives. Nathan was barred by court order from entering Gracie Mansion or meeting his children before the divorce was final.
In May 2001, Giuliani's attorney revealed that Giuliani was impotent due to prostate cancer treatments and had not had sex with Nathan for the preceding year. "You don't get through treatment for cancer and radiation all by yourself", Giuliani said. "You need people to help you and care for you and support you. And I'm very fortunate I had a lot of people who did that, but nobody did more to help me than Judith Nathan." Giuliani argued in a court case that he aimed to introduce Nathan to his children on Father's Day 2001, and that Hanover had prevented this visit. Giuliani and Hanover finally settled their divorce case in July 2002 after his mayoralty had ended with Giuliani paying Hanover a $6.8 million settlement and granting her custody of their children. Giuliani married Nathan on May 24, 2003, and gained a stepdaughter, Whitney. It was also Nathan's third marriage after two prior divorces.
Nineteen years after Giuliani's father died at age 73 in April 1981 of prostate cancer at Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center, Giuliani was diagnosed at age 55 in April 2000 with prostate cancer on prostate biopsy after an elevated screening PSA. Giuliani chose a combination prostate cancer treatment consisting of four months of neoadjuvant Lupron hormonal therapy, then low dose-rate prostate brachytherapy with permanent implantation of ninety TheraSeed radioactive palladium-103 seeds in his prostate in September 2000, followed two months later by five weeks of fifteen-minute, five-days-a-week external beam radiotherapy at Mount Sinai Medical Center, with five months of adjuvant Lupron hormonal therapy.
Religion and beliefs
Giuliani has declined to comment publicly on his religious practice and beliefs, although he identifies religion as an important part of his life. When asked if he is a practicing Catholic, Giuliani answered, "My religious affiliation, my religious practices and the degree to which I am a good or not-so-good Catholic, I prefer to leave to the priests."
Awards and honors
- In 1998, Giuliani received The Hundred Year Association of New York's Gold Medal Award "in recognition of outstanding contributions to the City of New York".
- In December 2001, the Order of Merit of Savoy was bestowed upon Giuliani, at the grade of Cavaliere di Gran Croce (Motu Proprio).
- For his leadership on and after September 11, Giuliani was made an honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II on February 13, 2002.
- Giuliani was named Time magazine's "Person of the Year" for 2001
- In 2002, the Episcopal Diocese of New York gave Giuliani the Fiorello LaGuardia Public Service Award for Valor and Leadership in the Time of Global Crisis.
- Also in 2002, Former First Lady Nancy Reagan awarded Giuliani the Ronald Reagan Freedom Award.
- In 2002, he received the U.S. Senator John Heinz Award for Greatest Public Service by an Elected or Appointed Official, an award given out annually by Jefferson Awards.
- In 2003, Giuliani received the Academy of Achievement's Golden Plate Award
- In 2004, construction began on the Rudolph W. Giuliani Trauma Center at St. Vincent's Hospital in New York.
- In 2005, Giuliani received honorary degrees from Loyola College in Maryland and Middlebury College. In 2007, Giuliani received an honorary Doctorate in Public Administration from The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina.
- In 2006, Rudy and Judith Giuliani were honored by the American Heart Association at its annual Heart of the Hamptons benefit in Water Mill, New York.
- In 2007, Giuliani was honored by the National Italian American Foundation (NIAF), receiving the NIAF Special Achievement Award for Public Service.
- In 2007, Giuliani was awarded the Margaret Thatcher Medal of Freedom by the Atlantic Bridge.
- In the 2009 graduation ceremony for Drexel University's Earle Mack School of Law, Giuliani was the keynote speaker and recipient of an honorary degree.
- Giuliani was the Robert C. Vance Distinguished Lecturer at Central Connecticut State University in 2013.
- In 1993, Giuliani made a cameo appearance as himself in the Seinfeld episode, The Non-Fat Yogurt
- Biographical drama Rudy: The Rudy Giuliani Story (2003), in which he is played by James Woods.
- Kevin Keating's Documentary Giuliani Time (2006).
- In 2003, Giuliani made a cameo appearance as himself in the film Anger Management, starring Adam Sandler and Jack Nicholson.
- Political positions of Rudy Giuliani
- Electoral history of Rudy Giuliani
- Public image of Rudy Giuliani
- Timeline of New York City, 1990s–2000s
- See inogolo: pronunciation of Rudy Giuliani.
- Gina M Robertiello, "Giuliani, Rudolph", pp. 687–99, in Wilbur R. Miller, ed, The Social History of Crime and Punishment in America: An Encyclopedia (Thousand Oaks CA, New Delhi, London: Sage Publications, 2012).
- Gary M Klass, Just Plain Data Analysis: Finding, Presenting, and Interpreting Social Science Data, 2nd edn (Lanham MD & Plymouth UK: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2012), ch 4 "Examining a relationship: New York City crime rates".
- Wes Allison, "How much credit does Giuliani deserve for fighting crime?", PolitiFact.com (Tampa Bay Times), September 7, 2007.
- Thomas Rogers, "What really cleaned up New York", Salon, November 19, 2011.
- Mark Bergen, "Rudy Giuliani still egregiously wrong on crime", Forbes, May 16, 2012.
- David R Francis, "What reduced crime in New York City", The Digest, National Bureau of Economic Research, accessed June 27, 2014.
- Elisabeth Bumiller (May 20, 2000). "The Mayor's decision: The overview; cancer is concern". New York Times.
- "Person Of The Year 2001". Time.
- Stephen M. Silverman, "Queen Elizabeth knights Rudy Giuliani – Queen Elizabeth II", People, February 13, 2002.
- Cohen et al., "The Party Decides: Presidential Nominations Before and After Reform," Chicago: 2008, p 338.
- "Rudy Giuliani: Governor of New York in 2010?", Right Pundits, December 22, 2009.
- "Giuliani says decision on governor's race unlikely before summer". CNN. January 13, 2009.
- "Rudy Giuliani 2010: Ex-Mayor announces that he won't run for office". Huffington Post. Dec 22, 2009.
- Maggie Haberman, "Rudy Giuliani: I'm not running in 2012", Politico.
- Juliet Eilperin (February 8, 2012). "Rudy Giuliani doesn't regret sitting out 2012 race". Washington Post.
- Burton, Danielle (February 7, 2007). "10 Things You Didn't Know About Rudy Giuliani". U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on March 18, 2007. Retrieved June 21, 2007.
- Fairchild, Mary. "Presidential Candidate Rudy Giuliani". About.com. Retrieved June 22, 2010.
- Bock, Wally. "Rudy Giuliani: The Long View of Leadership". Wally Bock's Monday Memo. Retrieved October 26, 2007.
- Barrett, Wayne (July 4, 2000). "Thug Life: The Shocking Secret History of Harold Giuliani, the Mayor's Ex-Convict Dad". The Village Voice. Retrieved April 6, 2007.
- Mott, Gordon. "Rudy Giuliani: America's Mayor". Cigar Aficionado. Retrieved October 26, 2007.
- Barrett, Wayne (July 11, 2000). "A Readers' Guide to the Good Stuff From Rudy!". The Village Voice. Retrieved October 26, 2007.
- Bearak, Barry; Fisher, Ian (October 19, 1997). "A Mercurial Mayor's Confident Journey". The New York Times. Retrieved June 10, 2007.
- "In a Surprise, Pat Robertson Backs Giuliani", The New York Times, November 8, 2007
- "A Biography of Mayor Rudolph W. Giuliani". New York City. Retrieved November 18, 2006.
- The Democratic Party| DNC Statement on Giuliani's Potential Presidential Bid Archived July 25, 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- Jack Newfield, "The Full Rudy: The Man, the Mayor, the Myth", The Nation, May 30, 2002; retrieved June 2, 2007
- "What an anti-Giuliani ad should say"
- Giuliani, Rudy (2002). Leadership. Hyperion. ISBN 0-7868-6841-4.
- "Rudolf W. Giuliani Vulnerability Study". The Smoking Gun. April 8, 1993. Retrieved February 12, 2007.
- "The Sunshine Patriots". The Village Voice. August 24, 2004. Retrieved February 7, 2007.
- "Is Giuliani a dime-store Dewey?" WorldNetDaily, November 17, 2007
- "Convicted Politician Bertram Podell, 79". The Washington Post. August 22, 2005.
- "Doing Rudy Justice", National Review, November 7, 2007
- "Around the World; U.S. Official Finds No Repression in Haiti". The New York Times. April 3, 1982.
- William Mitchelson, Jr. (March 21, 2006). "How to Avoid Letting a 'Perp Walk' Turn Into a Parade". National Law Journal. Retrieved June 1, 2007.
- Lattman, Peter (March 22, 2006). "Breaking Down the "Perp Walk"". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved June 1, 2007.
- "No more 'perp walks'" (PDF). National Law Journal. August 5, 2002. Retrieved June 1, 2007.
- Boyer, Peter J. (August 20, 2007). "Mayberry Man". The New Yorker. Retrieved June 6, 2014.
- Heidi Collins, Allan Chernoff, Crystal McCrary Anthony, http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0705/23/cnr.02.html
- Nocera, Joseph (August 6, 1995). "Junk Bondage". The New York Times. Retrieved June 8, 2007.
- Stengel, Richard (June 24, 2001). "The Passionate Prosecutor". Time. Retrieved November 15, 2006.
- Lubasch, Arnold H. (November 20, 1986). "U.S. JURY CONVICTS EIGHT AS MEMBERS OF MOB COMMISSION". New York Times. Retrieved August 2, 2015.
- Lubasch, Arnold H. (January 14, 1987). "JUDGE SENTENCES 8 MAFIA LEADERS TO PRISON TERMS". New York Times. Retrieved August 2, 2015.
- "Mob Murder FAQ: Do Mafioso ever put out contracts on law enforcement officials?". National Geographic Society. Retrieved August 25, 2013.
- Trumbore, Brian. "Ivan Boesky". BUYandHOLD. Retrieved November 15, 2006.
- Labaton, Stephen (March 30, 1989). "'JUNK BOND' LEADER IS INDICTED BY U.S. IN CRIMINAL ACTION". New York Times. Retrieved August 3, 2015.
- Rudolph W. Giuliani, Bracewell & Giuliani
- Katharine Q. Seeley "In G.O.P. Debate Today, Which Tack for Giuliani?", The New York Times, May 3, 2007. Retrieved March 31, 2008.
- Frank Lynn, "Giuliani Files 2 Challenges To Take Lauder off Ballot", The New York Times, July 21, 1989. Retrieved March 30, 2007.
- McKinley, Jr., James C. (April 9, 1989). "Liberal Party Backs Giuliani". New York Times. Retrieved August 3, 2015.
- "In Their First Debate, Dinkins and Giuliani Go At It, Gently", The New York Times, November 5, 2007. Retrieved June 24, 2007.
- David Dinkins Elected First Black Mayor of New York AfroTimes, November 11, 1989 Archived May 9, 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- "Q&A: George Marlin", The New York Sun, March 21, 2007; Retrieved June 24, 2007
- New York State Department of Labor statistics,"Workforce industry data". Retrieved November 18, 2006.
- "NYC crime rate cut with penalties", BCHeights.com, November 3, 2005
- "Why Dinkins Lost", Newsday, November 4, 1993 Archived February 22, 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- "In an Endorsement, a Search for Signals", The New York Times, November 1, 1993.
- The Messiah of Brooklyn: Understanding Lubavitch Hasidim Past and Present, M. Avrum Ehrlich, p. 109. KTAV Publishing, ISBN 0-88125-836-9
- "Elected Mayors of New York City". NYC.gov. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved October 26, 2007.
- "Giuliani Wins With Ease", CNN, November 4, 2007.
- "Giuliani Approval, Satisfaction With City Hit New Highs, Quinnipiac College Poll Finds; Mayor's Lead Over Messinger Nears 2–1". Quinnipiac University. October 29, 1997. Retrieved June 24, 2007.
- "The Last Of The Liberals"
- "Giuliani Goes After Voters In Messinger's Stronghold", The New York Times, October 27, 1997; Retrieved June 24, 2007
- Adam Nagourney, "The 1997 Elections: The Overview; Giuliani Sweeps To Second Term As Mayor; Whitman Holds On By A Razor-Thin Margin", The New York Times, November 5, 1997; Retrieved June 24, 2007
- David Firestone, "The 1997 Elections: The Voters; Big Victory, But Gains For Mayor Are Modest", The New York Times, November 6, 1997; Retrieved June 24, 2007
- ISBN 978-0679452515
- Bratton, William; Knobler, Peter (1998). Turnaround: How America's Top Cop Reversed the Crime Epidemic. New York: Random House. ISBN 978-0-679-45251-5.
- Jack Maple: Betting on Intelligence
- Patrick A. Langan and Matthew R. Durose, Bureau of Justice Statistics, http://www3.istat.it/istat/eventi/2003/perunasocieta/relazioni/Langan_rel.pdf "The Remarkable Drop in Crime in New York City", October 21, 2004. Retrieved December 5, 2006.
- JoinRudy2008: Missing Controller Archived November 20, 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- "Uniform Crime Reports". Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved October 24, 2004. These data are from the FBI's Uniform Crime Reports, most of the recent ones are online. Under the header, "Crime in the United States", click on a year, then use Table 6. Data from pre-1995 is from the same FBI publication, Crime in the United States, in hardcover book.
- "Rudy Giuliani". JoinRudy2008.com. Archived from the original on September 4, 2007. Retrieved July 15, 2007.
- Levitt, Steven D.: "Understanding Why Crime Fell in the 1990s: Four Factors that Explain the Decline and Six that Do Not", Journal of Economic Perspectives, 18(1), 163–90
- A Mayor's Life: Governing New York's Gorgeous Mosaic David N. Dinkins with Peter Knobler, PublicAffairs Books, 2013
- Barrett, Wayne (June 25, 2001). "Giuliani's Legacy: Taking Credit For Things He Didn't Do". Gotham Gazette. Retrieved November 15, 2007.
- Greene Crime Delinquency 1999; 45: pp. 171–87 "Zero Tolerance: A Case Study of Police Policies and Practices in New York City". Retrieved December 5, 2006.
- Rudy! – An Investigative Biography of Rudolph Giuliani by Wayne Barrett
- Heather MacDonald New York Cops: Still the Finest CityJournal.org
- Zimring, Franklin E. (November 3, 2006). The Great American Crime Decline (Studies in Crime and Public Policy). Oxford University Press. p. 272. ISBN 0-19-518115-8.
- "Finally, We're Winning The War Against Crime. Here's Why", Time, January 15, 1996. Retrieved March 6, 2007.
- Richard Pérez-Peña, "Giuliani Courts Former Partner and Antagonist", The New York Times, March 9, 2007. Retrieved March 14, 2007.
- NYC POLICE SHOOTINGS 1999, July 9, 2000. Retrieved December 5, 2006.
- CNN: "Giuliani, New York police under fire after shooting of unarmed man", March 19, 2000. Retrieved December 5, 2006.
- Rudy Giuliani on Education OnTheIssues.org
- Officials: Let illegal immigrants report crimes USA Today, December 5, 2007
- "What will Rudy say to his gay friends?", Salon.com, February 26, 2004 Archived May 2, 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- "Disgraced ex-Giuliani official claims mental illness, judge prescribes prison", New York Newsday, July 22, 2005. Retrieved March 9, 2007.
- Buettner, Russ (October 7, 2012). "Former City Official's Blog Chronicled His Fall From Grace and Plans for Suicide". The New York Times. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
- Robbins, Tom (September 7, 2004). "A Going-Away Gift From Russell Harding". The Village Voice. Retrieved July 20, 2007.
- CNN December 11, 2004 CNN transcripts site
- William K. Rashbaum, "Former Police Commissioner Pleads Guilty to Taking Gift", New York Times, July 1, 2006
- Bernard Kerik Indicted TheSmokingGun.com
- "1994 Ad". National Review. November 21, 1994.[dead link]
- Lee M. Miringoff (January 31, 2000). "Losing the Women". The New York Times. Retrieved September 27, 2007.
- George Gates (November 6, 1999). "Looking for the Senator From All of New York". The New York Times. Retrieved September 27, 2007.
- Gerth, Jeff; Don Van Natta, Jr. (2007). Her Way: The Hopes and Ambitions of Hillary Rodham Clinton. New York: Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 0-316-01742-6., p. 211.
- Adam Nagourney (April 8, 2000). "Despite Polls, Giuliani Says That He Won't Alter His Campaign Style". The New York Times. Retrieved September 27, 2007.
- Bumiller, Elisabeth (May 20, 2000). "Giuliani Quits Race for Senate, and G.O.P. Rallies Around Lazio". New York Times. Retrieved August 3, 2015.
- "Olbermann Giuliani blames his terror mistakes" (busted)
- "Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders". Federation of American Scientists. 1998-02-23. Retrieved 2007-11-09.
- Mark Mazzetti (2006-07-04). "C.I.A. Closes Unit Focused on Capture of bin Laden". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-11-09.
- "Al Qaeda's Fatwa". NewsHour. PBS. Retrieved 2007-11-09.
- Amanda Ripley, "Mr. Tough Talk," Time Magazine September 3, 2007, p. 30 http://www.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,1655262,00.html
- Eric Pooley (December 31, 2001). "Mayor of the world". Time. Archived from the original on August 14, 2007. Retrieved October 5, 2007.
- "Content Removed". Retrieved November 15, 2005.
- "Conservative Party and Courts May Hold Key to NYC Mayor's Race – October 1, 2001". Archived from the original on January 16, 2002. Retrieved November 15, 2005.
- Celeste Katz (August 10, 2007). "9/11 workers outraged by new Rudy claim". Daily News (New York). Retrieved October 5, 2007.
- Libby Quaid (August 12, 2007). "Giuliani in firing line". Sunday Herald Sun (Australia). Retrieved October 5, 2007.
- Sewell, Dan (August 10, 2007). "Giuliani's 'I'm one of them' remark angers 9-11 workers". The Cincinnati Post (Associated Press). p. A1.
Battalion Chief John McDonnell, head of the Uniformed Fire Officers Association in New York, said: 'I have a real problem with that statement. I think he's really grasping and trying to justify his previous attempts to portray himself as the hero of 9-11.'
- Russ Buettner (August 17, 2007). "For Giuliani, Ground Zero as Linchpin and Thorn". The New York Times. Retrieved October 5, 2007.
- "Giuliani rejects $10 million from Saudi prince". CNN. October 12, 2001. Retrieved October 5, 2007.
- "World Trade Center: Profile". Retrieved June 12, 2007.
- Wayne Barrett (August 8, 2007). "Rudy Giuliani's 5 Big Lies About 9/11: On the Stump, Rudy Can't Help Spreading Smoke and Ashes About His Dubious Record". The Village Voice. pp. 35–36. Archived from the original on March 10, 2015.
- Wayne Barrett and Dan Collins (September 2006). "The Grand Illusion: The untold story of Rudy Giuliani and 9/11". The Village Voice. Retrieved September 6, 2006.
- "Open and Shut". Retrieved June 12, 2007.
- "Transcript: Rudy Giuliani on Fox News Sunday". May 14, 2007. Retrieved September 29, 2007.
Then why did he say the building—he said it's not—the place in Brooklyn is not as visible a target as buildings in Lower Manhattan
- audio and video from interview available on Robert Greenwald's "The REAL Rudy: Command Center"
- Buettner, Russ (May 22, 2007). "Onetime Giuliani Insider Is Now a Critic". The New York Times. Retrieved June 12, 2007.
- "Angry Giuliani Aide Lashes Back". The New York Times. May 15, 2007. Retrieved June 12, 2007.
- Wayne Barrett and Dan Collins, "The Real Rudy: From the September print issue: The image of Rudy Giuliani as the hero of September 11 has never been seriously challenged. That changes now", The American Prospect Online, September 11, 2006 http://www.prospect.org/cs/articles?articleId=11973
- "Giuliani Blames Aide for Poor Emergency Planning". Retrieved June 12, 2007.
- Rashbaum, William K. (January 26, 2008). "Memo Details Objections to Command Center Site". The New York Times. Politics (sec.). Retrieved January 27, 2008.
- Saltonstall, David (April 24, 2007). "Rudy gets earful at stop here: Some FDNY survivors rally against him". Daily News (New York). Retrieved June 12, 2007.
- Urban Legend video
- "NY Firefighters attack Giuliani", BBC News, July 12, 2007
- Kevin Baker, "A Fate Worse than Bush: Rudy Giuliani and the Politics of Personality", Harpers, August 2007, p. 37, citing Jim Dwyer and Kevin Flynn, 102 Minutes (Times Books, 2002)
- [Jon Weiner, "Rudy: Worse than Bush?", thenation.com, August 1, 2007 http://www.alternet.org/story/58480/]
- "Giuliani Faces 9/11 Questions". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on May 6, 2007. Retrieved June 12, 2007.
- ABC News
- "Razzle Dazzle: Rudy Ducking and Running". Archived from the original on July 22, 2012.
- Williams, Timothy (August 6, 2006). "9/11 Commissioners Say They Went Easy on Giuliani to Avoid Public's Anger". The New York Times. Retrieved June 12, 2007.
- "New Yorkers Tell Federal Officials To Stop Ignoring 9/11's Health Effects"
- "Rudolph Giuliani – America's Mayor: Review of The Prince of the City: Giuliani, New York and the Genius of American Life By Fred Siegel". The Economist. July 28, 2005. Retrieved November 15, 2006. [subscription site]
- "Quinnipiac University Poll". Quinnipiac University. October 24, 2001. Retrieved March 4, 2007.
- "Quinnipiac University Poll". Quinnipiac University. March 2, 2000. Retrieved November 30, 2007.
- "Giuliani rejects $10 million from Saudi prince". War Against Terror (CNN). October 12, 2001. Archived from the original on September 3, 2013. Retrieved December 1, 2007.
- "City Mourns at Stadium Prayer Service". Archived from the original on November 9, 2006. Retrieved November 15, 2006.
- "Reverend Al Sharpton in New York Slam at Rudy Giuliani". Retrieved November 15, 2005.
- CNN.com – Transcripts
- Washington Post Book World September 3, 2006
- Wilson, Michael; Kate Hammer; Trymaine Lee; Matthew Sweeney (June 17, 2007). "Among Firefighters in New York, Mixed Views on Giuliani". The New York Times. Politics (sec.). Retrieved December 1, 2007.
- cbs2chicago.com – Many Wonder, Did Giuliani Profit From 9/11? Archived February 24, 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- "Wealth Is a Common Factor Among GOP Hopefuls", The New York Times, May 17, 2007
- Solomon, John; Mosk, Matthew (May 13, 2007). "In Private Sector, Giuliani Parlayed Fame Into Wealth". Washington Post. Retrieved August 3, 2015.
- Renolds, Dylan (February 13, 2002). "Giuliani joins a distinguished club". CNN. Retrieved November 6, 2007.
- Ben Smith, "Rudy's Black Cloud", New York Daily News, September 18, 2006, p. 14
- Anita Gates, "Buildings Rise from Rubble while Health Crumbles", "New York Times", September 11, 2006, reporting on the documentary, "Dust to Dust: The Health Effects of 9/11"
- AlterNet: Special Coverage: 9/11: One Year Later
- C&En: Cover Story – Chemical Analysis Of A Disaster
- Anthony DePalma, "Ground Zero Illness Clouding Giuliani's Legacy", The New York Times, May 14, 2007 or
- Macho Mistakes at Ground Zero, The New York Times, May 22, 2007
- "Christie blasts Rudy on WTC air"
- Murray, Mark (June 25, 2007). "Pushing Back Against Whitman". Retrieved July 9, 2007.
- "Ground Zero Illness Clouding Giuliani's Legacy", The New York Times, May 14, 2007
- Giuliani & New York firefighters Archived April 4, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- "Giuliani foes plan to use 9/11 against him" Archived May 30, 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- "Giuliani: 'Thank God that George Bush is our president'". CNN. August 31, 2004. Retrieved July 25, 2012.
- Bernstein, Nina; Stein, Robin (December 16, 2004). "Mystery Woman in Kerik Case: Nanny". New York Times. Retrieved August 3, 2015.
- Giuliani 'not confident' war will turn around – CNN.com
- WH2008: Republicans
- Steinhauser, Paul (November 7, 2007). "Giuliani, McCain pick up key Christian conservative backing". CNN. Retrieved November 8, 2007.
- "Pat Robertson endorses Giuliani". NBC news. November 7, 2007. Retrieved November 7, 2007.
- Russ Buettner and William K. Rashbaum (November 10, 2007). "A Defiant Kerik Vows to Battle U.S. Indictment". The New York Times. Retrieved November 10, 2007.
- Ben Smith (November 30, 2007). "Giuliani billed obscure agencies for trips". The Politico. Retrieved December 6, 2007.
- "Giuliani's shifted money around? Yes. To hide Hamptons trips? Unlikely.". The New York Times. December 20, 2007. Retrieved December 26, 2007.
- Tom Brune (December 5, 2007). "Rudy no longer firm CEO". Newsday. Archived from the original on December 6, 2007. Retrieved December 6, 2007.
- "Hospital health scare latest of Giuliani's woes". Agence France-Presse. December 20, 2007. Retrieved December 21, 2007.
- Montopoli, Brian (January 29, 2008). "For Giuliani, A Disappointing Fade To Exit". CBS News via CBS Interactive Inc. Retrieved January 30, 2008.
- Jake Tapper, Karen Travers (January 8, 2008). "Rudy Focused on N.H., Despite Claims". ABC News. Retrieved January 9, 2008.
- "Election Center 2008: Primary Results for New Hampshire". CNN. January 9, 2008. Retrieved January 9, 2008.
- Giuliani Staffers Forgo Paychecks Associated Press, January 11, 2008
- "McCain wins Florida, Giuliani expected to drop out". CNN. January 30, 2008. Retrieved March 3, 2008.
- Election 2008: California Republican Presidential Primary California: McCain 24% Romney 17% at the Wayback Machine (archived January 19, 2008) Rasmussen Reports, January 17, 2008
- "New Jersey Republican Presidential Primary New Jersey: McCain 29% Giuliani 27%". Rasmussen Reports. January 17, 2008. Archived from the original on January 19, 2008. Retrieved July 25, 2012.
- Elisabeth Bumiller, "G.O.P. Rivals Open Final Assault in Florida", The New York Times, January 20, 2008
- Holland, Steve (January 30, 2008). "Giuliani, Edwards quit White House Race". Reuters. Retrieved January 30, 2008.
- Raymond Hernandez (June 17, 2008). "Giuliani Plans to Aid Hopefuls, for His Share". The New York Times.
- "Giuliani: Palin More Qualified Than Obama". CBS News. August 31, 2008. Retrieved August 31, 2008.
- Hakim, Danny (October 18, 2008). "Governor Giuliani? Some State Republicans Are Hoping He'll Try". The New York Times. Retrieved December 11, 2008.
- Greenbaum, Mark (April 3, 2011) Why Mitch Daniels is the Republican to watch for '12, Salon.com
- Santora, Marc (August 16, 2008). "How's Life for Giuliani These Days? Quite Busy". The New York Times. Retrieved December 11, 2008.
- UK Guardian report on Kennedy
- In re Fred Thompson
- "Giuliani Scolds Geithner, Dodd". Sean Hannity (Fox News Channel). March 23, 2009. Retrieved March 31, 2009.
- "Giuliani won't rule out runs for NY governor or president". CNN. November 16, 2008. Retrieved December 11, 2008.
- Lovett, Kenneth (November 17, 2008). "Giuliani gains ground against Paterson in governor's race in recent poll". Daily News (New York). Retrieved December 11, 2008.
- Siena College poll
- Steinhauser, Paul (January 13, 2009). "Giuliani says decision on governor's race unlikely before summer". CNN. Retrieved January 16, 2009.
- Vogel, Kenneth P. (April 15, 2009). "FEC: Debt for Giuliani, Dodd, Clinton". The Politico. Retrieved April 21, 2009.
- Dicker, Frederic U. (April 20, 2009). "Rudy Rips Gov's Bid for Gay Nups". New York Post. Retrieved April 20, 2009.
- Isenstadt, Alex (August 25, 2009). "Doubts cast on Rudy Giuliani governor bid". The Politico. Retrieved August 25, 2009.
- Hakim, Danny (November 20, 2009). "Giuliani Said to Decide Against Run for Governor". The New York Times. Retrieved March 30, 2010.
- Powell, Michael (December 22, 2009). "Giuliani Says Farewell, for Now, to Politics". The New York Times.
- Martin, Jonathan; Smith, Ben (December 23, 2009). "Rudy Giuliani exits national stage". The Politico.
- "Giuliani returns to NH in March for Manchester GOP event". New Hampshire Union Leader. January 27, 2011. Retrieved January 29, 2011.
- "Giuliani Considering a 2012 Run? 'Absolutely'"
- "Giuliani not running for U.S. president in 2012". Reuters. October 11, 2011. Retrieved October 15, 2011.
- Haberman, Maggie; Confessore, Nicholas. "Giuliani: Obama Had a White Mother, So I’m Not a Racist". New York Times. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
- Iraq Study Group report Archived June 1, 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- "Rudy missing in action for Iraq panel" CRAIG GORDON June 18, 2007, 11:41 PM EDT Newsday
- Amanda Ripley, "Mr. Tough Talk", Time Magazine, September 3, 2007, p. 31
- "Edwin Meese Replaces Rudolph Giuliani on Iraq Study Group" (Press release). United States Institute of Peace. May 31, 2006. Archived from the original on February 14, 2007. Retrieved March 4, 2007.
- "Giuliani Left Group on Iraq After Warning, Article Says", The New York Times, June 20, 2007
- Fred Kaplan, "The Man Who Knows Too Little: What Rudy Giuliani's Greedy Decision to Quit the Iraq Study Group Reveals about his Candidacy"
- "More Campaign Troubles for Giuliani", Newsweek Politics Archived June 6, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- CNN Political Ticker: "Giuliani: Iraq war 'absolutely the right thing to do'"
- "Giuliani Partners web site".
- "New York News, Traffic, Sports, Weather, Photos, Entertainment, and Gossip – NY Daily News". Daily News (New York). Archived from the original on June 29, 2011.
- "American Idol"
- In Private Sector, Giuliani Parlayed Fame Into Wealth
- John Solomon and Matthew Mosk (May 13, 2007). "In Private Sector, Giuliani Parlayed Fame Into Wealth". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 8, 2007.
- "Giuliani resigns as head of firm, calls his work there 'totally legal'". The Boston Globe. Associated Press. December 5, 2007. Archived from the original on June 5, 2008. Retrieved December 6, 2007.
- Kirchick, James (May 24, 2012). "Rudy Giuliani's New Low". Tablet Magazine. Retrieved May 25, 2012.
- Healy, Patrick D. (March 30, 2005). "Giuliani to Be Partner in Texas Law Firm". The New York Times.
- Buettner, Russ (May 2, 2007). "Giuliani's Tie to Texas Law Firm May Pose Risk". The New York Times.
- Meier, Barry (June 19, 2007). "Big Part of OxyContin Profit Was Consumed by Penalties". The New York Times.
- Theimer, Sharon (May 15, 2007). "Giuliani's firm's work could be ethics problem". Oakland Tribune. Associated Press.
- Rudy Giuliani's Vulnerabilities – February 12, 2007
- Lynda Richardson, "A Scholarly Fund-Raiser's Stroll to the Park", The New York Times, May 4, 2001. Retrieved March 31, 2008.
- Powell, Michael and Goldfarb, Zachary A. Powell, Michael; Goldfarb, Zachary A. (March 8, 2006). "On 'Feeling Thermometer', Giuliani is the Hottest'". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 15, 2006. Washington Post, March 8, 2006, p. A04
- "Giuliani To Wed At Gracie Mansion, Former NY Mayor And Judith Nathan Set Date For Nuptials"
- "All not in the family for GOP hopeful Giuliani". CNN. March 6, 2007. Retrieved December 12, 2007.
- "Donna's Riskiest Role"
- Margaret Carlson, "In Rudy's Playground", Time, July 11, 1999. Retrieved February 15, 2007.
- Wayne Barrett, "Public Displays of Disaffection", The Village Voice, August 15, 2007
- Eric Konigsberg, "Drawing Fire, Judith Giuliani Gives Her Side", The New York Times, August 5, 2007; Retrieved August 14, 2007
- Heidi Evans, "Eager Judi left coal town in dust", Daily News, April 29, 2007; Retrieved May 6, 2007 Archived September 29, 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- Michael Saul, Heidi Evans, and David Saltonstall (December 7, 2007). "Mayor's Gal Got Security Earlier than We Knew". Daily News (New York). Retrieved December 7, 2007.
- Elisabeth Bumiller (May 4, 2000). "Mayor Acknowledges 'Very Good Friend'". The New York Times. Retrieved December 7, 2007.
- New York Times, May 8, 2000, by Joyce Purnick, Purnick, Joyce (May 8, 2000). "Metro Matters; 'Good Friend,' A Marriage, And Voters". The New York Times. Retrieved March 31, 2008.
- Jesse Drucker (May 4, 2000). "Rudy's "very good friend"". Salon. Retrieved December 18, 2007.
- New York Times, May 11, 2000 "The Mayor's Separation; Excerpts From the Mayor's News Conference Concerning His Marriage". The New York Times. May 11, 2000. Retrieved March 31, 2008.
- New York Times, July 14, 2002, by Joyce WadlerWadler, Joyce (July 14, 2002). "Pronounced "Ex and Ex"". The New York Times. Retrieved January 5, 2007.
- New York Times, May 11, 2000, by Elisabeth Bumiller, Bumiller, Elisabeth (May 11, 2000). "The Mayor's Separation: The Overview; Giuliani and His Wife of 16 Years Are Separating". The New York Times. Retrieved January 5, 2007.
- The Softer, Gentler Rudy Giuliani "The Softer, Gentler Rudy Giuliani" (PDF).
- Lloyd Grove, "The Thunderbolt", New York Magazine. Retrieved June 12, 2007
- "Giuliani fears ex-wife will hit presidential bid"
- "Three's Company: Picking Up After Rudy", New York Magazine, August 24, 2004
- "Giuliani Divorce Settlement Reached, Hanover To Get More Than $7 Million"
- Carlson, Margaret (May 20, 2001). "No Grace At Gracie Mansion". Time. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
- Capehart, Jonathan (March 6, 2007). "Hizzoner the Curmudgeon". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 30, 2010.
- Elisabeth Bumiller, "Giuliani Breaks Silence, Citing 'Adult' and 'Mature' Relationship", The New York Times. Retrieved June 12, 2007.
- Wayne Barrett, "Public Displays of Disaffection", The Village Voice, August 15, 2007, p. 12
- "Giuliani settles divorce out of court". BBC News Online. July 10, 2002. Retrieved January 4, 2010.
- Russ Buettner/Richard Perez-Pena, "Noticeably Absent From the Giuliani Campaign: His Children", The New York Times. Retrieved June 12, 2007.
- Daniel Saltonstall, "Wife Makes Strive: Judi cause of tension with Dad – Rudy's son", Daily News, March 3, 2007
- Bumiller, Elisabeth (April 28, 2000). "Giuliani fighting prostate cancer; Unsure on Senate". The New York Times. p. A1.
- Bumiller, Elisabeth (September 16, 2000). "Mayor undergoes cancer treatment; Radioactive seeds implanted in Giuliani's prostate gland". The New York Times. p. A1.
- Bumiller, Elisabeth (November 22, 2000). "Giuliani starts final phase of cancer treatment". The New York Times. p. B4.
- Fox News, October 3, 2007
- "100 Year Association of New York". Archived from the original on July 31, 2013.
- "Events: 2001". House of Savoy. Retrieved April 1, 2009.
- "Transcripts". CNN. February 7, 2001. Retrieved March 30, 2010.
- "NY Episcopal Diocese Honors Former Mayor Giuliani With The Fiorello LaGuardia Public Service Award At St. Paul's Chapel For September 11 Leadership", PR Newswire/HighBeam Research
- "Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation & Library". Archived from the original on October 14, 2008.
- "CNS STORY: Naming center at Catholic hospital for Giuliani raises questions".
- Anderson, Nick; Cooperman, Alan (May 20, 2005). "Cardinal Denounces Honor for Giuliani". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 30, 2010.
- "Giuliani Speaks at College After Controversy". Fox News. Associated Press. May 22, 2005. Retrieved November 8, 2007.
- "Italian-American Awards Gala". c-spanvideo.org. C-SPAN. October 13, 2007. Retrieved February 3, 2010.
- Baxter, Sarah (September 16, 2007). "Rudy Giuliani mocks Hillary claim to be Iron Lady". The Sunday Times (London). p. A1.
- "Earle Mack School of Law Inaugural Commencement". Daily Digest. Drexel University. May 22, 2009. Retrieved June 15, 2009.
Former New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani will receive an honorary Doctor of Laws degree...
- Burnham, Johnny J. (2013, March 15). Giuliani speaks at Vance Lecture series. New Britain Herald. Retrieved on 2013-5-29.
- Ammann, Daniel (2009). The King of Oil: The Secret Lives of Marc Rich. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-57074-0.
- Barrett, Wayne, (2000). Rudy!: An Investigative Biography of Rudolph Giuliani. Basic Books; ISBN 0-7567-6114-X (Reprint by Diane Publishing Co.)
- Barrett, Wayne & Collins, Dan (2006). Grand Illusion: The Untold Story of Rudy Giuliani and 9/11. Harper Collins. ISBN 0-06-053660-8.
- Bratton, William; Knobler, Peter (1998). Turnaround: How America's Top Cop Reversed the Crime Epidemic. New York: Random House. ISBN 978-0-679-45251-5.
- Brodeur, Christopher X., (2002). "Perverted Little Creep; Mayor Giuliani vs Mayor Brodeur". ExtremeNY books, ISBN 0-9741593-0-1.
- Dinkins, David N.; Knobler, Peter (2013). A Mayor's Life: Governing New York's Gorgeous Mosaic. PublicAffairs, ISBN 978-1-61039-301-0
- Doney, Kristin; Giuliani, Rudolph, W. (1998). What Will You Be?. Public/Private Initiatives Inc.
- Giuliani, Rudolph W., Kurson, Ken (2002). Leadership. Miramax Books. ISBN 0-7868-6841-4.
- Gonzalez, Juan, (2002). Fallout: The Environmental Consequences of the World Trade Center Collapse. New Press, ISBN 1-56584-754-7
- Heilemann, John; Halperin, Mark (2010). Game Change: Obama and the Clintons, McCain and Palin, and the Race of a Lifetime. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-173363-6.
- Kirtzman, Andrew (2001). Rudy Giuliani: Emperor of the City. Harper Collins. ISBN 0-06-009389-7.
- Koch, Edward I. (1999). Giuliani: Nasty Man. Barricade Books. ISBN 1-56980-155-X. Reissued, 2007.
- Mandery, Evan (1999). The Campaign: Rudy Giuliani, Ruth Messinger, Al Sharpton, and the Race to Be Mayor of New York City. Westview Press, ISBN 0-8133-6698-4.
- Newfield, Jack, (2003). The Full Rudy: The Man, the Myth, the Mania. Thunder's Mouth Press, ISBN 1-56025-482-3
- Polner, Robert, (2005). America's Mayor: The Hidden History of Rudy Giuliani's New York. Soft Skull Press, ISBN 1-932360-58-1
- Polner, Robert, (2007). America's Mayor, America's President? The Strange Career of Rudy Giuliani. [Preface by Jimmy Breslin] Soft Skull Press, ISBN 1-933368-72-1
- Siegel, Fred (2005). The Prince of the City: Giuliani, New York, and the Genius of American Life. Encounter Books. ISBN 1-59403-084-7.
- Strober, Deborah Hart; Strober, Gerald S. (2007). Giuliani: Flawed Or Flawless? The Oral Biography. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-73835-2.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Rudy Giuliani|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rudy Giuliani.|
|Wikisource has original works written by or about:
- Financial information (federal office) at the Federal Election Commission
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Profile at SourceWatch
- Vote 2008: Rudy Giuliani, NewsHour with Jim Lehrer
- Genealogy of Rudy Giuliani
- Giuliani Partners at Stockpikr public companies Giuliani Partners has done business with
- Rudolph W. Giuliani Vulnerability Study study prepared for his 1993 Mayoral Campaign
- A film clip "The Open Mind – American Justice, Part I (1984)" is available for free download at the Internet Archive
- A film clip "The Open Mind – American Justice, Part II (1984)" is available for free download at the Internet Archive
- Rudy Giuliani at DMOZ
- La Guardia and Wagner Archives/The Giuliani Collection
|United States Associate Attorney General
|U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York
|Party political offices|
George J. Marlin
|Republican nominee for Mayor of New York City
1989, 1993, 1997
|Keynote Speaker of the Republican National Convention
|Mayor of New York City
|Awards and achievements|
|Ronald Reagan Freedom Award
George H. W. Bush
- David Seifman, "Railing at Rudy", "New York Post", May 13, 2007, 9