Rufiji–Ruvuma languages

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Mozambique, Malawi, Tanzania
Linguistic classification: Niger–Congo
Glottolog: rufi1235[1]

The Rufiji–Ruvuma languages are a group of Bantu languages established by Gloria Waite (1979) and subsequent researchers: N10 (less Manda), P10 (Ngindo moved to N10), P20.

The languages, or clusters, along with their Guthrie identifications are:

Among the Guthrie languages not specifically classified are Nindi (N10, said to be close to Ndendeule); and Tonga of Malawi (N10).

Nurse moves Manda to Bena–Kinga, but Ehret keeps it here.


  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Rufiji–Ruvuma". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.