Rufous-tailed hawk

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Rufous-tailed hawk
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Accipitriformes
Family: Accipitridae
Genus: Buteo
Species: B. ventralis
Binomial name
Buteo ventralis
Gould, 1837

The Rufous-tailed hawk (Buteo ventralis) is a species of bird of prey in the family Accipitridae.

The rufous-tailed hawk is found in southern Argentina and Chile, including the entire region of Tierra del Fuego. Its natural habitats are temperate forests, subtropical or tropical dry shrubland, subtropical or tropical high-altitude shrubland, and temperate grassland.

Description[edit]

The Rufous tailed hawk is similar to the red tail hawk. It was first recorded by Charles Darwin in Patagonia, while on his voyage of the Beagle.[2] The Rufous tailed hawk is a medium size hawk with a wing span of 45–60 cm.[3] the overall size rang of the hawk is 54–60 cm ([4] ). There are two different coloration of the Rufous tailed hawk. The more common pale version of the hawk has a blackish brown upper parts, with a darker cap and cinnamon feathers along the side of the head and neck. The belly is white with dark markings and reddish brown coloration on it.[5] The dark version is basically all black with whitish edging on the feathers. The sound of the Rufous tailed hawk makes a sound that sound like kee-ahrr[5]

Habitat[edit]

The Rufous tailed hawk has been spotted living in a couple of different areas including evergreen beech forest (Gelain and Trejo, 2001),[6] mature forest and new growth forest that have been burned over (Blake, 1977),[7] and finally as an open country species (Venegas and Jory, 1979).[8] the best theory for their ideal habitat was brought to us by Figueroa et al. (2000),[9] Trejo et al. (2006), and Rivas e al. (2009), which all suggested that rufous-tailed hawks ideal habitat is somewhere with high trees near open areas that are good for hunting for prey. now there has been no reports of the rufous-tailed hawk living in Human areas like city's or abandoned buildings.

Feeding[edit]

The Rufous-tailed hawk feeds on a large variate of prey. they feed on everything from birds, to mammals, to reptiles. This shows that Rufous- tailed hawks have a very broad diet that is similar to the red-tailed hawk. according to Figueroa et al. (2000) recorded the Rufous-tailed hawk feeding on Southern Lapwing, Norwegian Rat, European Hare, Red-breasted Meadowlark, Chilean Flicker, Short-tailed Snake, and even a few unidentified beetles. the feeding or prey capture was also recorded to happen in forest and in parries.

Breeding[edit]

Rufous-tailed Hawk have a recorded longer nestling period when compared other buteo species (Norambuena, 2012).[10] When comparing the Rufous-tailed Hawk to the red- tail hawks their nestling periods are around the same time length. Rufous tailed nestling period is for around 49 days (Norambuena, 2012)[10] were red-tail hawks are from 45–46 days (Fitch, 1946).[11] The egg clutch size of a Rufous-tailed has only been reported to between 1-3 eggs in a nest (Rivas-Fuenzalida, 2011).[12]

Threats[edit]

Rufous-tailed hawk are threatened by many factors. one of the main factors is habitat loss. Rufous-tailed hawk have been lossing there habitat because of logging, over grazing by sheep and cattle, and loss of habitat to Pinus and Eucalyptus plantations ([3]). Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globulus are invasive plants that are fast growing. these trees were planted in order to help the timber industry in chile ([13] ). the other main threat to Rufous-tailed hawks are the local people. the local people some times kill these birds because the Rufous-tailed hawks attack and eat their domestic flow (Rivas-Fuenzalida et al. 2011).

Population Estimates[edit]

Ferguson-Lees and Christie (2001) estimated the population size to be around 100 individuals.[14] According to the IUCN in 2001 they were only ranked at low risk. They only became Vulnerable rank in 2015 because IUCN estimate the population to be around 299-999 mature individual and a total of around 375-1499 individuals.[3] If their individual numbers drop lower the 1000 then they will be marked as endangered by the IUCN. But a more accurate and current population estimate is still need to get a better understanding of what danger the Rufous-tailed hawk is truly in.

References[edit]

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2015). "Buteo ventralis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
  2. ^ Gould, J. and Darwin, C.R. (1839) Birds Part 3 No. 2 of The zoology of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle. Smith Elder and Co, London. Available at: http://darwin-online.org.uk
  3. ^ a b c "Buteo ventralis (Rufous-tailed Hawk)". www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved 2018-04-25.
  4. ^ "Rufous-tailed hawk videos, photos and facts - Buteo ventralis". Arkive. Retrieved 2018-04-29.
  5. ^ a b Ferguson-Lees, J. and Christie, D.A. (2001) Raptors of the World: An Identification Guide to the Birds of Prey of the World. Houghton Mifflin, New York.
  6. ^ Gelain, M. A. & Trejo, A. (2001) Nuevos registros del Aguilucho Cola Rojiza (Buteo ventralis) en la Patagonia Argentina. Hornero 16: 97–99.
  7. ^ Blake, E.R. 1977. Manual of Neotropical birds. Vol. 1. Spheniscidae (penguins) to Laridae (gulls and terns). University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.
  8. ^ "Buteo ventralis". www.globalraptors.org. Retrieved 2018-04-02.
  9. ^ Figueroa, R., J.E. Jiménez, C.E. Bravo, E.S. Corales. 2000. The diet of the Hawk (Buteo ventralis) during the breeding season insouthern Chile. Ornitologia Neotropical
  10. ^ a b Norambuena, H. V., V. Raimilla, and J. E. Jimenez. 2012. Breeding behavior of a pair of Rufous-tailed Hawks (Buteo ventralis) in southern Chile. Journal of Raptor Research 46:211-215.
  11. ^ Fitch, H. S., Swenson, and Tillotson. 1946. Behavior and food habits of the Red-tailed hawk. Condor 48:205–237
  12. ^ Rivas-Fuenzalida, T., J. Medel, and R. A. Figueroa. 2011. Reproducción del aguilucho colarojiza (Buteo ventralis) en remanentes de bosque lluvioso templado de la Araucanía, sur de Chile. Ornitología Neotropical22:405–420
  13. ^ "Growth in Chile's plantations may have spelled growth in poverty - CIFOR Forests News". CIFOR Forests News. 2015-10-06. Retrieved 2018-04-25.
  14. ^ J., and D.A. Christie. 2001. Raptors of the world. Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA.
  • Figueroa, R., J.E. Jiménez, C.E. Bravo, E.S. Corales. 2000. "The diet of the Hawk (Buteo ventralis) during the breeding season insouthern Chile". Ornitologia Neotropical