List of rulers of Hesse

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Monarchy of Hesse
Provincial/State
Wappen Deutsches Reich - Grossherzogtum Hessen-LF.png
ErnstLouisHesse.jpg
Ernest Louis
Details
Style His Royal Highness
First monarch Henry I (as Landgrave)
Last monarch Ernest Louis (as Grand Duke)
Formation 1264
Abolition 9 November 1918
Appointer Hereditary
Pretender(s) Donatus (as Landgrave)
Royal Standard of the Grand Duke of Hesse 1903–1918

This is a list of rulers of Hesse (German: Hessen) during the history of Hesse on west-central Germany. These rulers belonged to a dynasty collectively known as the House of Hesse and the House of Brabant,[1] originally the Reginar. Hesse was ruled as a Landgraviate, Electorate and later as a Grand duchy until 1918.

The title of all of the following rulers was "Landgrave" (German: Landgraf) unless otherwise noted.

Landgraviate of Hesse[edit]

In the early Middle Ages the Hessengau territory (named after the Germanic Chatti tribes) formed the northern parts of the German stem duchy of Franconia along with the adjacent Lahngau. Upon the extinction of the ducal Conradines, these Rhenish Franconian counties were gradually acquired by Landgrave Louis I of Thuringia and his successors.

After the War of the Thuringian Succession upon the death of Landgrave Henry Raspe in 1247, his niece Duchess Sophia of Brabant secured the Hessian possessions for her minor son Henry the Child, who would become the first Landgrave of Hesse and founder of the House of Hesse in 1246. The remaining Thuringian landgraviate fell to the Wettin margrave Henry III of Meissen. Henry I of Hesse was raised to princely status by King Adolf of Germany in 1292.

Partitions of Hesse[edit]

  Hesse

1264-1308
Landgraviate of Hesse

First partition 1308-1311[edit]

Between 1308 and 1311 the brothers Otto I and John I divided Hesse between them, until the death of John in 1311, when Hesse was reunited again.

  Lower Hesse (-Kassel)   Upper Hesse (-Marburg)

1308-1311
Landgraviate of Lower Hesse (-Kassel) Landgraviate of Upper Hesse (-Marburg)
In 1500 returned to Lower Hesse
1311-1458
Landgraviate of Hesse

Second partition 1458-1500[edit]

In 1458 Hesse was divided between the two sons of Louis I the Peaceful, descendant of Henry I: Louis II, the eldest, received Lower Hesse (sometimes called Hesse-Kassel) and Henry III, the youngest, received Upper Hesse (sometimes called Hesse-Marburg)

1458-1500
Landgraviate of Lower Hesse (-Kassel) Landgraviate of Upper Hesse (-Marburg)
In 1500 returned to Lower Hesse

In 1500 Hesse was reunited again, and this situation stood until 1567.

1500-1567
Landgraviate of Hesse

Third partition 1567-1918[edit]

From 1567 on the new partition made wasn't over until the end of World War I and the abolishment of monarchy in all German lands.

Philip I divided his land in four parts: Hesse-Kassel, Hesse-Marburg, Hesse-Rheinfels and Hesse-Darmstadt.

  Hesse-Kassel   Hesse-Marburg   Hesse-Rheinfels   Hesse-Darmstadt

1567-1583
Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel Landgraviate of Hesse-Marburg Landgraviate of Hesse-Rheinfels Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt

In 1583 the only holder of Hesse-Rheinfels I, Philip II, died withou heirs and his lands were divided between the other parts of Hesse. The same happened in 1604: Louis IV of Hesse-Marburg died without heirs and his lands divided between the two remaining brothers. Although some dispute in this last division, the division was concluded in 1648.

1583-1604
Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel (+1/3 Hesse-Rheinfels I) Landgraviate of Hesse-Marburg (+1/3 Hesse-Rheinfels I) Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt (+1/3 Hesse-Rheinfels I)
1604-1609
Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel (+1/2 Hesse-Marburg) Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt (+1/2 Hesse-Marburg)

Between 1609 and 1632, Hesse-Kassel and Hesse-Darmstadt were divided: In 1609 Hesse-Darmstadt divided in Hesse-Darmstadt and Hesse-Darmstadt-Butzbach.

  Hesse-Darmstadt-Butzbach

1609-1622
Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt-Butzbach

In 1622 Darmstadt divided again to create Hesse-Darmstadt-Homburg, and in 1626 Hesse-Darmstadt-Braubach

  Hesse-Darmstadt-Homburg

1622-1626
Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt-Butzbach Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt-Homburg

  Hesse-Darmstadt-Braubach

1626-1627
Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt-Butzbach Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt-Homburg Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt-Braubach

In 1627 Hesse-Kassel started also to divide its lands: were created Hesse-Kassel-Rotenburg, Hesse-Kassel-Rheinfels and in 1632 Hesse-Kassel-Eschwege

  Hesse-Kassel-Rotenburg   Hesse-Kassel-Rheinfels

1627-1632
Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel-Rotenburg Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel-Rheinfels Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt-Butzbach Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt-Homburg Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt-Braubach

  Hesse-Kassel-Eschwege

1632-1643
Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel-Rotenburg Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel-Rheinfels Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel-Eschwege Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt-Butzbach Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt-Homburg Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt-Braubach

In 1643, Hesse-Darmstadt-Butzbach returned to Hesse-Darmstadt, and the same occurred to Hesse-Darmstadt-Braubach in 1651.

1643-1651
Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel-Rotenburg Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel-Rheinfels Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel-Eschwege Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt-Homburg Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt-Braubach
1651-1655
Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel-Rotenburg Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel-Rheinfels Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel-Eschwege Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt-Homburg

In 1655 Hesse-Kassel-Eschwege returned to Hesse-Kassel-Rotenburg, and in 1658 the same occurred to Hesse-Kassel-Rheinfels.

1655-1658
Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel-Rotenburg Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel-Rheinfels Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt-Homburg
1658-1661
Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel-Rotenburg Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt-Homburg

In 1661 Hesse-Darmstadt divided itself again, to create Hesse-Itter. In 1663 from Hesse-Kassel was created Hesse-Kassel-Philippsthal.

  Hesse-Darmstadt-Itter

1661-1663
Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel-Rotenburg Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt-Itter Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt-Homburg

  Hesse-Kassel-Philippsthal

1663-1676
Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel-Philippsthal Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel-Rotenburg Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt-Itter Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt-Homburg

In 1676 Hesse-Darmstadt-Itter returned to Hesse-Darmstadt:

1676-1700
Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel-Philippsthal Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel-Rotenburg Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt-Homburg

In 1700, Hesse-Kassel-Rotenburg was divided to create Hesse-Kassel-Rotenburg-Wanfried:

  Hesse-Kassel-Rotenburg-Wanfried

1700-1721
Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel-Philippsthal Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel-Rotenburg Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel-Rotenburg-Wanfried Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt-Homburg

In 1721, Hesse-Kassel-Philippsthal was divided to create Hesse-Kassel-Philippsthal-Barchfeld:

  Hesse-Kassel-Philippsthal-Barchfeld

1721-1755
Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel-Philippsthal Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel-Philippsthal-Barchfeld Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel-Rotenburg Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel-Rotenburg-Wanfried Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt-Homburg

In 1755 Hesse-Kassel-Rotenburg-Wanfried returned to Hesse-Kassel-Rotenburg:

1755-1803
Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel-Philippsthal Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel-Philippsthal-Barchfeld Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel-Rotenburg Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt-Homburg

The final stage of Hesse[edit]

In 1803 Hesse-Kassel was elevated to an Electorate, and in 1806 Hesse-Darmstadt was elevated to Grand Duchy.In 1806 Hesse-Darmstadt annexed Hesse-Darmstadt-Homburg, but this state appeared again in 1815, restored by the Congress of Vienna. In 1807 the Electorate of Hesse-Kassel was annexed to the Kingdom of Westphalia (as did Hesse-Kassel-Philippsthal and Hesse-Kassel-Philippsthal-Barchfeld in 1806), to be restored in 1813, together with the mentioned lands.

1803-1806
Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel-Philippsthal Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel-Philippsthal-Barchfeld Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel-Rotenburg Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt-Homburg
1806-1807
Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt
1807-1813
Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt
1813-1815
Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel-Philippsthal Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel-Philippsthal-Barchfeld Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel-Rotenburg Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt
1815-1834
Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel-Philippsthal Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel-Philippsthal-Barchfeld Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel-Rotenburg Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt-Homburg

In 1834 Hesse-Kassel-Rotenburg reunited with Hesse-Kassel:

1834-1866
Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel-Philippsthal Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel-Philippsthal-Barchfeld Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt-Homburg

In 1866 various lands was annexed by Prussia, only surviving Hesse-Darmstadt,until 1918.

1866-1918
Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt

Rulers of Hesse[edit]

House of Hesse (1264-1918)[edit]

Ruler Born Reign Death Ruling part Consort Notes
Henry I the Child 24 June 1244 1264-1308 21 December 1308 Hesse Adelaide of Brunswick-Lüneburg I
1263
seven children

Matilda of Cleves
1276
seven children
Son of Henry II of Brabant, founded the House of Hesse.
Otto I the Elder 1272 1308-1311 17 January 1328 Upper Hesse Adelaide of Ravensberg
1297
Marburg
five children
Divided Hesse with his brother.
John 1278 1308-1311 14 February 1311 Lower Hesse Adelaide of Brunswick-Lüneburg II
1306
one child
Divided Hesse with his brother.
Otto I the Elder 1272 1311-1328 17 January 1328 Hesse Adelaide of Ravensberg
1297
Marburg
five children
Reunited Hesse.
Henry II the Iron 1299 1328-1376 3 June 1376 Hesse Elisabeth of Thuringia
1321
five children
Ruled together with his brothers Louis (I) the Junker and Herman I, his son Otto II and his nephew Herman II.
Louis (I) the Junker 1305 1336-1345 2 February 1345 Hesse Elisabeth of Sponheim-Kreuznach
15 October 1340
three children
Ruled together with his brothers Henry II the Junker and Herman I, and his nephew Otto II.
Herman I the Elder 1305 1336-1370 1370 Hesse Elisabeth of Thuringia
1321
five children
Ruled together with his brothers Henry II and Louis (I) the Junker, his son Otto II and his nephew Herman II.
Otto II the Younger 1322 1336-1366 December 1366 Hesse Elisabeth of Cleves
1338
no children
Ruled together with his uncles Louis (I) the Junker and Herman I, and his father Henry II.
Herman II the Learned 1341 1367-1413 24 May 1413 Hesse Joanna of Nassau-Weilburg
3 February 1377
no children

Margaret of Nuremberg
15 October 1383
Kulmbach
eight children
Ruled together with his father Louis (I) the Junker, uncles Herman I and Henry II until 1376. From then on ruled alone.
Louis I the Peaceful 6 February 1402 1413-1458 17 January 1458 Hesse Anna of Saxony
8 September 1433
Kassel
five children
At is death divided Hesse again.
Louis II the Frank 7 September 1438 1458-1471 8 November 1471 Lower Hesse Matilda of Württemberg-Urach
1454
four children
Divided Hesse with his brother.
Henry III the Rich 15 October 1440 1458-1483 13 January 1483 Upper Hesse Anna of Katzenelnbogen
1458
six children
Divided Hesse with his brother.
Louis III the Younger November 1461 1474-1478 2 July 1478 Upper Hesse Unmarried Ruled jointly with his father, but predeceased him.
William I the Elder 4 July 1466 1471-1493 8 February 1515 Lower Hesse Anna of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
17 February 1488
Münden
five children
Didn't have male heirs. Abdicated in 1493 and his possession passed to his brother, also named William.
William II the Middle Wilhelm II. von Hessen.JPG 29 April 1469 1493-1500 11 July 1509 Lower Hesse Yolande of Vaudémont
9 November 1497
one child

Anna of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
20 October 1500
Kassel
three children
In 1500 reunited Hesse after the death of his cousin William III.
William III the Younger 8 September 1471 1483-1500 17 February 1500 Upper Hesse Elisabeth of the Palatinate
12 February 1496
Heidelberg
no children
Died without heirs.
William II the Middle Wilhelm II. von Hessen.JPG 29 April 1469 1500-1509 11 July 1509 Hesse Yolande of Vaudémont
9 November 1497
one child

Anna of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
20 October 1500
Kassel
three children
Reunited Hesse in 1500
Philip I the Magnanimous Wartburg-Philipp.von.Hessen.JPG 13 November 1504 1509-1567 31 March 1567 Hesse Christine of Saxony
11 December 1523
Kassel
ten children

Margarethe von der Saale
14 March 1540
Rotenburg
(bigamous and morganatic)
nine children
After his death Hesse was divided between his legitimate sons.
William IV the Wise Wilhelm IV. Landgraf von Hessen-Kassel Borcht.jpg 24 June 1532 1567-1592 25 August 1592 Hesse-Kassel Sabine of Württemberg
11 February 1566
Marburg
eleven children
Received Hesse-Kassel from his father.
Louis IV the Elder LudwigIVHessMarb.JPG 27 May 1537 1567-1604 9 October 1604 Hesse-Marburg Hedwig of Württemberg
10 May 1563
Stuttgart
no children

Maria of Mansfeld
4 July 1591
Marburg
no children
Received Hesse-Marburg from his father. At his death without heirs his lands were divided between his brothers.
Philip II the Younger 22 April 1541 1567-1583 20 November 1583 Hesse-Rheinfels Anna Elisabeth of Palatinate-Simmern
18 January 1569
Heidelberg
no children
Received Hesse-Rheinfels from his father. At his death without heirs his lands were divided between his brothers.
George I the Pious Landgraf-Georg-I.-von-Hessen-Darmstadt.png 10 September 1547 1567-1596 7 February 1596 Hesse-Darmstadt Magdalene of Lippe
17 August 1572
Kassel
ten children

Eleonora of Württemberg
25 May 1589
one child
Received Hesse-Darmstadt from his father.
Maurice the Learned Moritz Landgraf von Hessen Seite 1 Bild 0001.jpg 25 May 1572 1592-1632 15 March 1632 Hesse-Kassel Agnes of Solms-Laubach
23 September 1593
Kassel
four children

Juliane of Nassau-Dillenburg
22 May 1603
Dillenburg
fourteen children
Louis V the Faithful L kilian landgraf ludwig 1615.png 24 September 1577 1596-1626 27 July 1626 Hesse-Darmstadt Magdalene of Brandenburg
5 June 1598
Berlin
eleven children
Philip III 26 December 1581 1609-1643 28 April 1643 Hesse-Darmstadt-Butzbach Anna Margaretha von Diepholz
29 July 1610
Darmstadt
no children

Christina Sophia of East Frisia
2 June 1632
Aurich
no children
Received Hesse-Darmstadt-Butzbach from his father. At his death without surviving heirs, his lands reverted to Hesse-Darmstadt.
Frederick I Friedrich-I-HH.jpg 5 March 1585 1622-1638 9 May 1638 Hesse-Darmstadt-Homburg Margaret Elisabeth of Leiningen-Westerburg
10 August 1622
Butzbach
six children
Received Hesse-Darmstadt-Homburg from his father, George I.
George II Georg-II-HD.jpg 17 March 1605 1626-1661 11 June 1661 Hesse-Darmstadt Sophia Eleonore of Saxony
1 April 1627
Torgau
fifteen children
John 17 June 1609 1626-1651 1 April 1651 Hesse-Darmstadt-Braubach Johannetta of Sayn-Wittgenstein
30 September 1647
Friedewald
no children
Received Hesse-Darmstadt-Braubach from his father, Louis V. At his death without surviving heirs, his lands reverted to Hesse-Darmstadt.
Herman IV 15 August 1607 1627-1658 25 March 1658 Hesse-Kassel-Rotenburg Sophie Juliane of Waldeck
31 December 1633
Waldeck
one child

Kunigunde Juliane of Anhalt-Dessau
2 February 1642
Weimar
no children
Inherited Hesse-Rotenburg from his father.
William V the Stable WilhelmV-HK.jpg 13 February 1602 1632-1637 21 September 1637 Hesse-Kassel Amalie Elisabeth of Hanau-Münzenberg
21 September 1619
twelve children
Frederick I Matthäus Merian - Landgrave Friedrich of Hessen-Eschwege - WGA15064.jpg 9 May 1617 1632-1655 24 September 1655 Hesse-Kassel-Eschwege Eleonora Catherine of the Palatinate-Zweibrücken
8 September 1646
Stockholm
six children
Received Hesse-Kassel_Eschwege from his father. At his death without surviving heirs, his lands reverted to Hesse-Kassel.
Amalie Elisabeth of Hanau-Münzenberg (regent) Amelia Elisabeth Landgräfin von Hessen-Kassel.jpg 29 January 1602 1637-1650 8 August 1651 Hesse-Kassel William V
21 September 1619
twelve children
Margaret Elisabeth of Leiningen-Westerburg (regent) 30 June 1604 1638-1648 13 August 1667 Hesse-Darmstadt-Homburg Frederick I
10 August 1622
Butzbach
six children
Regent in name of her son, William Christoph.
William Christoph Friedrich-I-HH.jpg 13 November 1625 1648-1669 27 August 1681 Hesse-Darmstadt-Homburg Sophia Eleonore of Hesse-Darmstadt
21 April 1650
Darmstadt
twelve children

Anna Elisabeth of Saxe-Lauenburg
2 April 1665
Lübeck
(annulled 1672)
twelve children
Under regency of his mother until 1648. Sold his lands to his brother, George Christian.
Ernest Ernst von Hessen-Rheinfels.jpg 8 December 1623 1649-1658 2 May 1693 Hesse-Kassel-Rheinfels Maria Eleonore of Solms-Lich
June 1647
Frankfurt
two children
Received Hesse-Kassel-Rheinfels from his father. Inherited Rotenburg in 1658, merging Rheinfels in Rotenburg.
William VI the Just Anselmus-van-Hulle-Hommes-illustres MG 0447.tif 23 May 1629 1650-1663 16 July 1663 Hesse-Kassel Hedwig Sophie of Brandenburg
19 July 1649
Cölln
seven children
Ernest Ernst von Hessen-Rheinfels.jpg 8 December 1623 1658-1693 2 May 1693 Hesse-Kassel-Rotenburg Maria Eleonore of Solms-Lich
June 1647
Frankfurt
two children
Inherited Hesse-Rotenburg from his childless brother.
Louis VI Ludvig VI, 1630-78, lantgreve av Hessen-Darmstadt (Salomon Duarte) - Nationalmuseum - 15553.tif 25 January 1630 1661-1678 24 April 1678 Hesse-Darmstadt Maria Elisabeth of Holstein-Gottorp
24 November 1650
Gottorp
eight children

Elisabeth Dorothea of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
5 December 1666
Gotha
eight children
George III 29 September 1632 1661-1676 19 July 1676 Hesse-Itter Dorothea Auguste of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Franzhagen
5 May 1661
one child

Juliane Alexandrine of Leinigen-Heidenheim
21 July 1667
three children
Received Hesse-Darmstadt-Itter from his father, George II. After his death without male heirs, his lands reverted to Hesse-Darmstadt
Hedwig Sophie of Brandenburg (regent) Hedvig Sofia de Brandemburgo.jpg 14 July 1623 1663-1677 26 June 1683 Hesse-Kassel William VI
19 July 1649
Cölln
seven children
William VII 21 June 1651 1663-1670 21 November 1670 Hesse-Kassel Unmarried Under regency of his mother.
Philip I Philipp von Hessen-Philippsthal (1655-1721).jpg 14 December 1655 1663-1721 18 June 1721 Hesse-Kassel-Philippsthal Catherine of Solms-Laubach
14 April 1680
eight children
Received from his father, Frederick VI of Hesse-Kassel, Hesse-Kassel-Philippsthal.
George Christian Georg Christian von Hessen-Homburg.JPG 13 November 1625 1669-1671 27 August 1681 Hesse-Darmstadt-Homburg Anna Catharina Pogwitsch
11 October 1666
Hamburg
no children
Retained his brother's land. Hesse-Homburg became under mortgage to two merchants (1671–1673) and to the Landgraves of Hesse-Darmstadt (1673–1679). Hesse-Homburg returned then to George Christian's brother, Frederick.
Charles I Karl, 1654-1730, lantgreve av Hessen-Kassel (Georg Engelhard Schröder) - Nationalmuseum - 14774.tif 3 August 1654 1677-1730 23 March 1730 Hesse-Kassel Maria Amalia of Courland
21 May 1673
Kassel
fourteen children
Louis VII Wagner Louis VII of Hesse-Darmstadt.jpg 22 June 1658 1678 31 August 1678 Hesse-Darmstadt Unmarried
Elisabeth Dorothea of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (regent) ElisaDoroSaGoHeDa.JPG 25 January 1630 1678-1688 24 April 1678 Hesse-Darmstadt Louis VI
5 December 1666
Gotha
eight children
Frederick II Der Prinz von Homburg.jpeg 13 November 1625 1679-1708 27 August 1681 Hesse-Darmstadt-Homburg Margareta Brahe
12 May 1661
Stockholm
no children

Louise Elisabeth of Courland
23 October 1670
Cölln
twelve children

Sophie Sybille of Leiningen-Westerburg
1691
three children
The land returned to the Hesse-Homburg-branch in 1679.
Ernest Louis Landgraf Ernst Ludwig von Hessen-Darmstadt.jpg 15 December 1667 1688-1739 12 September 1739 Hesse-Darmstadt Dorothea Charlotte of Brandenburg-Ansbach
1 December 1687
Darmstadt
five children
William I the Elder 15 May 1648 1693-1725 20 November 1725 Hesse-Kassel-Rotenburg Maria Anna of Löwenstein-Wertheim
3 March 1669
Rochefort[disambiguation needed]
eight children
Charles I 19 July 1649 1700-1711 3 March 1711 Hesse-Kassel-Rotenburg-Wanfried Sophie Magdalene of Salm-Reifferscheid
before 1675
five children

Alexandrine Juliane of Leiningen-Dagsburg
before 1703
eleven children
Received from his father, Ernest of Hesse-Rheinfels, Hesse-Kassel-Rotenburg-Wanfried
Frederick III Jacob Friedrich III Jacob van Hessen-Homburg (1673-1746), by Jacob Hauck.jpg 19 May 1673 1708-1746 8 June 1746 Hesse-Darmstadt-Homburg Elisabeth Dorothea of Hesse-Darmstadt
14 February 1700
Butzbach
nine children

Christiane Charlotte of Nassau-Ottweiler
17 October 1728
Saarbrücken
no children
William II the Younger 25 August 1671 1711-1731 1 April 1731 Hesse-Kassel-Rotenburg-Wanfried Ernestine of the Palatinate-Sulzbach
19 September 1719
no children
Left no heirs. His lands were inherited by his brother, Christian.
Charles I 23 September 1682 1721-1770 8 May 1770 Hesse-Kassel-Philippsthal Caroline Christine of Saxe-Eisenach
24 November 1725
Eisenach
five children
William I Wilhelm, Landgraf von Hessen-Philippsthal-Barchfeld.jpg 1 April 1692 1721-1761 13 May 1761 Hesse-Kassel-Philippsthal-Barchfeld Charlotte Wilhelmine of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym
31 October 1724
Hoym
fifteen children
Received from his father, Philip I, Hesse-Kassel-Philippsthal-Barchfeld.
Ernest II Leopold Ernest-Léopold de Hesse-Rheinfels-Rotenburg.jpg 15 June 1684 1725-1749 29 November 1749 Hesse-Kassel-Rotenburg Eleonore of Löwenstein-Wertheim
9 November 1704
Frankfurt
ten children
Frederick I Frederick I of Sweden.jpg 28 April 1676 1730-1751 5 April 1751 Hesse-Kassel Louise Dorothea of Prussia
31 May 1700
Berlin
no children

Ulrika Eleonora, Queen of Sweden
24 March 1715
Stockholm
no children
Also King of Sweden. Left no heirs. Hesse-Kassel under the regency of his brother, William, later Landgrave William VIII.
Christian 17 July 1689 1731-1755 21 October 1755 Hesse-Kassel-Rotenburg-Wanfried Maria Franziska of Hohenlohe-Bartenstein
c.1730
no children
Left no heirs. His lands reverted to Hesse-Rotenburg.
Louis VIII Landgraf Ludwig VIII. von Hessen-Darmstadt.JPG 5 April 1691 1739-1768 17 October 1768 Hesse-Darmstadt Charlotte of Hanau-Lichtenberg
5 April 1717
Hanau
six children
Frederick IV Charles 15 April 1724 1746-1751 7 February 1751 Hesse-Darmstadt-Homburg Ulrike Louise of Solms-Braunfels
10 October 1746
Hungen
two children
Nephew of Frederick III.
Constantine 24 May 1716 1749-1778 30 December 1778 Hesse-Kassel-Rotenburg Sophia von Starhemberg
1745
eleven children

Jeanne Henriette de Bombelles
27 May 1775
no children
William VIII Quitter William VIII of Hesse-Kassel.jpg 10 March 1682 1751-1760 1 February 1760 Hesse-Kassel Dorothea Wilhelmine of Saxe-Zeitz
27 September 1717
Zeitz
three children
Brother of Frederick I; already regent from 1730
Ulrike Louise of Solms-Braunfels (regent) 1 May 1731 1751-1766 12 September 1792 Hesse-Darmstadt-Homburg Frederick IV Charles
10 October 1746
Hungen
two children
Regent on behalf of her son, Frederick V.
Frederick II Johann Heinrich Tischbein - Retrato del Landgrave Federico II de Hesse-Kassel.jpg 14 August 1720 1760-1785 31 October 1785 Hesse-Kassel Mary of Great Britain
8 May 1740
London
(by proxy)
28 June 1740
Kassel
(in person)
four children

Philippine of Brandenburg-Schwedt
10 January 1773
Berlin
no children
Frederick I 1727 1761-1777 1777 Hesse-Kassel-Philippsthal-Barchfeld Sophia Henrietta of Salm-Grunbach
1772
no children
Left no heirs. His brother Adolf inherited the land.
Frederick V Friedrich VHessenHomburg.jpg 30 January 1748 1766-1820 20 January 1820 Hesse-Darmstadt-Homburg Caroline of Hesse-Darmstadt
27 September 1768
Darmstadt
eleven children
Between 1806 and 1815 the Landgraviate was annexed to the Kingdom of Westphalia.
Louis IX Ludwig IX von Hessen-Darmstadt.JPG 15 December 1719 1768-1790 6 April 1790 Hesse-Darmstadt Caroline of the Palatinate-Zweibrücken
12 August 1741
Zweibrücken
eight children
William I Wilhelm Landgraf von Hessen-Philippsthal, by Gustav Altmöller.jpg 29 August 1726 1770-1806 8 August 1810 Hesse-Kassel-Philippsthal Ulrika Eleonora of Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld
22 June 1755
Tournai
nine children
Between 1806 and 1813 the Landgraviate was annexed to the Kingdom of Westphalia.
Adolph I Adolf von Hessen-Philippsthal-Barchfeld.jpg 29 June 1743 1777-1803 17 July 1803 Hesse-Kassel-Philippsthal-Barchfeld Louise of Saxe-Meiningen
18 October 1781
Meiningen
six children
Charles Emmanuel 5 June 1746 1778-1806 23 March 1812 Hesse-Kassel-Rotenburg Leopoldina of Liechtenstein
1 September 1771
Felsberg
two children
Between 1806 and 1813 the Landgraviate was annexed to the Kingdom of Westphalia.
William IX / I Portrait of William I, Elector of Hesse.jpg 3 June 1743 1785-1807

1813-1821
27 February 1821 Hesse-Kassel

Electorate of Hesse Kassel
Wilhelmina Caroline of Denmark
1 September 1764
Copenhagen
four children
Created Prince-elector of Hesse as His Royal and Serene Highness William I in 1803. Between 1807 and 1813 the Grand-Duchy was annexed to the Kingdom of Westphalia.
Louis X / I Ludwik I, Wielki Książę Hesji-Darmstadt.JPG 14 June 1753 1790-1830 6 April 1830 Hesse-Darmstadt

Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt
Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt
19 February 1777
Darmstadt
seven children
Created Grand Duke of Hesse as Louis I in 1806.
Charles I Carlod'Assia-Philippsthal-Barchfeld.jpg 27 June 1784 1803-1854 17 July 1854 Hesse-Kassel-Philippsthal-Barchfeld Auguste of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen
19 July 1816
Öhringen
two children

Sophie of Bentheim and Steinfurt
10 September 1823
Steinfurt
four children
Between 1806 and 1813 the Landgraviate was annexed to the Kingdom of Westphalia.
Louis I Ludwig von Hessen-Philippsthal.jpg 29 August 1726 1813-1816 8 August 1810 Hesse-Kassel-Philippsthal Marie Franziska Berghe of Trips
21 January 1791
Susteren
two children
Landgraviate recovered in 1813 by the hand of the Elector of Hesse.
Victor Amadeus Victor Amadeus Landgraf zu Hessen-Rotenburg.jpg 2 September 1779 1813-1834 12 November 1834 Hesse-Kassel-Rotenburg Leopoldine of Fürstenberg
20 October 1799
Prague
no children

Elisabeth of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
10 September 1812
Langenburg
one child

Eleonora of Salm-Reifferscheidt-Krautheim and Gerlachsheim
19 November 1831
Gerlachsheim
no children
In 1834, Hesse-Rotenburg reunited with Hesse-Kassel.
Ernest Constantine Filippstalsky Ernest.jpg 8 August 1771 1816-1849 25 December 1849 Hesse-Kassel-Philippsthal Louise of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt
10 April 1796
Rudolstadt
five children

Caroline of Hesse-Philippsthal
17 February 1812
Kassel
two children
Landgraviate recovered in 1813 by the hand of the Elector of Hesse.
Frederick VI FriedrichVIHessenHomburg.jpg 30 July 1769 1820-1829 2 April 1829 Hesse-Darmstadt-Homburg Elizabeth of the United Kingdom
7 April 1818
London
no children
Left no heirs. The land was inherited by his brother.
William II William II, elector of hesse.jpg 28 July 1777 1821-1847 20 November 1847 Electorate of Hesse Kassel Augusta of Prussia
13 February 1797
Berlin
six children

Emilie Ortlöpp
8 July 1841
(morganatic)
eight children

Caroline of Berlepsch
8 July 1841
Hanau
(morganatic)
no children
Louis William 29 August 1770 1829-1839 19 January 1839 Hesse-Darmstadt-Homburg Augusta Amalia of Nassau-Usingen
1804
(annulled 1805)
no children
Left no heirs. The land was inherited by his brother.
Louis II Luis ii de hesse.jpg 26 December 1777 1830-1848 16 June 1848 Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt Wilhelmine of Baden
19 June 1804
Karlsruhe
seven children
Philip 1779 Philipp.jpg 11 March 1779 1839-1846 15 December 1846 Hesse-Darmstadt-Homburg Rosalie Antonie Pototschnig
1838
(morganatic)
no children
Left no heirs. The land was inherited by his brother.
Gustav 17 February 1781 1846-1848 8 September 1848 Hesse-Darmstadt-Homburg Louise of Anhalt-Dessau
12 February 1818
Dessau
three children
Left no male heirs. The land was inherited by his brother.
Frederick William Friedrich Wilhelm I 1862 (IZ 38-357).jpg 20 August 1802 1847-1866 6 January 1875 Electorate of Hesse Kassel Gertrude von Hanau
26 June 1831
(morganatic)
nine children
In 1866 the Electorate was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia.
Louis III LudwigIII-Hessen.jpg 9 June 1806 1848-1877 13 June 1877 Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt Mathilde Caroline of Bavaria
26 December 1833
Munich
no children

Magdalene of Hochstadten
1868
(morganatic)
no children
Ferdinand Ferdinand Heinrich Friedrich v Hessen-Homburg (IZ 46-1866 S 261 ANeumann).jpg 26 April 1783 1848-1866 24 March 1866 Hesse-Darmstadt-Homburg Unmarried Left no male heirs. At his death the Landgraviate was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia.
Charles II 22 May 1803 1849-1866 12 February 1868 Hesse-Kassel-Philippsthal Marie of Württemberg
9 October 1845
Pokój
two children
In 1866 the Landgraviate was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia.
Alexis I Alexis, Landgrave of Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld.jpg 13 September 1829 1854-1866 16 August 1905 Hesse-Kassel-Philippsthal-Barchfeld Louise of Prussia
17 June 1854
Berlin
no children
In 1866 the Landgraviate was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia.
Louis IV Grand Duke Ludwig IV of Hesse-Darmstadt and by Rhine.jpg 12 September 1837 1877-1892 13 March 1892 Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt Alice of the United Kingdom
1 July 1862
East Cowes
seven children

Alexandrina Hutten-Czapska
30 April 1884
Darmstadt
(morganatic, annulled 1884)
no children
Ernest Louis Ernst-ludwig-gross.jpg 25 November 1868 1892-1918 9 October 1937 Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt Victoria Melita of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
19 April 1894
Coburg
(annulled 21 December 1901)
two children

Eleonore of Solms-Hohensolms-Lich
2 February 1905
Darmstadt
two children
Depoed in 1918, at the end of World War I.

Heads of the non-reigning House of Hesse[edit]

Hesse-Kassel since 1866[edit]

Friedrich Wilhelm I, the former Elector, titular Landgrave 1866–75 (1802–1875)

succeeded by his second cousin Friedrich Wilhelm II as below:
  • Friedrich II, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (1720–1785)
    • Friedrich III, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel-Rumpenheim (1747–1837)
      • Wilhelm I, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel-Rumpenheim (1787–1867)
        • Friedrich Wilhelm II, titular Landgrave 1875–84 (1820–1884)
          • Friedrich Wilhelm III, titular Landgrave 1884–88 (1854–1888)
          • Alexander Friedrich, titular Landgrave 1888–1925, abdicated (1863–1945)
          • Friedrich Karl, titular Landgrave 1925–40, elected King of Finland as Fredrik Kaarle I in 1918 but renounced the throne (1868–1940)
            • Philipp, titular Landgrave 1940–80, head of entire House 1968 on extinction of Hesse-Darmstadt line (1896–1980)
              • Moritz, titular Landgrave and Head of House 1980–2013 (1926–2013)
                • Heinrich Donatus titular Landgrave and Head of House 2013–present (born 1966)
                • Prince Philipp Robin of Hesse (born 1970)
                  • Prince Tito of Hesse (born 2008)
            • Prince Christoph of Hesse (1901–1943)
              • Prince Karl Adolf Andreas of Hesse (born 1937)
                • Prince Christoph of Hesse (born 1969)
              • Prince Rainer Christoph Friedrich of Hesse (born 1939)

Hesse-Philippsthal 1866–1925[edit]

  • Charles II, formerly sovereign, titular Landgrave 1866–68 (1803–1868)
    • Ernst Eugen, titular Landgrave 1868–1925 (1846–1925)
1925 the Line of Hesse-Philippsthal became extinct, passed to Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld

Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld since 1866, Hesse-Philippsthal since the extinction of the main line 1925[edit]

  • Charles, Landgrave of Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld (1784–1854)
    • Alexis, formerly sovereign, titular Landgrave 1866–1905 (1829–1905)
    • Prince Wilhelm of Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld (1831–1890)
      • Chlodwig, titular Landgrave 1905–54, inherited Hesse-Philippsthal as well in 1925 (1876–1954)
        • Prince Wilhelm of Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld (1905–1942)
          • Wilhelm, titular Landgrave 1954–present (born 1933)
            • Prince Wilhelm of Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld (born 1963)
              • Prince Wilhelm Ernst of Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld (born 2005)
              • Prince Philipp August of Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld (born 2006)
            • Prince Otto of Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld (born 1965)
              • Prince Max of Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld (born 1999)
              • Prince Moritz of Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld (born 2007)
          • Prince Hermann of Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld (born 1935)
            • Prince Alexis of Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld (born 1977)

Hesse-Darmstadt 1918–1968[edit]

In 1968 the Line of Hesse-Darmstadt became Hesse-Nassau and Hesse-Kassel (1969–present)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Burke's Royal Families of the World Volume I Europe & Latin America ISBN 0-85011-023-8, London 1977 p. 202

External links[edit]