List of grand dukes of Tuscany

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Grand Duke of Tuscany
Coat of Arms (1569–1737)
Longest reigning
Cosimo III de' Medici

23 May 1670 – 31 October 1723
Details
First monarchCosimo I de' Medici
Last monarchLeopold II (de jure)
Ferdinand IV (de facto/titular)
Formation27 August 1569
Abolition16 August 1859
ResidencePalazzo Pitti

The title of Grand Duke of Tuscany was created on August 27, 1569 by a papal bull of Pope Pius V to Cosimo I de' Medici, member of the illustrious House of Medici. His coronation took place in Rome on March 5, 1570, by the hands of the Pope himself.[1]

Cosimo's family, the Medici dynasty, had been ruling the Florentine Republic, the predecessor of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, since 1434, first as Lords of Florence and later as Dukes.[2] The title of Grand Duke, was in fact the second title of recognition within the Tuscan politics given by a Pope to the Medici family, the first being that of Duke of the Florentine Republic, created by Pope Clement VII in 1532.[3][4]

The official residence of the Grand Dukes was the Palazzo Pitti in Florence, bought by the Medici in 1549.[5]

Background[edit]

Margraves reigned in the 9th century when the region was part of the Margraviate of Tuscany. Beginning in the 11th century, the region was fully divided into several independent cities, which included Pisa, Florence, Siena, Lucca, Arezzo among others. However, with the territorial expansion of Florence, Tuscany began to "come together" again under one single leadership. This situation became even clearer with the creation of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany in 1569. Over the years, the Grand duchy managed to absorb practically the entire region of present-day Tuscany, until its own final annexation to the Kingdom of Italy.[6]

Medici grand dukes of Tuscany, 1569–1737[edit]

The Grand Duchy of Tuscany was the first period after centuries of political divisions, when most of the region was under the rule of a single leader. The Grand Duchy's territory comprised almost the entire region of present-day Tuscany, with the exception of the Republic of Lucca, the Principality of Piombino, the Duchy of Massa and Carrara and the State of the Presidi.[7]

Portrait Name Lifespan Reign Consorts Succession
Cosimo I de' Medici 12 June 1519 – 21 April 1574 21 August 1569 – 21 April 1574 (1) Eleanor of Toledo
29 June 1539
Florence
11 children
(2) Camilla Martelli
1570
1 daughter
Son of Giovanni dalle Bande Nere, later became the first Grand Duke of Tuscany.
Francesco I de' Medici 25 March 1541 – 19 October 1587 21 April 1574 – 17 October 1587 (1) Joanna of Austria
18 December 1565
Florence
8 children
(2) Bianca Cappello
10 June 1579
1 son
Son of Cosimo I
Ferdinando I de' Medici 30 July 1549 – 3 February 1609 19 October 1587 – 7 February 1609 Christina of Lorraine
1589
Florence
9 children
Son of Cosimo I
Cosimo II de' Medici 12 May 1590 – 28 February 1621 17 February 1609 – 28 February 1621 Maria Maddalena of Austria
1608
8 children
Son of Ferdinando I
Ferdinando II de' Medici 14 July 1610 – 23 May 1670 28 February 1621 – 23 May 1670 Vittoria della Rovere
6 April 1637
4 children
Son of Cosimo II
Cosimo III de' Medici 14 August 1642 – 31 October 1723 23 May 1670 – 31 October 1723 Marguerite Louise d'Orléans
17 April 1661
Louvre
3 children
Son of Ferdinando II
Gian Gastone de' Medici 24 May 1671 – 9 July 1737 31 October 1723 – 9 July 1737 Anna Maria Franziska of Saxe-Lauenburg
2 July 1697
Düsseldorf
no issue
Son of Cosimo III

Habsburg-Lorraine grand dukes of Tuscany, 1737–1801[edit]

Portrait Name Lifespan Reign Consorts Succession
Francesco II Stefano 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765 12 July 1737 – 18 August 1765 Maria Theresa
12 February 1736
Vienna
16 children
Great-great-great-grandson of Francesco I, received Tuscany per the terms of the Treaty of Vienna
Leopoldo I 5 May 1747 – 1 March 1792 18 August 1765 – 22 July 1790 Maria Luisa of Spain
16 February 1764
Madrid
16 children
Second son of Francesco II Stefano
Ferdinando III 6 May 1769 – 18 June 1824 22 July 1790 – 3 August 1801 (1) Luisa of Naples and Sicily
19 September 1790
Vienna
6 children
(2) Maria Ferdinanda of Saxony
6 May 1821
Florence
no issue
Second son of Leopoldo I

Bourbon-Parma kings of Etruria, 1801–1807[edit]

Period that the Bourbon-Parma were placed as "Kings" by Napoleon in the Kingdom of Etruria. The Kingdom was a creation of Napoleon to replace the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, comprising a large part of modern Tuscany.[8]

Portrait Name Lifespan Reign Consorts Succession
Ludovico I 5 July 1773 – 27 May 1803 21 March 1801 – 27 May 1803 Maria Luisa of Spain
25 August 1795
Madrid
2 children
Grandson of Francesco II Stefano
Ludovico II 22 December 1799 – 16 April 1883 27 May 1803 – 10 December 1807 Maria Teresa of Savoy
5 September 1820
Lucca
2 children
Son of Ludovico I

Tuscany was annexed by France, 1807–1814. Napoleon's sister Elisa Bonaparte was given the honorary title of Grand Duchess of Tuscany, but did not actually rule over the region.


Habsburg-Lorraine grand dukes of Tuscany, 1814–1860[edit]

Portrait Name Lifespan Reign Consorts Succession
Ferdinando III 6 May 1769 – 18 June 1824 27 April 1814 – 18 June 1824 (1) Luisa of Naples and Sicily
19 September 1790
Vienna
6 children
(2) Maria Ferdinanda of Saxony
6 May 1821
Florence
no issue
Restored
Leopoldo II 3 October 1797 – 29 January 1870 18 June 1824 – 21 July 1859 (1) Maria Anna of Saxony
28 October 1817
Dresden
4 children
(2) Maria Antonia of the Two Sicilies
7 June 1833
Naples
10 children
Son of Ferdinando III
Ferdinando IV 10 June 1835 – 17 January 1908 21 July 1859 – 22 March 1860 (1) Anna of Saxony
24 November 1856
Dresden
2 daughters
(2) Alice of Parma
11 January 1868
Frohsdorf
10 children
Son of Leopoldo II

Leopoldo II was driven from Tuscany by revolution from 21 February to 12 April 1849, and again on 27 April 1859. He abdicated in favor of his son, Ferdinando IV, on 21 July 1859, but Ferdinando IV was never recognized in Tuscany, and was deposed by the provisional government on 16 August. Tuscany was annexed by Piedmont-Sardinia on 22 March 1860.[9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "COSIMO I de' Medici, duca di Firenze, granduca di Toscana in "Dizionario Biografico"". www.treccani.it (in Italian). Retrieved 2023-06-30.
  2. ^ "Storia della famiglia Medici di Firenze". Skuola.net - Portale per Studenti: Materiali, Appunti e Notizie (in Italian). Retrieved 2023-06-30.
  3. ^ "ALESSANDRO de' Medici, primo duca di Firenze in "Dizionario Biografico"". www.treccani.it (in Italian). Retrieved 2023-06-30.
  4. ^ "La dinastia dei Medici: chi furono i signori di Firenze che governarono per centinaia di anni". www.visitflorence.com. Retrieved 2023-06-30.
  5. ^ Candidi, Vieri Tommasi (2019-08-29). "Palazzo Pitti: il più prestigioso edificio di Firenze dai Medici ai Savoia". TuscanyPeople (in Italian). Retrieved 2023-06-30.
  6. ^ "Toscana in "Dizionario di Storia"". www.treccani.it (in Italian). Retrieved 2023-05-27.
  7. ^ Diaz, Furio. Storia d'Italia. Il Granducato di Toscana. I Medici (in Italian). ISBN 8802024510.
  8. ^ "Kingdom of Etruria | historical kingdom, Europe | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 2023-06-30.
  9. ^ Redazione (2014-09-19). "LA FINE DEL GRANDUCATO DI TOSCANA". PostPopuli. Retrieved 2023-06-30.