The term rumba may refer to a variety of unrelated music styles. Originally, "rumba" was used as a synonym for "party" in northern Cuba, and by the late 19th century it was used to denote the complex of secular music styles known as Cuban rumba. Since the early 20th century the term has been used in different countries to refer to distinct styles of music and dance, most of which are only tangentially related to the original Cuban rumba, if at all. The vague etymological origin of the term rumba, as well as its interchangeable use with guaracha in settings such as bufo theatre, is largely responsible for such worldwide polysemy of the term. In addition, "rumba" was the primary marketing term for Cuban music in North America, as well as West and Central Africa, during much of the 20th century, before the rise of mambo, pachanga and salsa.
"Rumba" entered the English lexicon in the early 20th century, at least as early as 1919, and by 1932 it was used a verb to denote the ballroom dance. In this sense, the anglicised spelling "rhumba" became prevalent and is now recommended to distinguish it from traditional Cuban rumba. Also in the first third of the 20th century, "rumba" entered the Spanish flamenco world as a fast-paced palo (style) inspired in the Cuban guaracha, and which gave rise to other forms of urban music now known as "rumba". Throughout Latin America, "rumba" acquired different connotations, mostly referring to Cubanized, danceable, local styles, such as Colombian rumba criolla (creole rumba). At the same time, "rumba" began to be used a catch-all term for Afro-Cuban music in most African countries, later giving rise to re-Africanized Cuban-based styles such as Congolese rumba.
During the second half of the 19th century, several secular dance-oriented music styles were developed by Afro-Cuban workers in the poor neighbourhoods of Havana and Matanzas. These syncretic styles would later be referred to as "rumba", a word that also meant "party". Traditionally, the three main styles of rumba are yambú, columbia and guaguancó, each of which has a characteristic dance, rhythm and singing. Although still a purely folkloric genre, numerous innovations have been introduced in rumba since the mid 20th century, including new styles such as batá-rumba and guarapachangueo.
In North America
In the US, the term "rhumba" (anglicised version of rumba), began to be used during the 1920s to refer to ballroom music with Afro-Cuban music themes, particularly in the context of big band music. This music was mostly inspired by son cubano, while being rhythmically and instrumentally unrelated to Cuban rumba. By the 1930s, with the release of "The Peanut Vendor" by Don Azpiazú and the popularity of Xavier Cugat and other Latin artists, the genre had become highly-successful and well-defined. The rhumba dance that developed on the East Coast of the United States was based on the bolero-son. The first rumba competition took place in the Savoy Ballroom in 1930. Nowadays, two different styles of ballroom rumba coexist: American-style and International-style.
During the 1940s and 1950s, the Mexican and American film industry expanded the use of the term rumba as rumbera films became popular. In this context, rumberas were Cuban and Mexican divas, singers and actresses who sang boleros and canciones, but rarely rumbas. Notable rumberas include Rita Montaner, Rosa Carmina, María Antonieta Pons and Ninón Sevilla.
In the 1970s, with the emergence of salsa as a popular music and dance genre in the US, rhythmic elements of Cuban rumba (particularly guaguancó) became prevalent alongside the son. Like salsa, rhumba would then be danced to salsa ensembles instead of big bands. By the end of the 20th century, rhumba was also danced to pop music and jazz bands as seen in TV shows like Dancing with the Stars.
In Spain, the term rumba was introduced in the early 20th century as rumba flamenca, one of the palos (styles) of flamenco. Particularly, it is considered one of the cantes de ida y vuelta, since flamenco itself might have had an influence on Cuban rumba, particularly on its vocal style. However, musicologists agree that rumba flamenca does not truly derive from Cuban rumba, but from guaracha, a fast-paced music style from Havana. Apart from rumba flamenca, other syncretic styles of Afro-Cuban origin have been named "rumba" throughout the Iberian peninsula, outside of the context of flamenco (where the term cantes de ida y vuelta is mostly restricted), such as the Galician rumba.
In the late 1950s, popular artists such as Peret (El Rey de la Rumba) and El Pescaílla developed an uptempo style that combined elements from rumba flamenca, Spanish gypsy music and pop. This became known as Catalan rumba (rumba catalana). In the 1980s, the style gained international popularity thanks to French ensemble Gipsy Kings.
In the 1990s, the term “tecno-rumba” was used to describe the music of Camela, and later Azúcar Moreno. Since the early 2000s, the term rumba has been used in Spain to refer to derivatives of Catalan rumba with hip hop and rock elements, as recorded by Estopa, Huecco and Melendi.
In the late 1930s and early 1940s, a fusion of bambuco and Afro-Cuban music was developed in Colombia by artists such as Emilio Sierra, Milciades Garavito, and Diógenes Chaves Pinzón, under the name rumba criolla (creole rumba). Rumba criolla is classified into different regional styles such as rumba antioqueña and rumba tolimense.
In the 1930s and 1940s, Afro-Cuban son groups such as Septeto Habanero, Trio Matamoros and Los Guaracheros de Oriente were played over Radio Congo Belge in Léopoldville (Kinshasa), gaining widespread popularity in the country during the following decades. Their recordings were also made available to the public as part of the G.V. Series of 10" singles released by His Master's Voice throughout Africa. Once local bands tried to emulate the sound of Cuban son (incorrectly referred to as "rumba" in Africa, despite being unrelated to Cuban rumba), their music became known as Congolese rumba or rumba Lingala. By the late 1960s, Congolese rumba was an established genre in most of Central Africa, and it would also impact the music of West and East Africa. Franco's OK Jazz and Le Grand Kallé's African Jazz were amongst the most successful Congolese rumba ensembles of the 20th century. A faster subgenre known as soukous (from the French word secouer, "to shake") was developed in the late 1960s by bands such as African Fiesta and is often used as a synonym of the former.
- Alén Rodríguez, Olavo (2010). "A History of the Congas". AfroCubaWeb. Retrieved November 6, 2015.
- Peñalosa, David (2011). Rumba Quinto. Bembe Books. p. 183.
- Moore, Robin (1997). Nationalizing Blackness: Afrocubansimo and artistic Revolution in Havana, 1920-1940. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press. p. 54. ISBN 9780822971856.
- Harper, Douglas. "rumba". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
- Drake-Boyt, Elizabeth (2011). "Rhumba". Latin Dance. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood. pp. 43–46. ISBN 9780313376092.
- Waxer, Lisa (2002). Situating Salsa: Global Markets and Local Meanings in Latin Popular Music. New York, NY: Routledge. p. 12. ISBN 9781135725341.
- Díaz, Román; Palenzuela Jottar, Berta (2004). "Rumba". In Candelaria, Cordelia (ed.). Encyclopedia of Latino Popular Culture, Volume 2. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. pp. 712–725. ISBN 9780313332111.
- Hess, Carol A. (2013). Representing the Good Neighbor: Music, Difference, and the Pan American Dream. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. pp. 115–116, 200. ISBN 9780199339891.
- Miller, Terry E.; Shahriari, Andrew (2015). World Music: A Global Journey (Concise ed.). New York, NY: Routledge. p. 255. ISBN 9781317974604.
- Hubbard, Karen; Monaghan, Terry (2009). "Social Dancing at the Savoy". In Malnig, Julie (ed.). Ballroom, Boogie, Shimmy Sham, Shake: A Social and Popular Dance Reader. Chicago, IL: University of Illinois. pp. 135, 144. ISBN 9780252075650.
- Poey, Delia (2014). Cuban Women and Salsa: To the Beat of Their Own Drum. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 13–32. ISBN 9781137382825.
- Mora, Carl J., ed. (2005). Mexican Cinema: Reflections of a Society, 1896-2004. Jefferson, NC: McFarland. p. 86. ISBN 9780786469253.
- Pietrobruno, Sheenagh (2006). Salsa and Its Transnational Moves. Lanham, MD: Lexington. p. 36. ISBN 9780739114681.
- Pérez Custodio, Diana (2005). Paco de Lucía: La evolución del flamenco a través de sus rumbas (in Spanish). Cádiz, Spain: Universidad de Cádiz. pp. 96–97. ISBN 9788496274754.
- Martínez, Silvia; Fouce, Héctor (2013). Made in Spain: Studies in Popular Music. New York, NY: Routledge. p. 45. ISBN 9781136460067.
- Martínez & Fouce (2013). p. 21.
- Delgado, Lola; Lozano, Daniel (2004). Tribus urbanas (in Spanish). Madrid, Spain: La Esfera de los Libros. p. 158.
- Bianciotto, Jordi (2008). Guía universal del rock: de 1990 hasta hoy (in Spanish). Barcelona, Spain: Ma Non Troppo. p. 259. ISBN 9788496222731.
- Bermúdez, Egberto (2008). "From Colombian national song to Colombian song". In Matter, Max; Grosch, Nils (eds.). Song and Popular Culture Special Issue: Popular Song in Latin America. Münster, Germany: Waxmann. p. 235. ISBN 9783830920755.
- Miranda, Juan Carlos (1999). La rumba criolla en el folclor fresnense (PDF) (in Spanish). Fresno, Colombia: Universidad El Bosque. pp. 3–4.
- Appiah, Anthony; Gates, Henry Louis (2010). Encyclopedia of Africa, Volume 1. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 407–408. ISBN 9780195337709.
- Storm Roberts, John (1999). The Latin Tinge: The Impact of Latin American Music on the United States (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. pp. 217–218.
- Peek, Philip M.; Yankah, Kwesi (2004). African Folklore: An Encyclopedia. New York, NY: Routledge. p. 548. ISBN 9781135948733.
- "Soukous dance king rules Kinshasa". 18 November 2005 – via news.bbc.co.uk.