Rumen Radev

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Rumen Radev
Rumen Radev official (cropped).jpg
5th President of Bulgaria
Assumed office
22 January 2017
Prime MinisterBoyko Borisov
Ognyan Gerdzhikov (Acting)
Boyko Borisov
Vice PresidentIliana Iotova
Preceded byRosen Plevneliev
Personal details
Born
Rumen Georgiev Radev

(1963-06-18) 18 June 1963 (age 57)
Dimitrovgrad, Bulgaria
Political partyBulgarian Communist Party (1986–1990)
Independent (1990–present)
Spouse(s)Ginka Radeva (1996–2014; divorced)
Desislava Radeva (2016–present)
ChildrenDarina (b. 2001)
Georgi (b. 2003)
Alma materBulgarian Air Force University
Rakovski Military Academy
Air War College
Military service
Allegiance People's Republic of Bulgaria
 Bulgaria
Branch/serviceRoundel of Bulgaria.svg Bulgarian Air Force
Years of service1987–2017
RankMajor General

Rumen Georgiev Radev (Bulgarian: Румен Георгиев Радев; born 18 June 1963) is a Bulgarian politician and former major general who is the current President of Bulgaria since January 22, 2017. Radev previously served as Commander of the Bulgarian Air Force.[1] He won the 2016 presidential election, as an independent candidate supported by the Bulgarian Socialist Party, defeating GERB candidate Tsetska Tsacheva in the second round.[2][3][4][5]

Biography[edit]

Radev was born on June 18, 1963 in Dimitrovgrad, Bulgaria. His family is from Slavyanovo in the Haskovo region. In 1982 he graduated from the Mathematical School in Haskovo with a gold medal. He graduated from the Georgi Benkovski Bulgarian Air Force University in 1987 as the top graduate. In 1992, he graduated from the US Air Force Squadron Officer School at Maxwell AFB. From 1994 to 1996, he studied at the Rakovski Defence and Staff College, where he was also the top graduate. He holds a Doctor of Military Sciences degree in the field of improvement of tactical training of flight crews and simulation of air combat.

In 2003 he graduated from Air War College at Maxwell AFB in the United States with a Master of Strategic Studies with honors.[1]

Presidency[edit]

In August 2016, the opposition Bulgarian Socialist Party and the Alternative for Bulgarian Revival (ABR) officially nominated Radev as a candidate for the November 2016 presidential election.[2][6][7] In the same month, ABR withdrew its presidential nomination of General Radev[8] in favour of Ivaylo Kalfin.

On the first round of the election, conducted on November 6, 2016, Radev came first with 25.44% of the vote.[9] He faced GERB candidate Tsetska Tsacheva in the runoff the following Sunday, November 13. He defeated her, winning 59.37% of the popular vote.[10]

Rivalry with Prime Minister Borisov[edit]

Since his election into office, Radev has frequently criticised Bulgarian Prime Minister Boyko Borisov, whom Radev views as permitting corruption through a 'reckless leadership style', as well as attempting to strangle his political opposition. This led Radev to frequently veto legislative proposals submitted by Borisov's GERB party to Bulgarian Parliament, issuing a total of 19 vetoes in this first two and a half years of his presidency.[11][12][13][14] Borisov, on the other hand, often accused Radev of 'sabotaging the government's work', as well as supporting the opposition Socialist Party during campaign periods.[15][16]

President Rumen Radev (left) and Prime Minister Boyko Borisov (right). The two Bulgarian leaders often publicly clash.

In his 2019 New Year's address to the Bulgarian People, broadcast on almost all Bulgarian TV channels, Radev stated that he believed that Borisov's Government had failed in addressing corruption, placed the country in economic stagnation with price increases and low wages, undermined the fairness of elections, as well as 'retreated' from law and justice.[17][18]

F-16 deal veto[edit]

In June 2019, Radev vetoed a major government contract for the acquisition of several F-16 Fighting Falcons from the United States at a cost of around 2bln lev. Radev strongly criticised the deal, accusing the government of authoritarianism and stated that he believed it had agreed to downgrades in the jets' avionics and armament, in order to get a lower purchasing price, which he also deemed too high for what they are worth. He added, that as a former pilot and airforce commander, he didn't believe that the deal was in Bulgaria's best interests.[19][20] The pro-government majority in Bulgaria's national assembly overruled Radev's veto and the deal was nonetheless concluded.[21][22]

Rejection of Geshev as General Prosecutor[edit]

In November 2019, Radev refused to sign the decree appointing Ivan Geshev to the post of Chief Public Prosecutor of Bulgaria, following the latter's election to the post by Bulgaria's Supreme Judicial Council. He did not officially declare the motive for his refusal in written form, instead deciding to explain it personally to the media. Radev remarked that Geshev was the only candidate for the post and opined that the single-candidate nature of his election was supported by Borisov's government. He expressed the opinion that Geshev's candidacy had been supported only by government-controlled institutions and not by civic ones, which in his eyes led to a lack of public confidence in the institution.[23][24][25] The Supreme Judicial Council refused to revise their decision and voted in favour of Geshev a second time, which triggred a constitutional requirement for Radev as President to sign the decree.[26] Stating that he would refuse to violate the constitution, Radev did so following a meeting with Geshev, but called for changes to Bulgaria's constitution.[27]

Wiretapping scandal[edit]

The relations between Radev and the newly appointed General Prosecutor quickly soured, as Geshev released what he stated was a wiretap of Radev discussing his involvement in alleged criminal activities. Geshev further appealed to the Constitutional Court of Bulgaria to have Radev's legal immunity revoked. The general prosecutor's actions backfired in the eyes of the Bulgarian people and were widely viewed as an attempt to suppress and censor the president - either as 'revenge' for the President's initial veto of Geshev's appointment, or as a preparation for a move to remove Radev from his post as President.[28][29] In response, Radev accused Geshev's prosecution of being controlled by Borisov's government, whom he accused of using both the prosecution, the secret services and the National Police Service to crush dissent.[30]

Borisov swore that he hadn't ordered Radev to be wiretapped,[31] but Radev doubled down - noting that the agency responsible for wiretapping in Bulgaria, the State Agency for National Security, was directly responsible to the government and the prime minister. He further questioned the motives as to why it appeared to him as though the general prosecutor "saw crime and corruption in everything, except for the council of ministers".[32]

Declaration of no confidence[edit]

On 4 February 2020, Radev announced that he had formally withdrawn confidence in Borisov's government. He pointed out that there was, in his opinion, a strong crisis in governance of all levels, a lack of will to reform and fight corruption and a state of morally-questionable lawlessness in the country. Borisov accused Radev of trying to "take over" the country and stated that his government did not depend on Radev for confidence, adding that he believed the Presidency to be a useless post, holding only 'symbolic councils', which he asserted never decided anything.[33][34]

Coronavirus response conflict[edit]

After the start of the COVID-19 pandemic in Bulgaria, Radev and Borisov's government initially appeared to thaw their relations for the sake of national unity during a time of crisis.[35] This détente, however, was not to last - the two entered into another conflict shortly thereafter, with Radev partially vetoing a law passed by the Bulgarian government imposing additional measures in relation to the coronavirus pandemic. Radev objected to a paragraph criminalizing the spread of "fake news" with a fine of up to 5,000 euros. Surprisingly, Radev also vetoed a paragraph added on the insistence of the Bulgarian Socialist Party, which was supposed to impose price controls on essential goods. The veto sparked anger in Borisov, who accused Radev of populism and political opportunism. Despite this, Borisov ordered his parliamentary group to accept the veto on the two paragraphs - removing both the fake news fine and the socialist-added price control paragraphs from the final version of the law. The amended bill, however, still featured a paragraph which obligated telecom providers to track and store their user's data for up to 6 months and provide it upon request of the authorities, with the stated goal of tracking the movements quarantined citizens.[36]

The two continued to clash over the coming days, with Radev frequently criticising the government for its handling of the state of emergency and accusing it of quote mining the World Health Organization for political gains. In reply, Borisov accused Radev of sabotaging the state of emergency and compared Radev to a "dirty old hag of a mother-in-law, the nasty kind", expressing bewilderment at "how Radev was able to make [political] inflammatory statements on the day, in which his own [Radev's] father had passed away". Radev concluded, however, that the conflict was "only in Borisov's head", stating that he had never called for the state of the emergency to be lifted and merely disagreed with the government's handling of it.[37][38]

Radev with Israeli President Reuven Rivlin, March 20, 2018

Foreign Policy[edit]

In February 2017, Radev condemned and called for an end to the EU sanctions against Russia, while at the same time describing the Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation as a "violation of international law".[39]

On 17 March 2017, Radev condemned as 'absolutely unacceptable' what he described as a Turkish intervention in Bulgaria's 2017 parliamentary election after the Turkish ambassador to Bulgaria was found to have appeared in a campaign clip for one of Bulgaria's political parties and after Turkish Social Affairs minister was found to have agitated and offer incentives for Bulgarian Turks in Turkey to cross the border in an organized voting campaign and vote for the same party. Radev stated that he had referred the matter to the European Union.[40] He met with Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan several months later in July, following which he described Turkey as an "important neighbour, partner and ally", while at the same time stating that this status hinged on Turkey's respect for Bulgaria's "internal political process, regarding Bulgaria's political parties and electoral system". He also became the only EU head of state to attend Erdogan's inauguration, stating that his mandate was not given to him by either the European Commission or the Bulgarian Government, but by the Bulgarian people.[41]

On 24 January 2018, Radev condemned the Turkish invasion of northern Syria aimed at ousting U.S.-backed Syrian Kurds from the enclave of Afrin, and insisted that the European Union should intervene to stop it.[42][43]

Radev with Vladimir Putin in Sochi, May 22, 2018

In April 2018, he criticised the 2018 missile strikes against Syria, instead calling for "less weapons and more dialogue".[44][45]

In February 2019, Radev condemned the Bulgarian Government's recognition of Venezuelan opposition leader Juan Guaidó as Interim President of Venezuela during the 2019 Venezuelan presidential crisis, adding that he believed the government had overstepped its authority in recognizing the opposition leader as Interim President. Radev further criticised the EU's recognition of Guaido, urging both the country and the EU to remain neutral and refrain from recognizing Guaido, as he viewed such recognition as imposing an ultimatum, which he deemed would only aggravate the crisis in Venezuela.[46][47]

Approval ratings[edit]

Radev has enjoyed positive approval ratings for the vast majority of his presidency. Having been elected with around 60% of the vote in the Fall 2016 Election, he managed to keep that figure as his approval rating through to 2018.[48]

His approval then rose to 67% by May 2018,[49] before falling to around 56% by Fall 2019. It is noteworthy, however, that even after this fall in his popularity, he was still considered the most popular and approved of Bulgarian politician, as well as one of the only two Bulgarian politicians (the other being Maya Manolova) with a higher percentage of approval than disapproval.[50][51][52]

By April 2020, Radev's approval ratings stood at about 49%.[53]

Family and personal life[edit]

Radev joined the Bulgarian Communist Party in the 1980s. He later stated that his primary reason for joining the party had been so that he would be deployed to fly in a supersonic jet, but also added that he was not ashamed of his past and was proud of the things he did. He left the party in 1990, when a newly enacted law forbade members of the country's armed forces from being members of political parties.[54][55] He has not been a member of any political parties since and his candidacy in the 2016 elections was supported by an independent initiative committee affiliated with the country's Socialist Party, rather than by a formal nomination by any party.[56]

Radev has two children from his first marriage to Ginka Radeva, which ended in a divorce in 2014: a daughter Darina, born in 2001 and a son Georgi, born in 2003.

He later married Desislava Gencheva, who was previously married to the BSP MP Georgi Svilenski.

Apart from Bulgarian, Radev is also fluent in Russian, German and English.[57] Radev's father died on 6 April 2020.[58]

Military career[edit]

Radev with U.S. Air Force Gen. Frank Gorenc in Bulgaria
  • 1987 – 1989: Junior pilot in the 15th Fighter Aviation Regiment – Ravnets
  • 1989 – 1992: Unit deputy commander at the 15th Fighter Aviation Regiment – Ravnets
  • 1992 – 1997: Unit commander at the 15th Fighter Aviation Regiment – Ravnets
  • 1997 – 1999: MiG-29 squadron commander at the Fifth Fighter Airbase – Ravnets
  • 1999 – 2000: Deputy commander for flight preparation at the Fifth Fighter Airbase – Ravnets
  • 2000: Deputy commander for flight training at the Third Fighter Airbase – Graf Ignatievo
  • 2000 – Study of the Air defence of the Republic of Bulgaria – NATO, Brussels
  • 2000 – 2002: Chief of Staff of the Third Fighter Airbase – Graf Ignatievo
  • 2002 – 2004: Chief of Staff of the Third Fighter Airbase – Graf Ignatievo
  • 2004 – 2009: Commander of the Third Fighter Airbase – Graf Ignatievo
  • 2009 – 2014: Bulgarian Air Force deputy commander
  • 2014 – 2017: Bulgarian Air Force commander

Flight information[edit]

Military ranks[edit]

  • 1987 – Lieutenant
  • 1989 – Senior Lieutenant
  • 1994 – Captain
  • 1997 – Major
  • 1999 – Lieutenant Colonel
  • 2002 – Colonel
  • 2007 – Brigadier General
  • 2014 – Major General
  • 2017 – General (Commander-In-Chief)

Awards[edit]

Induction of Rumen Radev into the International Honor Roll, Dec. 3, 2014

Rumen Radev was awarded numerous medals and prizes, including the sign "For loyal service under the flags" – III degree, and Honorary sign of the Ministry of Defence "Saint George" – II degree.[1]

Honours[edit]

National honours[edit]

Foreign honours[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c ((bg)) Major General Rumen Radev // Department of Defence. Retrieved August 11, 2016
  2. ^ a b BSP elected Gen. Radev as a presidential candidate with 99 votes, Bulgarian National Radio, Radio "Sofia", August 17, 2016
  3. ^ https://www.reuters.com/article/us-bulgaria-election-exitpoll-idUSKBN1380Q7?il=0
  4. ^ "Pro-Russia candidate wins Bulgaria's presidential run-off". euronews.com. 13 November 2016. Retrieved 24 November 2016.
  5. ^ "Bulgaria Faces Uncertainty After Election Of Pro-Russia President". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 13 November 2016. Retrieved 24 November 2016.
  6. ^ BSP officially nominated gen. Rumen Radev for the presidential elections, "Dnevnik", August 17, 2016
  7. ^ ABR officially nominated gen. Rumen Radev for the presidential elections too, BNT, August 17, 2016
  8. ^ Counterstrike of ABR – it withdrew its support for General Rumen Radev, Nyuz.bg author: Dilyana Panajotova, August 24, 2016
  9. ^ "Резултати за президент и вицепрезидент на републиката". cik.bg. Central Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
  10. ^ "Резултати за президент и вицепрезидент на републиката". cik.bg. Central Electoral Commission. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
  11. ^ Епицентър. "Радев с тежка критика към Борисов: Безконтролният му стил на управление генерира огромна корупция". epicenter.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2019-08-21.
  12. ^ "Радев за субсидия 1 лев на глас: Задушава опозицията". Vesti.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2019-08-21.
  13. ^ "Две години Радев: какво разбрахме за президента". www.dw.com (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2019-08-21.
  14. ^ "Президентът Радев се очертава рекордьор по налагане на вето". www.dnevnik.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2019-10-20.
  15. ^ news.bg (2019-05-09). "Борисов се възмути: Всяко изказване на Радев е против управлението". News.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2019-08-21.
  16. ^ "Борисов: Радев опита да направи предизборен подарък на БСП | webcafe.bg". www.webcafe.bg. Retrieved 2019-08-21.
  17. ^ "Новогодишно обръщение на президента Румен Радев". President.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2019-08-21.
  18. ^ "Недоволство в новогодишната реч на президента". Недоволство в новогодишната реч на президента - Политика - Стандарт Нюз (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2019-08-21.
  19. ^ "Радев наложи вето на сделката за Ф-16, вижте защо". Vesti.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2019-08-21.
  20. ^ Марков, Александър. "Президентът Радев разясни мотивите си за ветото върху договора за F-16". Новини БНТ (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2019-08-21.
  21. ^ "НС отхвърли ветото за Ф-16, ще купуваме изтребителите". Vesti.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2019-08-21.
  22. ^ "Отново напрежение сред управляващите заради F-16 (ОБЗОР) - България". dariknews.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2019-08-21.
  23. ^ Ганчев, Невелин (2019-11-07). "Президентът Радев отказа да назначи Гешев за главен прокурор". Breaking.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2020-01-03.
  24. ^ "Радев отказа да подпише указ за назначаването на Гешев за главен прокурор". Фактор. Retrieved 2020-01-03.
  25. ^ "Президентът отказа да подпише указ за назначаването на Иван Гешев за главен прокурор". Lex.bg News (in Bulgarian). 2019-11-07. Retrieved 2020-01-03.
  26. ^ "Гешев е повторно избран за главен прокурор след скандали, обвинения и заплахи. На ход е президентът". Mediapool.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2020-01-03.
  27. ^ "Радев подписа указа за Гешев, иска промяна в Конституцията". Vesti.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2020-01-03.
  28. ^ "Conflict between Bulgaria's president, chief prosecutor escalates after incriminating wiretaps released | bne IntelliNews". www.intellinews.com. 2020-01-29. Retrieved 2020-04-17.
  29. ^ "Подслушани разговори: Конфликтът между Радев и Гешев навлезе в нова фаза (ОБЗОР)". bTV Новините. Retrieved 2020-04-17.
  30. ^ "President Radev: Prime Minister Borissov Uses Services for His Political Purposes". www.bta.bg. Retrieved 2020-04-17.
  31. ^ "Борисов изненада Радев, подаде му ръка, вижте (Видео, снимки)". www.24chasa.bg. Retrieved 2020-04-17.
  32. ^ "President Radev asks why Bulgaria's Prosecutor General sees crime and corruption everywhere but not in the Council of Ministers". www.bnr.bg. Retrieved 2020-04-17.
  33. ^ "Bulgaria: Clash of institutions for Radev and Borissov". Independent Balkan News Agency. 2020-02-04. Retrieved 2020-04-17.
  34. ^ "PM Borissov: President's statement disunites the nation". europost.eu. Retrieved 2020-04-17.
  35. ^ "Борисов и Радев обсъдили ситуацията с коронавируса у нас | Dnes.bg". www.dnes.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2020-04-17.
  36. ^ Caucaso, Osservatorio Balcani e. "Bulgaria, if coronavirus tests freedom of expression". Osservatorio Balcani e Caucaso (in Italian). Retrieved 2020-04-17.
  37. ^ Евроком, Телевизия. "Радев: Никога не съм казвал да паднат ограниченията, този спор е само в главата на Борисов". Телевизия Евроком. Retrieved 2020-04-17.
  38. ^ "Борисов: Президентът говори нелепици, да наложи вето на извънредното положение". www.dnevnik.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2020-04-17.
  39. ^ "Радев повтори: Санкциите срещу Русия не помагат, само вредят". Vesti.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2020-01-03.
  40. ^ "Румен Радев: Намесата на Турция е абсолютно недопустима". Vesti.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2020-01-03.
  41. ^ "Румен Радев: Турция е важен съсед, партньор и съюзник на България и за нашите двустранни отношения е важно да не оставяме нерешени въпроси". President.bg. Retrieved 2020-01-03.
  42. ^ "Bulgarian President calls for EU intervention against Turkish Syria incursion – Ahval". Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  43. ^ "Bulgaristan'dan AB'ye: Afrin'e acil müdahale edin". Arti Gerçek. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  44. ^ Александрова, Вера. "Президентът Радев се изказа критично за ударите в Сирия". Новини БНТ (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2020-01-03.
  45. ^ "Румен Радев призова за „по-малко оръжия и повече диалог" - България". dariknews.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2020-01-03.
  46. ^ "Радев поиска България да не подкрепя опозицията във Венецуела". Mediapool.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2019-08-21.
  47. ^ "Радев атакува Борисов, сравни България с Венецуела". Vesti.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2019-08-21.
  48. ^ ""Галъп": Стабилен рейтинг за Румен Радев". Fakti.bg - Да извадим фактите наяве. Retrieved 2019-10-20.
  49. ^ "Президентът Радев – отличник по рейтинг. А евентуалната му партия? | Dnes.bg". www.dnes.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2019-10-20.
  50. ^ ""Галъп": С най-високо доверие сред политиците са Радев и Манолова | webcafe.bg". www.webcafe.bg. Retrieved 2019-10-20.
  51. ^ ""Галъп": Румен Радев, Мая Манолова и Слави Трифонов - с най-висок рейтинг". Glasove.com (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2019-10-20.
  52. ^ news.bg (2019-08-01). "Рейтингът на Борисов - 3 изтича бавно, но неотменно". News.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2019-10-20.
  53. ^ Ганев, Димитър. "Нагласи на българите спрямо кризата с разпространението на COVID-19 (1 част) (април 2020) - ТРЕНД". RC Trend (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2020-04-17.
  54. ^ Живкова, От Павлина. "Ген. Румен Радев, кандидат за президент, подкрепен от БСП, пред „Труд": На България й трябва самостоятелен и независим президент". Труд (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2020-04-20.
  55. ^ "Бил ли е Румен Радев член на БКП?". www.dunavmost.com (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2020-04-20.
  56. ^ "БСП издига ген. Радев с инициативен комитет вместо като партиен кандидат". Mediapool.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 2020-04-20.
  57. ^ "Radev, a former pilot of Russian MIG 29 jet fighters who is fluent in Russian and English, insists that as a NATO general his loyalty is with Bulgaria's allies". Euractiv. Retrieved May 27, 2018.
  58. ^ "Briefs". Qatar-Tribune. Retrieved 2020-04-17.
  59. ^ https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC7IQVegVhrOzDWorXwvA4Nw – Bulgarian Air Force
  60. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sWGjdtKv2kk – Flight Video & Photo
  61. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OQeVqO4sItY/

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Rosen Plevneliev
President of Bulgaria
2017–present
Incumbent