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Scientific classification

Sijpesteijn, 1948

Ruminococcus is a genus of bacteria in the class Clostridia.[1] They are anaerobic, Gram-positive gut microbes. One or more species in this genus are found in significant numbers in the human gut microbiota. The type species is R. flavefaciens. As usual, bacteria taxonomy is in flux, with Clostridia being paraphyletic, and some erroneous members of Ruminococcus being reassigned to a new genus Blautia on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences.[2]

One of the most highly cited papers involving the genus Ruminococcus is a paper describing interspecies hydrogen transfer between Ruminococcus albus and Wolinella succinogenes.[3]

In 1972, Ruminococcus bromii was reportedly found in the human gut, which was the first of several species discovered.[4] They may play a role in plant cell wall breakdown in the colon.[5]

One study found that R. albus, R. callidus, and R. bromii are less abundant in people with inflammatory bowel disease.[6] Ruminococcus are also less abundant in patients with Parkinson's disease.[7] R. gnavus is associated with Crohn's disease.[8]


Species belonging to the Lachnospiraceae family and therefore in need of reclassification:


  1. ^ taxonomy. "Taxonomy browser (Ruminococcus)". Retrieved 2016-04-05.
  2. ^ Liu C, Finegold SM, Song Y, Lawson PA (August 2008). "Reclassification of Clostridium coccoides, Ruminococcus hansenii, Ruminococcus hydrogenotrophicus, Ruminococcus luti, Ruminococcus productus and Ruminococcus schinkii as Blautia coccoides gen. nov., comb. nov., Blautia hansenii comb. nov., Blautia hydrogenotrophica comb. nov., Blautia luti comb. nov., Blautia producta comb. nov., Blautia schinkii comb. nov. and description of Blautia wexlerae sp. nov., isolated from human faeces". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. Society for General Microbiology. 58 (Pt 8): 1896–902. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.65208-0. PMID 18676476.
  3. ^ Iannotti EL, Kafkewitz D, Wolin MJ, Bryant MP (June 1973). "Glucose fermentation products in Ruminococcus albus grown in continuous culture with Vibrio succinogenes: changes caused by interspecies transfer of H 2". Journal of Bacteriology. 114 (3): 1231–40. doi:10.1128/JB.114.3.1231-1240.1973. PMC 285387. PMID 4351387.
  4. ^ Rajilić-Stojanović M, de Vos WM (September 2014). "The first 1000 cultured species of the human gastrointestinal microbiota". FEMS Microbiology Reviews. 38 (5): 996–1047. doi:10.1111/1574-6976.12075. PMC 4262072. PMID 24861948.
  5. ^ Ze, Xiaolei; Duncan, Sylvia H.; Louis, Petra; Flint, Harry J. (2012). "Ruminococcus bromii is a keystone species for the degradation of resistant starch in the human colon". The ISME Journal. 6 (8): 1535–1543. doi:10.1038/ismej.2012.4. PMC 3400402. PMID 22343308.
  6. ^ Nagao-Kitamoto H, Kamada N (February 2017). "Host-microbial Cross-talk in Inflammatory Bowel Disease". Immune Network. 17 (1): 1–12. doi:10.4110/in.2017.17.1.1. PMC 5334117. PMID 28261015.
  7. ^ Hill-Burns, EM; Debelius, JW; Morton, JT; Wissemann, WT; Lewis, MR; Wallen, ZD; Peddada, SD; Factor, SA; Molho, E; Zabetian, CP; Knight, R; Payami, H (May 2017). "Parkinson's disease and Parkinson's disease medications have distinct signatures of the gut microbiome". Movement Disorders. 32 (5): 739–749. doi:10.1002/mds.26942. PMC 5469442. PMID 28195358.
  8. ^ Henke, Matthew T.; Kenny, Douglas J.; Cassilly, Chelsi D.; Vlamakis, Hera; Xavier, Ramnik J.; Clardy, Jon (2019-06-25). "Ruminococcus gnavus, a member of the human gut microbiome associated with Crohn's disease, produces an inflammatory polysaccharide". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 116 (26): 12672–12677. doi:10.1073/pnas.1904099116. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 6601261. PMID 31182571.