Run out

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For the upcoming Bangladeshi film, see Run Out (film). For the equestrian sport term, see refusal (horse). For the metrological term, see run-out.

Run out is a method of dismissal in the sport of cricket. It is governed by Law 38 of the Laws of cricket.

Michael Clarke avoids being run out during the Third Test against South Africa at the SCG in January 2009.

The rules[edit]

A batsman is out Run out if at any time while the ball is in play no part of his bat or person is grounded behind the popping crease and his wicket is fairly put down by the opposing side.

A batsman may be dismissed Run out whether or not a run is being attempted, even if the delivery is a no ball (i.e. not a fair delivery). There are a number of exceptions to this:

  1. A batsman is not run out if he or his bat had been grounded behind the popping crease, but he subsequently leaves it to avoid injury, when the wicket is put down.
  2. A batsman is not run out if the ball has not been touched by a fielder (excluding a helmet worn by a fielder), after the bowler has entered his delivery stride, before the wicket is put down. (Therefore, the bowler may not run out the striker instead of bowling to him. This also means that the non-striker is not out if a ball hit by the striker puts down the non-striker's wicket, provided the ball did not touch any member of the fielding side before doing so.)
  3. A batsman is not given out Run out if he can be given out Stumped.
  4. If the bails have been removed from the stumps, a batsman is only out if the fielder pulls a stump out of the ground with the hand holding the ball. If one bail is still on the stumps the fielder is allowed to knock the bail off to claim a run out.

The batsman can be judged run out when he is closest to the end where the wicket has been put down by the opposition and no other batsman is available inside the crease of the same end. The runs completed before a Run out are still scored by the batsman and his team (compare caught where the reverse is true). The bowler does not get credit for the wicket.

Running out a batsman "backing up"[edit]

As a bowler enters his delivery stride, the non-striking batsman usually 'backs up'. This means he leaves his popping crease and walks towards the other end of the wicket so that it will take him less time to reach the other end if he and his batting partner choose to attempt a run.

Sometimes a batsman, whilst backing up, leaves the popping crease before the bowler has actually delivered the ball. Where this has happened, the bowler may attempt to run the non-striking batsman out in accordance with the Laws of the game. If he fails, and the batsman has remained within the crease, the delivery is called a dead ball.

Some observers feel that dismissing a batsman in this way is against the spirit of the game, but others believe that the Laws and regulations exist to be used and that, as the run out backing up is expressly within the professional regulations, it is legitimate and sporting to exercise the provision. [1]

According to the former convention, a generous bowler may warn a batsman to stay in his crease rather than to take his wicket, but this is not required by the Laws of the game or the MCC guidance notes on the Spirit of Cricket. When the run out has happened in first-class cricket, it has on occasion provoked debate,[2] Such dismissals have always occurred and continue to divide opinion.

Vinoo Mankad[edit]

The most famous example of this method of dismissal involved the Indian bowler Vinoo Mankad. It occurred during India's tour of Australia on 13 December 1947 in the second Test at Sydney. Mankad ran out Bill Brown when, in the act of delivering the ball, he held on to it and removed the bails with Brown well out of his crease. This was the second time Mankad had dismissed Brown in this fashion on the tour, having already done it in an earlier match against an Australian XI. On that occasion he had warned Brown once before running him out. The Australian press accused Mankad of being unsportsmanlike, although some Australians, including Don Bradman, the Australian captain at the time, defended Mankad's actions. Since this incident, a batsman dismissed in this fashion is (informally) said to have been "Mankaded".

News report of Bill Brown's runout

Modern Interpretations of Run Out of Non-Striker[edit]

In all matches played under the Laws of cricket with no augmented playing conditions, the bowler may, after he has started his run up, but before he has entered his delivery stride, run out a non-striker who has strayed outside his crease . Appendix D of the 2000 Code defines delivery stride as the stride during which the delivery swing is made; it starts when the bowler's back foot lands for that stride and ends when the front foot lands in the same stride. No warning is necessary. If the fielding side appeal the umpire will give the batsman out run out Under Law 42.15.

Furthermore, in 2011 the ICC Playing Conditions for Test matches,[3] One Day Internationals[4] and Twenty20 Internationals[5] brought Mankading back into the International game and other forms of professional cricket including the Indian Premier League (IPL).[6]

According to the various professional playing conditions, 42.11, "The bowler is permitted, before releasing the ball and provided he has not completed his usual delivery swing, to attempt to run out the non-striker. Whether the attempt is successful or not, the ball shall not count as one of the over. If the bowler fails in an attempt to run out the non-striker, the umpire shall call and signal dead ball as soon as possible."

The umpires shall deem the bowler to have completed his delivery swing once his bowling arm passes the normal point of ball release.[7]

By making these changes, the ICC have changed the balance of regulations in the professional game in favour of the fielding side. Attempts at, and appeals for, a run out under these circumstances are upheld, despite protestations by some that they are "not within the spirit of the game."

In July 2014 The World Cricket Council, an independent consultative body of former international captains and umpires, commenting in the light of the Buttler runout by Senanayake, unanimously expressed support of Sri Lanka's actions and a lack of sympathy with the batsman[8]

For other forms of cricket, governed by the Laws, the bowler can run out the non-striker only before entering his delivery stride. As the bowler's back foot lands, the non-striker can move down the pitch without risk of run out.

Thus amateur cricketers may not copy the professionals in detail on this: what is Out in professional cricket (but may be regarded as too sharp a practice by some) is definitely Not Out in amateur cricket.

The Spirit of Cricket, which is a preamble to the Laws, lists a series of behaviours considered by the cricket community to be unsporting or contrary to the Spirit of the Game, but dismissing the non-striker whilst backing up is not mentioned.

Instances of Mankading in Test cricket[edit]

  1. Bill Brown by Vinoo Mankad, Australia v India, Sydney, 1947–1948[9]
  2. Ian Redpath by Charlie Griffith, Australia v West Indies, Adelaide, 1968–1969[10]
  3. Derek Randall by Ewen Chatfield, England v New Zealand, Christchurch, 1977–1978[11]
  4. Sikander Bakht by Alan Hurst, Pakistan v Australia, Perth, 1978–1979[12]

Instances of Mankading in One Day Internationals[edit]

The batsman's team is listed first.

  1. Brian Luckhurst by Greg Chappell, England v Australia, Melbourne, 1974–1975[13]
  2. Grant Flower by Dipak Patel, Zimbabwe v New Zealand, Harare, 1992–1993[14]
  3. Peter Kirsten by Kapil Dev, South Africa v India, Port Elizabeth, 1992–1993[15]
  4. Jos Buttler by Sachithra Senanayake, England v Sri Lanka, Birmingham, 2014[16]
  5. Richard Ngarava by Keemo Paul, Zimbabwe vs West Indies, 2016 Under-19 Cricket World Cup, Bangladesh on 02/02/2016

Instances of Mankading in Twenty20 Internationals[edit]

  1. Mark Chapman by Aamir Kaleem, Hong Kong v Oman, 2016 Asia Cup Qualifier, February 2016[17]

Instances of Mankading in first-class[edit]

  1. Joe Hardstaff by Khadim Hussain, Lord Tennyson's XI vs Sind, Karachi, 1937[18][19]
  2. John Smith by Ray Allen, Canterbury v Wellington, Wellington, 1944[20]
  3. Gordon Barker by Wilf Wooller, Essex v Glamorgan, Cardiff, 1956[19][21]
  4. Hanumant Singh by Ashwini Chaturvedi, Rajasthan v Uttar Pradesh, Udaipur, 1960[22]
  5. Rudolph Cohen by Jamiel Ali, Jamaica v Trinidad and Tobago, Port of Spain, 1964[23]
  6. Ray Gripper by Barry Richards, Rhodesia v Natal, Salisbury, 1968[24]
  7. Douglas Morgan by Raymond Le Roux, South African Universities v Orange Free State, Bloemfontein, 1968[25]
  8. Clive Lloyd by Stanley Hinds, Guyana v Windward Islands, Roseau, 1983[26]
  9. Alex Barrow by Murali Kartik, Somerset v Surrey, Taunton, 2012[27][28]
  10. Sandipan Das by Murali Kartik, Bengal v Railways, Delhi, 2013[29][30]

Instances of not Mankading[edit]

  1. Walsh – Jaffar : Courtney Walsh of the West Indies famously refused to Mankad last man Saleem Jaffar of Pakistan for backing up too far in a group match in the 1987 World Cup, but let him off with a warning. Pakistan went on to win the match while the defeat cost the West Indies a place in the semi-final.
  2. Rafique – Gul : The same thing was repeated in a 2003 Test match in Multan between Bangladesh and Pakistan. Pakistan eventually won the Test match by just 1 wicket. Mohammad Rafique of Bangladesh did not run out Umar Gul of Pakistan.
  3. Ashwin – Thirimanne : Ravichandran Ashwin of the Indian cricket team Mankaded Lahiru Thirimanne of Sri Lankan cricket team when he backed up too much before the ball was bowled in a group match in the Commonwealth Bank Series 2012 held in Australia. However the standing umpires, Paul Reiffel and Billy Bowden, after discussion asked India if they wanted to reconsider the appeal and Virender Sehwag, captaining in the absence of MS Dhoni, withdrew the appeal after discussion with Sachin Tendulkar. Sehwag claims that Ashwin had warned Thirimanne before running him out, however Mahela Jayawardene, the Sri Lanka captain, said he was not aware of the warning.[31]


  1. ^ Cameron Tomarchio (3 February 2016). "What Don Bradman said about Mankading". Retrieved 3 February 2016. 
  2. ^ Steve Harmison (4 June 2014). "BBC Sport – Jos Buttler run-out defended by Sri Lanka captain Angelo Mathews". Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  3. ^ "STANDARD TEST mATCH PLAYING CONDITIONS" (PDF). International Cricket Council. 
  6. ^ "IPLT20 match playing conditions 42 Law 42 Fair and Unfair Play". BCCI. 
  7. ^ "ICC news: Powerplay tweaks and end of runners | Cricket News | Cricinfo ICC Site". ESPN Cricinfo. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  8. ^ "World Cricket Committee Running out the non-striker: Law is clear and the act is not against the Spirit of Cricket; Lord's". Retrieved 2014-08-18. 
  9. ^ India in Australia Test Series – 2nd Test, match scorecard, Cricinfo, Retrieved on 28 February 2009
  10. ^ The Frank Worrell Trophy – 4th Test, match scorecard, Cricinfo, Retrieved on 28 February 2009
  11. ^ England in New Zealand Test Series – 2nd Test, match scorecard, Cricinfo, Retrieved on 28 February 2009
  12. ^ Pakistan in Australia Test Series – 2nd Test, match scorecard, Cricinfo, Retrieved on 28 February 2009
  13. ^ England in Australia ODI Match, match scorecard, Cricinfo, Retrieved on 28 February 2009
  14. ^ New Zealand in Zimbabwe ODI Series – 2nd ODI, match scorecard, Cricinfo, Retrieved on 28 February 2009
  15. ^ India in South Africa ODI Series – 2nd ODI, match scorecard, Cricinfo, Retrieved on 28 February 2009
  16. ^ "England v Sri Lanka, 5th ODI. Senanayake catches Buttler dozing". Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  17. ^ "Debutants Oman survive Hayat 122". ESPN Cricinfo. Retrieved 19 February 2016. 
  18. ^ Sind v Lord Tennyson's XI, Lord Tennyson's XI in India 1937/38 – CricketArchive. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
  19. ^ a b Martin Chandler (9 June 2014). "A short history of Mankading" – CricketWeb. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
  20. ^ Wellington v Canterbury, First-Class matches in New Zealand 1943/44 – CricketArchive. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
  21. ^ Glamorgan v Essex, County Championship 1956 – CricketArchive. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
  22. ^ Rajasthan v Uttar Pradesh, Ranji Trophy 1959/60 (Central Zone) – CricketArchive. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
  23. ^ Trinidad and Tobago v Jamaica, Regional Tournament 1963/64 – CricketArchive. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
  24. ^ Rhodesia v Natal, Currie Cup 1968/69 (Section A) – CricketArchive. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
  25. ^ Orange Free State v South African Universities, Other First-Class matches in South Africa 1968/69 – CricketArchive. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
  26. ^ Windward Islands v Guyana, Shell Shield 1982/83 – CricketArchive. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
  27. ^ Wisden 2013 pages 64 (Editor's Notes) and 614 (match report)
  28. ^ "Kartik 'Mankads' Barrow, comes under fire". Wisden India. Retrieved 31 August 2012. 
  29. ^ "UP, Kerala complete wins on third day". Wisden India. Retrieved 8 December 2013. 
  30. ^ "Tension at Jamia ground after Kartik 'Mankaded' Bengal player". sify. Retrieved 8 December 2013. 
  31. ^ Ashwin warned Thirimanne before 'Mankading' – Sehwag, Cricinfo, Retrieved on 21 February 2012

External links[edit]