- 1 The rules
- 2 Running out a batsman "backing up"
- 3 References
- 4 External links
A batsman may be dismissed Run out whether or not a run is being attempted, even if the delivery is a no ball (i.e. not a fair delivery). There are a number of exceptions to this:
- A batsman is not run out if he or his bat had been grounded behind the popping crease, but he subsequently leaves it to avoid injury, when the wicket is put down.
- A batsman is not run out if the ball has not been touched by a fielder (excluding a helmet worn by a fielder), after the bowler has entered his delivery stride, before the wicket is put down. (Therefore, the bowler may not run out the striker instead of bowling to him. This also means that the non-striker is not out if a ball hit by the striker puts down the non-striker's wicket, provided the ball did not touch any member of the fielding side before doing so.)
- A batsman is not given out Run out if he can be given out Stumped.
- If the bails have been removed from the stumps, a batsman is only out if the fielder pulls a stump out of the ground with the hand holding the ball. If one bail is still on the stumps the fielder is allowed to knock the bail off to claim a run out.
The batsman can be judged run out when he is closest to the end where the wicket has been put down by the opposition and no other batsman is available inside the crease of the same end. The runs completed before a Run out are still scored by the batsman and his team (compare caught where the reverse is true). The bowler does not get credit for the wicket.
Running out a batsman "backing up"
As a bowler enters his delivery stride, the non-striking batsman usually 'backs up'. This means he leaves his popping crease and walks towards the other end of the wicket so that it will take him less time to reach the other end if he and his batting partner choose to attempt a run.
Sometimes a batsman, whilst backing up, leaves the popping crease before the bowler has actually delivered the ball. Where this has happened, the bowler may attempt to run the non-striking batsman out in accordance with the laws of the game. If he fails, and the batsman has remained within the crease, the delivery is called a dead ball.
Some observers feel that dismissing a batsman in this way is against the spirit of the game under the pretence that the non-striker may have "accidentally" left the crease, but most cricketers fully comprehend the content of the laws are both willing and able to play within them. Many have directly expressed the opinion that as the run out backing up is expressly permitted within the laws, it is both entirely legitimate and entirely sporting and to complain about such a dismissal is to show ignorance and disrespect for both the laws and the history of the sport itself.
By convention in some levels of amateur cricket, a generous bowler may warn a naïve or inexperienced batsman to stay in his crease rather than to take his wicket, however no such stipulation or recommendation exists in either the laws of the game or the MCC guidance notes on the Spirit of Cricket. When it has happened in first-class cricket, it has on occasion provoked debate, however such dismissals have become more and more common in international cricket in recent years and have become significantly less controversial as a result.
The most famous example of this method of dismissal involved the Indian bowler Vinoo Mankad. It occurred during India's tour of Australia on 13 December 1947 in the second Test at Sydney. Mankad ran out Bill Brown when, in the act of delivering the ball, he held on to it and removed the bails with Brown well out of his crease. This was the second time Mankad had dismissed Brown in this fashion on the tour, having already done it in an earlier match against an Australian XI. On that occasion he had warned Brown once before running him out. The Australian press accused Mankad of being unsportsmanlike, although some Australians, including Don Bradman, the Australian captain at the time, defended Mankad's actions. Since this incident, a batsman dismissed in this fashion is (informally) said to have been "Mankaded".
Modern Intepretations of Run Out of Non-Striker
Under Law 42.15 it remains entirely legal for a bowler to run out a non-striker who has strayed outside his crease after he has started his run up, but before he has entered his delivery stride. Appendix D of the 2000 Code defines delivery stride as the stride during which the delivery swing is made; it starts when the bowler's back foot lands for that stride and ends when the front foot lands in the same stride. Therefore in all matches played under the laws of cricket with no augmented playing conditions, the bowler may run out the non-striker at any point after he has begun his run-up, and provided he does so before entering his delivery stride. No warning is either necessary or required and the batsman has no course to appeal. The umpire must immediately and without question uphold the letter of the law as it stands and give the batsman out run out.
Furthermore, in 2011 the ICC Playing Conditions for Test matches, One Day Internationals and Twenty20 Internationals brought Mankading back into the International game and other forms of professional cricket including the Indian Premier League (IPL).
According to the various professional playing conditions, 42.11, "The bowler is permitted, before releasing the ball and provided he has not completed his usual delivery swing, to attempt to run out the non-striker. Whether the attempt is successful or not, the ball shall not count as one of the over. If the bowler fails in an attempt to run out the non-striker, the umpire shall call and signal dead ball as soon as possible."
The umpires shall deem the bowler to have completed his delivery swing once his bowling arm passes the normal point of ball release.
By making these changes, the ICC have changed the balance of regulations in favour of the bowler. Attempts at, and appeals for, a run out under these circumstances are clearly within the scope of the modern game, despite protestations by some that they are "not within the spirit of the game." The Spirit of Cricket, which is a preamble to the Laws, lists a series of behaviours considered by the cricket community to be unsporting on contrary to the Spirit of the Game, however the case of the bowler dismissing the non-striker whilst backing up is not mentioned.
Instances of Mankading in Test cricket
- Bill Brown by Vinoo Mankad, Australia v India, Sydney, 1947–1948
- Ian Redpath by Charlie Griffith, Australia v West Indies, Adelaide, 1968–1969
- Derek Randall by Ewen Chatfield, England v New Zealand, Christchurch, 1977–1978
- Sikander Bakht by Alan Hurst, Pakistan v Australia, Perth, 1978–1979
Instances of Mankading in One Day Internationals
The batsman's team is listed first.
- Brian Luckhurst by Greg Chappell, England v Australia, Melbourne, 1974–1975
- Grant Flower by Dipak Patel, Zimbabwe v New Zealand, Harare, 1992–1993
- Peter Kirsten by Kapil Dev, South Africa v India, Port Elizabeth, 1992–1993
- Jos Buttler by Sachithra Senanayake, England v Sri Lanka, Birmingham, 2014
- Richard Ngarava by Keemo Paul, Zimbabwe vs West Indies, 2016 Under-19 Cricket World Cup, Bangladesh on 02/02/2016
Instances of Mankading in Twenty20 Internationals
Instances of Mankading in first-class
- Joe Hardstaff by Khadim Hussain, Lord Tennyson's XI vs Sind, Karachi, 1937
- John Smith by Ray Allen, Canterbury v Wellington, Wellington, 1944
- Gordon Barker by Wilf Wooller, Essex v Glamorgan, Cardiff, 1956
- Hanumant Singh by Ashwini Chaturvedi, Rajasthan v Uttar Pradesh, Udaipur, 1960
- Rudolph Cohen by Jamiel Ali, Jamaica v Trinidad and Tobago, Port of Spain, 1964
- Ray Gripper by Barry Richards, Rhodesia v Natal, Salisbury, 1968
- Douglas Morgan by Raymond Le Roux, South African Universities v Orange Free State, Bloemfontein, 1968
- Clive Lloyd by Stanley Hinds, Guyana v Windward Islands, Roseau, 1983
- Alex Barrow by Murali Kartik, Somerset v Surrey, Taunton, 2012
- Sandipan Das by Murali Kartik, Bengal v Railways, Delhi, 2013
Instances of not Mankading
- Walsh – Jaffar : Courtney Walsh of the West Indies famously refused to Mankad last man Saleem Jaffar of Pakistan for backing up too far in a group match in the 1987 World Cup, but let him off with a warning. Pakistan went on to win the match while the defeat cost the West Indies a place in the semi-final.
- Rafique – Gul : The same thing was repeated in a 2003 Test match in Multan between Bangladesh and Pakistan. Pakistan eventually won the Test match by just 1 wicket. Mohammad Rafique of Bangladesh did not run out Umar Gul of Pakistan.
- Ashwin – Thirimanne : Ravichandran Ashwin of the Indian cricket team Mankaded Lahiru Thirimanne of Sri Lankan cricket team when he backed up too much before the ball was bowled in a group match in the Commonwealth Bank Series 2012 held in Australia. However the standing umpires, Paul Reiffel and Billy Bowden, after discussion asked India if they wanted to reconsider the appeal and Virender Sehwag, captaining in the absence of MS Dhoni, withdrew the appeal after discussion with Sachin Tendulkar. Sehwag claims that Ashwin had warned Thirimanne before running him out, however Mahela Jayawardene, the Sri Lanka captain, said he was not aware of the warning.
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