Runcinia grammica

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Runcinia grammica
Runcinia grammica.JPG
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Arachnida
Order: Araneae
Family: Thomisidae
Genus: Runcinia
Species: R. grammica
Binomial name
Runcinia grammica
(C. L. Koch, 1837)

Runcinia grammica (Sometimes also referred to as Runcinia lateralis)[1] is a species of spiders of the genus Runcinia, with a distribution of "Europa, Near East to Iran, Russia, Central Asia, China, Japan. Introduced to St. Helena, South Africa." [2]

A Runcinia grammica with its prey

The species generally lives in peat bogs, fens, and meadows,[3][4] although it has also been known to inhabit urban areas[5] They usually mature to adulthood in the summer.[4] They have short, broad bodies,[6] which are covered in hair and spines.[7] They have clear muscular corrugation on their sides,[7] and, on small raised bumps on their heads, eight small eyes.[6] Males are usually 2.5–3.5mm in length, females 4-6mm.[4] They are predators,[5] and eat various species of insects.[4]

Unlike many spiders, they do not spin a web of any kind. Instead, they prowl on the ground, as well as climbing plants and flowers, to find their prey.[6] They can move forwards, backwards, and sideways.[6]

Runcina grammicas have reportedly been sighted in various areas of Southeastern Spain[8] and Southwestern Portugal.[9][10] They are also known to inhabit Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Caucasus,[11] Italy,[12] India,[7] South Africa, St. Helena,[13][14][15][14] Turkey,[14][15] France,[16] and in the Carpathian Basin.[17] They are among the most common species of spiders in Portugal.[15] They are one of the many species preserved at the Mountain Zebra National Park, in South Africa.[18]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.faunaeur.org/full_results.php?id=353576
  2. ^ "Runcinia grammica". World Spider Catalog. Retrieved 21 August 2017.
  3. ^ Meadows – Thomisidae. Commanster.eu. Retrieved on 22 October 2011.
  4. ^ a b c d https://web.archive.org/web/20100112011653/http://www.commanster.eu/commanster/Invertebrates/Spiders/SpSpiders/Runcinia.grammica.html. Archived from the original on 12 January 2010. Retrieved 20 July 2010. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  5. ^ a b Runcinia grammica – Ecologia, Taxonomia, Morfologia, Distribuição. Naturdata.com. Retrieved on 22 October 2011.
  6. ^ a b c d Runcinia grammica. Zipcodezoo.com. Retrieved on 22 October 2011.
  7. ^ a b c Records of the Zoological Survey of India, Volume 103, Issues 1–2, published 2004, page 124
  8. ^ Data Use Agreement – GBIF Portal. Us.mirror.gbif.org (22 February 2007). Retrieved on 22 October 2011.
  9. ^ Portugal Spider Catalogue. Ennor.org. Retrieved on 22 October 2011.
  10. ^ http://www.european-arachnology.org/proceedings/18th/ekosup3.pdf
  11. ^ Runcinia grammica (C. L. Koch, 1837). Caucasus-spiders.info. Retrieved on 22 October 2011.
  12. ^ Runcinia grammica. Comune.pisa.it. Retrieved on 22 October 2011.
  13. ^ 2008 Annual Checklist : Runcinia grammica (C. L. Koch, 1837). Catalogue of Life (5 January 2008). Retrieved on 22 October 2011.
  14. ^ a b c http://jbes.uludag.edu.tr/PDFDOSYALAR/mak-6.pdf
  15. ^ a b c http://www.european-arachnology.org/proceedings/22nd/28_Topcu.pdf
  16. ^ [1][dead link]
  17. ^ http://www.nki.hu/arachnol/tartalom/Irodalom/Bogya%20et%20al.%201999%20Spec%20composition%20in%20apple.pdf
  18. ^ http://koedoe.co.za/index.php/koedoe/article/viewFile/113/115