Runcinia grammica

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Runcinia grammica
Runcinia grammica.JPG
Scientific classification
R. grammica
Binomial name
Runcinia grammica
(C. L. Koch, 1837)

Runcinia grammica (Sometimes also referred to as Runcinia lateralis)[1] is a species of spiders of the genus Runcinia, with a distribution of "Europa, Near East to Iran, Russia, Central Asia, China, Japan. Introduced to St. Helena, South Africa." [2]

A Runcinia grammica with its prey

The species generally lives in peat bogs, fens, and meadows,[3][4] although it has also been known to inhabit urban areas[5] They usually mature to adulthood in the summer.[4] They have short, broad bodies,[6] which are covered in hair and spines.[7] They have clear muscular corrugation on their sides,[7] and, on small raised bumps on their heads, eight small eyes.[6] Males are usually 2.5–3.5mm in length, females 4-6mm.[4] They are predators,[5] and eat various species of insects.[4]

Unlike many spiders, they do not spin a web of any kind. Instead, they prowl on the ground, as well as climbing plants and flowers, to find their prey.[6] They can move forwards, backwards, and sideways.[6]

Runcina grammicas have reportedly been sighted in various areas of Southeastern Spain[8] and Southwestern Portugal.[9][10] They are also known to inhabit Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Caucasus,[11] Italy,[12] India,[7] South Africa, St. Helena,[13][14][15] Turkey,[15][14] France,[16] and in the Carpathian Basin.[17] They are among the most common species of spiders in Portugal.[14] They are one of the many species preserved at the Mountain Zebra National Park, in South Africa.[18]


  1. ^
  2. ^ "Runcinia grammica". World Spider Catalog. Retrieved 21 August 2017.
  3. ^ Meadows – Thomisidae. Retrieved on 22 October 2011.
  4. ^ a b c d Archived from the original on 12 January 2010. Retrieved 20 July 2010. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  5. ^ a b Runcinia grammica – Ecologia, Taxonomia, Morfologia, Distribuição. Retrieved on 22 October 2011.
  6. ^ a b c d Runcinia grammica. Retrieved on 22 October 2011.
  7. ^ a b c Records of the Zoological Survey of India, Volume 103, Issues 1–2, published 2004, page 124
  8. ^ Data Use Agreement – GBIF Portal. (22 February 2007). Retrieved on 22 October 2011.
  9. ^ Portugal Spider Catalogue. Retrieved on 22 October 2011.
  10. ^
  11. ^ Runcinia grammica (C. L. Koch, 1837). Retrieved on 22 October 2011.
  12. ^ Runcinia grammica. Retrieved on 22 October 2011.
  13. ^ 2008 Annual Checklist : Runcinia grammica (C. L. Koch, 1837). Catalogue of Life (5 January 2008). Retrieved on 22 October 2011.
  14. ^ a b c
  15. ^ a b
  16. ^ [1][dead link]
  17. ^
  18. ^