Ruqayyah bint Muhammad

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Ruqayyah bint Muhammad
رقیہ بنت محمدؓ.png
Born 601 CE
Mecca, Hejaz, Arabia
Died March, 624 (aged 23)
Medina, Hejaz, Arabia
Resting place Al-Baqi'
Spouse(s) Uthman ibn Affan
Children Abdullah Ibn Uthman
Parents

Ruqayyah bint Muhammad (Arabic: رقية بنت محمد‎, Ruqayyah bint Muḥammad) (c.601 - 624) is regarded as the daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and Khadija.

Biography[edit]

Born in Mecca around 601 or 602 CE, Ruqayyah was the fourth child and the second daughter of Muhammad and Khadija, his first wife who was also a successful merchant.[1][2]

She was married before August 610 to her cousin, Utbah ibn Abu Lahab, but the marriage was never consummated.[3] Ruqayyah became a Muslim when her mother did.[4][5] When Muhammad began to preach openly in 613, the Quraysh reminded Muhammad that they had "relieved him of his care for his daughters" and decided to return them so that he would have to support them at his own expense. They told Utbah that they would give him "the daughter of Aban ibn Sa'id ibn Al-As or the daughter of Sa'id ibn Al-As" if he divorced Ruqayyah.[3] After Muhammad warned Abū Lahab that he would go to Hell, Abu Lahab said he would never speak to his son again unless he divorced Ruqayyah, which Utbah accordingly did.[6][7]

By 615 Ruqayyah was married to a prominent Muslim, Uthman ibn Affan. She accompanied him on the first Migration to Abyssinia,[8][9][10] where she suffered a miscarriage. They returned to Abyssinia in 616,[11][9][10] and there Ruqayyah gave birth to a son, Abdullah, in 619. Abdullah died when he was six years old in Medina. She had no further children.[9][10]

Uthman and Ruqayyah were among those who returned to Mecca in 619.[12] Uthman emigrated to Medina in 622, and Ruqayyah followed him later.[9][10]

Ruqayyah was said to be extremely beautiful. When Usama ibn Zayd was sent on an errand to their house, he found himself staring at her and at Uthman in turns. Muhammad asked Usama, "Have you ever seen a more handsome couple than those two?" and he agreed that he had not.[13]

Ruqayyah fell ill in March 624. Uthman was excused from his military duties in order to nurse her. She died later in the month, on the day when Zayd ibn Harithah returned to Medina with news of their victory at the Battle of Badr.[14][15][10] When Muhammad returned to Medina after the battle, the family went to grieve at her grave. The women wept noisily, and Umar hit them with his whip; but Muhammad said: "Let them weep, Umar; but beware of the braying of Satan."[9]

Shia View[edit]

Several prominent Shia accounts, like that of medieval Shiite cleric Muhammad Baqir Majlisi, claim that Ruqayyah was beaten to death by Uthman.[16][17] Some Shia accounts don't consider her to have been a biological daughter of Muhammad; they consider Fatimah as his only biological daughter.[18][19]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Muhammad ibn Ishaq. Sirat Rasul Allah. Translated by Guillaume, A. (1955). The Life of Muhammad, p. 83. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  2. ^ Muhammad ibn Saad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir, vol. 8. Translated by Bewley, A. (1995). The Women of Madina, p. 10. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
  3. ^ a b Ibn Ishaq/Guillaume p. 314.
  4. ^ Ibn Saad/Bewley vol. 8 pp. 24-25.
  5. ^ Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari. Tarikh al-Rusul wa'l-Muluk. Translated by Landau-Tasseron, E. (1998). Volume 39: Biographies of the Prophet's Companions and Their Successors, pp. 161-162. Albany: State University of New York Press.
  6. ^ Ibn Saad/Bewley pp. 24-25.
  7. ^ Tabari/Landau-Tasseron pp. 161-162.
  8. ^ Ibn Ishaq/Guillaume pp. 146, 314.
  9. ^ a b c d e Ibn Saad/Bewley p. 25.
  10. ^ a b c d e Tabari/Landau-Tasseron p. 162.
  11. ^ Ibn Ishaq/Guillaume p. 146.
  12. ^ Ibn Ishaq/Guillaume p. 168.
  13. ^ Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti. Tarikh al-Khulafa. Translated by Jarrett, H. S. (1881). History of the Caliphs, p. 155. Calcutta: The Asiatic Society.
  14. ^ Ibn Ishaq/Guillaume p. 328.
  15. ^ Muhammad ibn Umar al-Waqidi. Kitab al-Maghazi. Translated by Faizer, R., Ismail, A., & Tayob, A. K. (2011). The Life of Muhammad, p. 51. Oxford & New York: Routledge.
  16. ^ Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Sayyari (2009). Kohlberg, Etan; Amir-Moezzi, Mohammad Ali, eds. "Revelation and Falsification: The Kitab al-qira'at of Ahmad b. Muhammad al-Sayyari: Critical Edition with an Introduction and Notes by Etan Kohlberg and Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi". Texts and studies on the Qurʼān. BRILL. 4: 248. ISSN 1567-2808. 
  17. ^ Muhammad B. Majlesi, An Account of the Prophet’s Children Archived 2012-09-23 at the Wayback Machine., Hayat Al-Qulub vol 2, A Detailed Biography of Prophet Muhammad, Published by: Ansariyan Publications
  18. ^ Yasin T. al-Jibouri (1994), Khadija Daughter of Khuwaylid Archived 2006-07-05 at the Wayback Machine.
  19. ^ Ordoni, Abu Muhammad; Muhammad Kazim Qazwini (1992), Fatima the Gracious, Ansariyan Publications. ISBN B000BWQ7N6