Ruqayya bint Muhammad

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Ruqayya bint Muhammad
رقية بنت محمد
Bornc. 601 (21 BH)
DiedMarch, 624 (aged 23) (2 AH)
Resting place
Jannat al-Baqi', Medina, Hejaz, Arabia
(present-day Saudi Arabia)
ChildrenAbd Allah
FamilyHouse of Muhammad

Ruqayya bint Muhammad (Arabic: رقية بنت محمد, romanizedRuqayya bint Muḥammad; c. 601–March 624) was the second eldest daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and Khadija. She married the third caliph Uthman and the couple had a son Abd Allah. In 624, Ruqayya died from an illness.

Early life[edit]

Born in Mecca around 601 or 602 CE, Ruqayya was the 3rd child and the second daughter of Muhammad and Khadija, his first wife, who was also a successful merchant.[1][2]

Marital life[edit]

Marriage with Utbah[edit]

She was married before August 610 to Utbah ibn Abi Lahab, but the marriage was never consummated.[3] Ruqayya became a Muslim when her mother died.[4][5] When Muhammad began to preach openly in 613, the Quraysh reminded Muhammad that they had "relieved him of his care for his daughters" and decided to return them so that he would have to support them at his own expense. They told Utbah that they would give him "the daughter of Aban ibn Sa'id ibn Al-As or the daughter of Sa'id ibn Al-As" if he divorced Ruqayya.[3] After Muhammad warned Abū Lahab that he would go to Hell, Abu Lahab said he would never speak to his son again unless he divorced Ruqayya, which Utbah accordingly did.[6][7]

Marriage with Uthman[edit]

By 615 Ruqayya was married to a prominent Muslim, Uthman ibn Affan. She accompanied him on the first Migration to Abyssinia,[8][9][10] where she suffered a miscarriage. They returned to Abyssinia in 616,[11][9][10] and there Ruqayya gave birth to a son, Abd Allah, in 619. Abd Allah died when he was six years old in Medina. She had no further children.[9][10]

Uthman and Ruqayya were among those who returned to Mecca in 619.[12] Uthman emigrated to Medina in 622, and Ruqayya followed him later.[9][10]

Ruqayya was said to be extremely beautiful. When Usama ibn Zayd was sent on an errand to their house, he found himself staring at her and at Uthman in turns. Muhammad asked Usama, "Have you ever seen a more handsome couple than those two?" and he agreed that he had not.[13]


Ruqayya fell ill in March 624. Uthman was excused from his military duties in order to nurse her. She died later in the month, on the day when Zayd ibn Haritha returned to Medina with news of their victory at the Battle of Badr.[14][15][10] When Muhammad returned to Medina after the battle, the family went to grieve at her grave.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Muhammad ibn Ishaq. Sirat Rasul Allah. Translated by Guillaume, A. (1955). The Life of Muhammad, p. 83. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  2. ^ Muhammad ibn Saad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir, vol. 8. Translated by Bewley, A. (1995). The Women of Madina, p. 10. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
  3. ^ a b Ibn Ishaq/Guillaume p. 314.
  4. ^ Ibn Saad/Bewley vol. 8 pp. 24-25.
  5. ^ Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari. Tarikh al-Rusul wa'l-Muluk. Translated by Landau-Tasseron, E. (1998). Volume 39: Biographies of the Prophet's Companions and Their Successors, pp. 161-162. Albany: State University of New York Press.
  6. ^ Ibn Saad/Bewley pp. 24-25.
  7. ^ Tabari/Landau-Tasseron pp. 161-162.
  8. ^ Ibn Ishaq/Guillaume pp. 146, 314.
  9. ^ a b c d Ibn Saad/Bewley p. 25.
  10. ^ a b c d e Tabari/Landau-Tasseron p. 162.
  11. ^ Ibn Ishaq/Guillaume p. 146.
  12. ^ Ibn Ishaq/Guillaume p. 168.
  13. ^ Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti. Tarikh al-Khulafa. Translated by Jarrett, H. S. (1881). History of the Caliphs, p. 155. Calcutta: The Asiatic Society.
  14. ^ Ibn Ishaq/Guillaume p. 328.
  15. ^ Muhammad ibn Umar al-Waqidi. Kitab al-Maghazi. Translated by Faizer, R., Ismail, A., & Tayob, A. K. (2011). The Life of Muhammad, p. 51. Oxford & New York: Routledge.