|Opera by Antonín Dvořák|
|Based on||fairy tales by Karel Jaromír Erben and Božena Němcová|
31 March 1901
Rusalka (pronounced [ˈrusalka] (listen)), Op. 114, is an opera ('lyric fairy tale') by Antonín Dvořák. The Czech libretto was written by the poet Jaroslav Kvapil (1868–1950) based on the fairy tales of Karel Jaromír Erben and Božena Němcová.[disputed (for: contradicts Grove) ] A rusalka is a water sprite from Slavic mythology, usually inhabiting a lake or river. Rusalka was the ninth opera Dvořák composed. It is one of the most successful Czech operas, and represents a cornerstone of the repertoire of Czech opera houses.
Dvořák had played viola for pit orchestras in Prague (the Estates Theatre from 1857 until 1859 while a student, then from 1862 until 1871 at the Provisional Theatre). He thus had direct experience of a wide range of operas by Mozart, Weber, Rossini, Lortzing, Wagner, Verdi and Smetana.
For many years unfamiliarity with Dvořák's operas outside the Czech lands helped reinforce a perception that composition of operas was a marginal activity, and that despite the beauty of its melodies and orchestral timbres Rusalka was not a central part of his output or of international lyric theatre. In recent years it has been performed more regularly by major opera companies. In the five seasons from 2008 to 2013 it was performed by opera companies worldwide far more than all of Dvořák's other operas combined.
The most popular excerpt from Rusalka is the "Song to the Moon" ("Měsíčku na nebi hlubokém") from act 1, which is often performed in concert and recorded separately. It has also been arranged for violin and used on film sound tracks.
Kvapil's libretto, based on the fairy tales of Karel Jaromír Erben and Božena Němcová,[disputed (for: contradicts Grove) ] was written before he had any contact with the composer. The plot contains elements which also appear in The Little Mermaid by Hans Christian Andersen and in Undine by Friedrich de la Motte Fouqué, and has been described as a "sad, modern fairy tale", in a similar vein to his previous play, Princessa Pampeliška. The libretto was completed by 1899, when Kvapil began looking for composers interested in setting his text to music. His composer friends were engaged with other works, but mentioned that Dvořák was looking for a project. The composer, always interested in Erben's stories, read the libretto and composed his opera quite rapidly, with the first draft begun on 22 April 1900 and completed by the end of November. Coming after his four symphonic poems inspired by the folk-ballads of Erben of 1896–97, Rusalka may be viewed as the culmination of Dvořák's exploration of a "wide variety of drama-creating musical techniques".
The first performance outside Bohemia took place in Ljubljana. The opera was given in Vienna by a Czech company in 1910; in German translation it was given in Stuttgart in 1935. The UK stage premiere was at Sadler's Wells Theatre in 1959; a 1983 production by English National Opera was filmed and revived several times.
The United States premiere of the opera was presented by the San Diego Opera in 1975 with Kathryn Bouleyn in the title role. Rusalka was first performed in New York at the Metropolitan Opera in 1993, a production from the Vienna State Opera, directed by Otto Schenk, with Gabriela Beňačková and Neil Rosenshein. The 2007 production by Opera Australia with Cheryl Barker in the title role and Richard Hickox conducting won the Helpmann Award for Best Opera.
|Role||Voice type||Premiere cast, 31 March 1901|
Conductor: Karel Kovařovic
|Rusalka, a water nymph||soprano||Růžena Maturová|
|The prince||tenor||Bohumil Pták|
|Vodník, the water goblin||bass||Václav Kliment|
|The foreign princess||soprano||Marie Kubátová|
|Ježibaba, a witch||mezzo-soprano||Růžena Vykoukalová-Bradáčová|
|First wood sprite||soprano||Amalie Bobková|
|Second wood sprite||soprano||Ella Tvrdková|
|Third wood sprite||contralto||Helena Towarnická|
|Turnspit/Kitchen boy||soprano||Vilemína Hájková|
|Chorus: Wood nymphs, guests at the castle, entourage of the prince|
A meadow by the edge of a lake
Three wood sprites tease the water goblin, Vodník, ruler of the lake. Rusalka, the water nymph, tells her father the water goblin that she has fallen in love with a human prince who comes to hunt around the lake, and she wants to become human to embrace him. He tells her it is a bad idea, but nonetheless steers her to a witch, Ježibaba, for assistance. Rusalka sings her "Song to the Moon", asking it to tell the prince of her love. Ježibaba tells Rusalka that, if she becomes human, she will lose the power of speech and immortality; moreover, if she does not find love with the prince, he will die and she will be eternally damned. Rusalka agrees to the terms and drinks a potion. The prince, hunting a white doe, finds Rusalka, embraces her, and leads her away, as her father and sisters lament.
The garden of the prince's castle
A gamekeeper and his nephew, the kitchen boy, note that the prince is to be married to a mute and nameless bride. They suspect witchcraft and doubt it will last, as the prince is already lavishing attentions on a foreign princess who is a wedding guest. The foreign princess, jealous, curses the couple. The prince rejects Rusalka. Rusalka then goes back to the lake with her father the water goblin. Though she has now won the prince's affections, the foreign princess is disgusted by the prince's fickleness and betrayal and she scorns him, telling him to follow his rejected bride to Hell.
A meadow by the edge of a lake
Rusalka returns to the lake and laments about her fate. She meets Ježibaba and asks for a solution to her woes. Ježibaba gives her a knife and tells her that she can save herself if she kills the prince with it. Rusalka rejects this, throwing the dagger into the lake. Rusalka becomes a will-o'-the-wisp, a spirit of death living in the depths of the lake, emerging only to lure humans to their deaths. The gamekeeper and the kitchen boy are worried about the deteriorating condition of the prince, and comes to the lake in order to get rid of Rusalka. They meet Ježibaba and lash out on Rusalka's betryal, but was rebutted by the water goblin, who says that it was actually the prince that betrayed Rusalka. The wood sprites mourn Rusalka's plight. The prince, searching for his white doe, comes to the lake, senses Rusalka, and calls for her. Rusalka appears and is now able to speak to him. He asks her to kiss him, even knowing her kiss means death. They kiss and he dies; and the water goblin comments that all sacrifices are futile. In her final song, Rusalka tells the prince, "For your love, for that beauty of yours, for your inconstant human passion, for everything by which my fate is cursed, human soul, God have mercy on you!"
Dvořák's music is generally through-composed, and uses motifs for Rusalka, her damnation, the water sprite and the forest. His word-setting is expressive while allowing for nationally inflected passages, and Grove judges that the work shows the composer at the height of his maturity. He uses established theatrical devices – dance sections, comedy (Gamekeeper and Turnspit) and pictorial musical depiction of nature (forest and lake). Rodney Milnes (who provided the translation for an ENO production) admired the "wealth of melodic patterns that are dramatic in themselves and its shimmering orchestration". One writer considers the final section of the opera – the duet for the prince and Rusalka – as "[twelve] or so of the most glorious minutes in all opera" in their "majestic, almost hymnic solemnity" while another describes the opera as a "vivid, profoundly disturbing drama".
Opera house and orchestra
Prague National Theatre Chorus and Orchestra
Cat: SU 3811-2
Prague National Theatre Chorus and Orchestra
Cat: SU 50440 3
Czech Philharmonic & Prague Philharmonic Choir
|CD: Supraphon (re-issue in 2003)|
Cat: SU 3178-2 633
Orchestra and chorus of English National Opera,
(Sung in English; director David Pountney)
|DVD: Arthaus Musik (released 2006)|
Cat: 102 019
Tiziana K. Sojat,
Zagreb Philharmonic Orchestra & Ivan Goran Kovačić Academic Choir
|CD: Brilliant Classics|
Czech Philharmonic & Kühn Mixed Choir
Cat: 000289 460 5682 0
Orchestra and chorus of the Opéra de Paris
|DVD: Arthaus Musik (re-issue in 2009),|
Cat: 107 031
Rosario La Spina,
Australian Opera and Ballet Orchestra, Opera Australia Chorus
Cat: CHAN 10449(3)
|2009||Ana María Martínez,
London Philharmonic Orchestra and the Glydebourne Chorus
|CD: Glyndebourne Festival Opera|
Cat: GFOCD 007-09
La Monnaie Symphony and Chorus
|DVD and Blu-ray Disc: EuroArts (DVD label)|
- Šíp, Ladislav (2005). "Beloved National Opera by Dvořák". Rusalka (Prague National Theatre Orchestra, conductor: Jaroslav Krombholc) (CD). Kohoutová, Joy (trans.). Prague: Supraphon. pp. 8–15. SU 3811-2.
- Loppert M. "Catching up with Rusalka." Essay in programme book, Glyndebourne Festival Opera 2009, p. 86.
- "Works by Dvorak, A".[dead link] In the five seasons from 2008/09 through 2012/13, Rusalka had 124 productions (performance runs), The Devil and Kate 7, The Jacobin 5, Armida 2, and The Spectre's Bride, one, totaling 15 for the other operas combined. Vanda had a performance run March through May 2014. Archived 19 August 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Operabase. Retrieved 16 August 2014
- Lemariová M.: "Rusalka – its dramatic conception and philosophy" (summary). In: Antonín Dvořák Dramatik / Antonín Dvořák the Dramatist, ed Jitka Brabcová and Jarmil Burghauser. Theatre Institute, Prague, 1994.
- Smaczny J. "Rusalka". In: The New Grove Dictionary of Opera. Macmillan, London and New York, 1997.
- Burghauser, Jarmil (2006). Antonín Dvořák (in Czech). Prague: Koniasch Latin Press. p. 102. ISBN 80-86791-26-2.
- Vrkocová L. Antonín Dvořák and his Rusalka. Booklet notes for Supraphon LPs 50440 3, 1963.
- "1975–1976". San Diego Opera Performance Archives. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- "Is Rusalka A Fairy Tale? Yes. And No." by Kenneth Furie, The New York Times, 7 November 1993
- Milnes R., "A centenary love letter – Rodney Milnes celebrates Dvořák", Opera, July 2004, pp. 780–85.
- Review in Classical Recordings Quarterly, Spring 2007, vol. 48, p. 96.
- Review in Classical Recordings Quarterly, Autumn 2005, vol. 42, p. 63.
- "On-line catalogue entry Neumann CD". Supraphon. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
- "Dvorák: Rusalka". Brilliant Classics. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- "On-line catalogue entry Mackerras CD". Decca Classics. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
- "On-line catalogue entry Hickox CD". Chandos Records. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
- CD review. Diapason, vol. 598, January 2012.
- As announced on Glyndebourne Opera's website[permanent dead link] Retrieved 6 November 2010
- Cheek, Timothy. Rusalka, a Performance Guide with Translations and Pronunciation, Lanham: Scarecrow, 2009. ISBN 978-0-8108-8305-5