|United States Senator|
September 27, 1902 – January 24, 1907
|Preceded by||James McMillan|
|Succeeded by||William Smith|
|40th United States Secretary of War|
March 5, 1897 – August 1, 1899
|Preceded by||Daniel S. Lamont|
|Succeeded by||Elihu Root|
|20th Governor of Michigan|
January 1, 1885 – January 1, 1887
|Preceded by||Josiah Begole|
|Succeeded by||Cyrus G. Luce|
Russell Alexander Alger
February 27, 1836
Lafayette Township, Ohio, U.S.
|Died||January 24, 1907 (aged 70)|
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Annette Huldana Squire Henry
|Allegiance|| United States|
|Branch/service|| United States Army|
• Union Army
|Years of service||1861–1864|
Brevet Major General
|Commands||5th Michigan Cavalry Regiment|
Russell Alexander Alger (// AL-jər; February 27, 1836 – January 24, 1907) was an American politician and businessman. He served as the 20th governor of Michigan, U.S. Senator, and U.S. Secretary of War.
He was supposedly a distant relation of author Horatio Alger. Alger lived his own "rags-to-riches" success tale, eventually becoming an army officer, financier, lumber baron, railroad owner, and government official in several high offices.
Early life and career
His parents died in 1848, leaving Russell the oldest of three orphan children, without money and with a brother and sister to care for and support. He had been accustomed to working for the neighbors for a small quantity of provisions or a few pennies a day even before the death of his parents, who were very poor.
He now found homes for his brother and sister and secured work for himself on a farm, his remuneration being his board, clothes and the privilege of attending school three months out of the year. He attended Richfield Academy in Summit County, Ohio, and taught country school for two winters.
He studied law in Akron, Ohio, and was admitted to the bar in March 1859. He first began to practice law in Cleveland. In 1860, he moved to Grand Rapids, Michigan and engaged in the lumber business.
Alger enlisted as a private soldier in the American Civil War on September 2, 1861. He was commissioned and served as a captain and major in the 2nd Michigan Cavalry Regiment. In three years, he served in 66 different battles and skirmishes.
On July 1, 1862, at the Battle of Booneville, Alger to attack the enemy's rear with ninety men. Alger was wounded and taken prisoner, but he escaped the same day. The Confederate forces were soundly defeated.
On February 28, 1863, he was promoted to colonel of the 5th Michigan Cavalry. His command was the first to enter Gettysburg on June 28. Alger was personally mentioned in the report of General George Armstrong Custer on cavalry operations there.
Alger was considered a military strategist and surveyed Union supplies with President Lincoln.
On July 8, 1864, Alger was severely wounded pursuing the enemy at Boonesborough, Maryland.
Alger resigned from the army on September 20, 1864. On January 13, 1866, President Andrew Johnson nominated Alger for the award of the grade of brevet brigadier general of volunteers to rank from June 11, 1865, and the U.S. Senate confirmed the award on March 12, 1866. On February 28, 1867, President Johnson nominated Alger for the award of the grade of brevet major general of volunteers to rank from June 11, 1865, and the U.S. Senate confirmed the award on March 2, 1867.
In 1868, he was elected the first commander of the Michigan department of the Grand Army of the Republic. In 1889, he became the Grand Army's National Commander-in-Chief. He was also a member of the Michigan Commandery of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States.
After the Civil War, Alger settled in Detroit as head of Alger, Smith & Company and the Manistique Lumbering Company. His holdings included a great pine forest on Lake Huron covering over 100 square miles (260 km2) and producing more than 75,000,000 board feet (180,000 m3) of lumber per annum.
After clear cutting forests in the lower peninsula, his lumber companies acquired land in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan including Kingston Plains, just south of the Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore. These bleak stump plains have resisted 90 years of reforestation efforts. Alger made a fortune logging the area which he used to propel himself to governor of Michigan.
Alger was active in politics as a Republican. In 1866, he was a delegate to the party's Wayne County convention and its state convention. In the late 1860s, Alger was a leader of the Boys in Blue, an organization of Union veterans formed to support Republican Party policies and candidates. In October 1872, Alger was a vice president of the committee that organized a Republican campaign event which featured a speech by James G. Blaine, then serving as Speaker of the United States House of Representatives.
In June 1876, Alger was a vice president of the committee which sponsored a Republican rally in Detroit that began that year's presidential campaign. In early October 1876, Alger was a vice president of the committee that organized a mass Republican rally in Detroit which featured a speech by former governor Edward Follansbee Noyes of Ohio. In late October 1876, he was one of the vice presidents of the committee that organized a Republican rally in Detroit which included a keynote address by U.S. Senator James G. Blaine of Maine.
In early June 1880, Alger was a delegate to a mass interstate meeting of Union veterans which met in Chicago to devise a plan for supporting Republican candidates in that year's elections. In mid-June, he presided over the Republican meeting in Detroit which was organized to ratify the results of the 1880 Republican National Convention, which had been held earlier in the month.
Governor of Michigan
In 1884, Alger was elected Governor of Michigan and served from January 1, 1885, to January 1, 1887. Highlights of his term included creation of the state board of pardons, the founding of a veterans home in Grand Rapids, the creation of two new counties (Alger and Iron), and establishment of the Michigan College of Mines. Alger declined renomination in 1886.
Alger's name was placed in nomination for president at the 1888 Republican National Convention. He rose in balloting to 142 votes, with 416 necessary to win, but Benjamin Harrison ultimately obtained the nomination and went on to win the general election. After the election, Alger served as a presidential elector for Harrison.
Secretary of War
As Secretary, Alger recommended pay increases for military personnel serving at foreign embassies and legations, legislation to authorize a Second Assistant Secretary of War, and a constabulary force for Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines.
He was criticized for the inadequate preparation and inefficient operation of the department during the Spanish–American War, especially for his appointment of William R. Shafter as leader of the Cuban expedition. "Algerism" became an epithet to describe the claimed incompetence of the army, especially as compared to the more stellar performance of the navy.
Alger resigned at President McKinley's request, August 1, 1899. He published a personal history of the war, titled The Spanish–American War, in 1901.
Vendetta against John S. Mosby
John Singleton Mosby accused Alger of pursuing a vendetta against him during Alger's tenure as War Secretary. Mosby had been a Confederate partisan during the Civil War. Afterwards, he became a Republican and supported the presidential candidacies of Ulysses S. Grant and Rutherford B. Hayes. In 1878, Hayes appointed Mosby as U.S. Consul in Hong Kong, where Mosby served until 1885.
Mosby supported William McKinley for president in 1896, and was assured by members of Congress close to McKinley that he could expect appointment to a consulship in Asia or South America. When no appointment was forthcoming, Mosby concluded that Alger was blocking his return to the consular service and claimed that Alger was pursuing a vendetta. According to Mosby, because during the war Mosby had ordered the execution of soldiers under Alger's command who were accused of looting and destroying the property of supporters of the Confederacy in 1864. Historians and authors have concluded that it is more probable that the official preventing Mosby from receiving an appointment under McKinley was Secretary of State John Sherman. When Mosby began serving in Hong Kong, he concluded that his predecessor, David H. Bailey, had been involved in embezzlement and fraud. Bailey was forced to resign as U.S. Consul in Shanghai. Bailey was from Sherman's home state of Ohio, and Sherman had authority over diplomatic appointments, so Sherman is more likely than Alger to have taken revenge on Mosby.
On September 27, 1902, Alger was appointed by Michigan Governor Aaron T. Bliss to the United States Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the death of James McMillan. He was elected to the seat by the Michigan State Legislature in January 1903.
The Algers had a home in Black River, Alcona Township, Michigan, from which Alger oversaw his lumbering operations.
Russell Jr. was instrumental in persuading the Packard Motor Car Company to move to Michigan from Ohio. He built a palatial Italian Renaissance style estate, "The Moorings," in Grosse Pointe. It was donated in 1949 and became the Grosse Pointe War Memorial.
In a memorial address, Senator John Spooner of Wisconsin said of Alger, "No man without noble purpose, well-justified ambitions, strong fiber, and splendid qualities in abundance could have carved out and left behind him such a career."
An early movie entitled General Wheeler and Secretary of War Alger at Camp Wikoff documents an official visit to Camp Wikoff, New York as Secretary of War. The visit and film were produced to garner support from the New York newspapers.
In May 1898, the War Department established Camp Russell A. Alger on a farm near Falls Church and Dunn Loring, Virginia. Faced with a typhoid fever epidemic, it was abandoned the month at the war's end in August 1898 and sold the following month. In its brief existence, 23,000 men trained there for service. It is commemorated by an official Virginia historical marker.
Named for Alger
- Alger, Michigan (1882)
- Alger County, Michigan (1885)
- Russell A. Alger Street and Alger Street in Black River, Michigan
- Alger Street in Lincoln, Michigan
- Alger Heights, a neighborhood of Grand Rapids, Michigan
- A United States Liberty ship named the SS Russell A. Alger was planned but cancelled in 1942 before construction.
In 1909, a monument to Alger was erected on the William G. Mather Building in Munising, Michigan. It consists of a bronze bust of Alger on a stone pedestal, and was sculpted by Detroit sculptor Carlo Romanelli with funds provided by the heirs of Alger and by the Board of Education of the Munising Township Schools.
- Russell Alexander Alger (1901). The Spanish–American War. Kessinger Publishing.
The Spanish American War Russell A. Alger.
- Dictionary of American Biography
- Bell, Rodney E. "A Life of Russell Alexander Alger." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, 1975'
- Eicher, John H., and David J. Eicher, Civil War High Commands. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
- U.S. Congress. Memorial Addresses for Russell Alexander Alger. 59th Cong., 2nd sess. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1907.
- Michigan Historical Commission. 1924. Michigan Biographies: Russell Alger, Lansing.
- Michigan Commandery of the Military of the Loyal Legion of the United States.
- Final Journal of the Grand Army of the Republic, 1957. Compiled by Cora Gillis, Jamestown, New York, Past National President, Daughters of Union Veterans of the Civil War from 1861 to 1865, Inc. and last National Secretary of the Grand Army of the Republic.
- United States Congress. "Russell A. Alger (id: A000107)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved on 2008-02-11
- List of United States Congress members who died in office (1900–1949)
- Russell Alger Memorial Fountain
- Bourasaw, Noel V., "Russell A. Alger, logging capitalist, Michigan governor, Secretary of War," Skagit River Journal of History & Folklore, 2004.
- Johnson 1906, p. 78
- Moulton, Henry William (1906). Moulton Annals, pp. 84, 114–17. Chicago: Edward A. Clayhill.
- Who Was Who in American History - the Military. Chicago: Marquis Who's Who. 1975. p. 6. ISBN 0837932017.
- Eicher, John H., and David J. Eicher, Civil War High Commands. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8047-3641-3. p. 101.
- Eicher, 2001, p. 739. A typographical error shows the confirmation date as March 12, 1865.
- Eicher, 2001, p. 739.
- Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, edited by James Grant Wilson, John Fiske Six volumes, New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1887-1889.
- Berry, Dale. "Railroad History Story: Railroad Origins in Alpena, Michigan". RRHX: Michigan's Internet Railroad History Museum. Archived from the original on July 24, 2013. Retrieved December 15, 2013.
- The Official Railway List. Railway Purchasing Agent Company. 1888. p. 71.
- Geology and Landscape of Michigan’s Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore and Vicinity” William L. Blewett, Wayne State University Press, 2012
- Murphy, Donovan (2022) "On the Altar of Industry: A History of the Kingston Plains," Upper Country: A Journal of the Lake Superior Region: Vol. 10, Article 2. Available at: https://commons.nmu.edu/upper_country/vol10/iss1/2https://commons.nmu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1075&context=upper_country
- "Century, Florida - 100 years and still counting". The Alger-Sullivan Historical Society. Retrieved July 10, 2010.
- "Wayne County Republican Convention". Detroit Free Press. Detroit, MI. August 29, 1866. p. 5 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Boys In Blue". Livingston County Daily Press and Argus. Howell, MI. August 26, 1868. p. 1 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Speaker Blaine: Great Speech At The Wigwam Thursday Night". Detroit Advertiser and Tribune. Detroit, MI. October 24, 1872. p. 4 – via GenealogyBank.com.
- "1876! -- The Campaign Opened!". Detroit Advertiser and Tribune. Detroit, MI. June 20, 1876. p. 1 – via GenealogyBank.com.
- "The Campaign: Immense Republican Mass Meeting At The Central Wigwam". Detroit Advertiser and Tribune. Detroit, MI. October 9, 1876. p. 1 – via GenealogyBank.com.
- "Senator Blaine: The Speech of the Distinguished Statesman on Saturday". Detroit Advertiser and Tribune. Detroit, MI. October 23, 1876. p. 1 – via GenealogyBank.com.
- "A Veteran Soldiers' Mass Convention". St. Joseph Herald. St. Joseph, MI. May 22, 1880. p. 2 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Political: A Republican Ratification Meeting". Lake County Star. Baldwin, MI. June 17, 1880. p. 3 – via GenealogyBank.com.
- "Biography, Michigan Governor Russell Alexander Alger". NGA.org. Washington, DC: National Governors Association. May 29, 2010. Retrieved December 21, 2021.
- Folsom, Dr Burton W. (December 7, 1998). "Russell Alger and the Spanish–American War".
- "Russell Alexander Alger - The World of 1898: The Spanish–American War (Hispanic Division, Library of Congress)". Library of Congress.
- Russell Alexander Alger (1901). The Spanish–American War. Kessinger Publishing.
- "Alger Dislikes Mosby". The San Francisco Call. San Francisco, CA. May 11, 1898. p. 7 – via Newspapers.com.
- Ramage, James (1999). Gray Ghost: The Life of Col. John Singleton Mosby. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky Press. p. 302. ISBN 978-0-8131-9253-6 – via Google Books.
- "Chairmen of Senate Standing Committees 1789-Present" (PDF). Senate Historical Office. June 2008. p. 35. Retrieved May 7, 2009.
- Kestenbaum, Lawrence. "The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Alexandre to Alleman".
- "The Alger Family".
- Moore, Charles (1915). History of Michigan. Vol. II. Chicago: The Lewis Publishing Co. p. 687.
- General Wheeler and Secretary of War Alger at Camp Wikoff (1898) at IMDb
- McSherry, Patrick. "Camp Wikoff".
- "Camp Russell A. Alger Historical Marker".
- "Gazateer of Obscure Michigan Place Names". Herbarium, University of Michigan. Archived from the original on September 9, 2015. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
- "Welcome to the Alger Neighborhood - Alger Heights".
- "Russell Alexander Alger Memorial Fountain". Retrieved May 8, 2012.
- Johnson, Rossiter, ed. (1906). "Alger, Russell Alexander". The Biographical Dictionary of America. Vol. 1. Boston, Mass.: American Biographical Society. p. 78. Retrieved November 25, 2020 – via en.wikisource.org. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- Russell Alexander Alger in Library of Congress's The World of 1898: The Spanish–American War
- Bell, William Gardner (1992). "Russell Alexander Alger". Secretaries of War and Secretaries of the Army: Portraits & Biographical Sketches. United States Army Center of Military History. CMH Pub 70-12.
- Biography of Alger through 1891 from "Chapter LIII: Grand Rapids and Kent County in the War for the Union," Baxter, Albert, History of the City of Grand Rapids, New York and Grand Rapids: Munsell & Company, Publishers, 1891.
- Image of Russell Alger from "1888 Presidential Possibilities" card set t207.com
- "Russell A. Alger". Find a Grave. Retrieved August 13, 2008.
- Grosse Pointe War Memorial - Russell Alger, Jr. Mansion
- Memorial Library Archived July 14, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
- Public Arts and Sculpture, Russell A. Alger Fountain.
- Russell A Alger Biography at Elmwood Cemetery Archived February 18, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
- Russell A. Alger Family Papers at the William L. Clements Library
- Russell Alexander Alger, late a senator from Michigan, Memorial addresses delivered in the House of Representatives and Senate frontispiece 1907