Russell Group

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Russell Group
RussellGroup.svg
Formation1994
TypeAssociation of United Kingdom-based universities
Headquarters
Region served
United Kingdom
Membership
Key people
Websiterussellgroup.ac.uk Edit this at Wikidata

The Russell Group is a self-selected association of twenty-four public research universities in the United Kingdom. The group is headquartered in Cambridge and was established in 1994 to represent its members' interests, principally to government and parliament. It was incorporated in 2007.[2] Its members are sometimes perceived as being the most prestigious universities in the country, although the accuracy of this is disputed.[3]

As of 2017, Russell Group members receive over three-quarters of all university research grant and contract income in the United Kingdom.[4] Fifteen of the country's sixteen universities in the THE top 100 are members of the group. Their graduates hold 61% of all UK jobs that require a university degree, despite being only 17% of all higher education graduates.[5][6] Russell Group members award 60% of all doctorates gained in the United Kingdom.[4] In the 2014 Research Excellence Framework, 68% of world-leading (4*) research and 68% of research with an outstanding (4*) impact was carried out in Russell Group universities.[7] Of the 21 Russell Group universities that have entered the Teaching Excellence and Student Outcomes Framework (TEF), 10 hold gold awards (48%), 10 silver (48%) and one bronze (5%),[8] compared to proportions across all 274 higher education providers with full awards of 28% gold, 50% silver and 22% bronze,[9] and proportions across 139 universities and alternative providers with university status of 40% gold, 50% silver and 10% bronze.[10]

The Russell Group is named after the location of the first informal meetings of the Group, which took place at the Hotel Russell in Russell Square, London.[11]

History[edit]

The Russell Group Universities was formed in 1994 by 17 British research universities – Birmingham, Bristol, Cambridge, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Imperial College London, Leeds, Liverpool, London School of Economics, Manchester, Newcastle, Nottingham, Oxford, Sheffield, Southampton, University College London and Warwick, who originally met at Hotel Russell shortly before meetings of the Committee of Vice-Chancellors and Principals (now Universities UK) in nearby Tavistock Square, close to the University of London buildings and, particularly, Senate House.[11][12] In 1998, Cardiff University and King's College London joined the group.[13] In March 2001, the Russell Group decided against selecting a preferred option for the future funding of higher education, stating that endowments, a graduate contribution, increased public funding and top-up fees should all remain options.[14] In December 2005, it was announced that the Russell Group would be appointing its first full-time director-general as a result of a planned expansion of its operations, including commissioning and conducting its own policy research.[15] In November 2006, Queen's University Belfast was admitted as the twentieth member of the group.[16] In the same month Wendy Piatt, the then deputy director in the Prime Minister's strategy unit, was announced as the group's new Director General and chief executive.[16]

In March 2012, it was announced that four universities – Durham, Exeter, Queen Mary University of London; and York – would become members of the Russell Group in August of the same year.[11] All of the new members had previously been members of the 1994 Group of British universities.[11]

In January 2013, it was announced that the Russell Group would establish an academic board to advise the English exams watchdog Ofqual on the content of A-Levels.[17] In May 2019 the group launched a website "Informed Choices" to advise school children on which A-level subject choices were useful for various degree courses, replacing an earlier teachers' guide that had identified a list of "facilitating subjects'.[18]

Organisation[edit]

Objectives[edit]

The Russell Group states that "its aim is to help ensure that our universities have the optimum conditions in which to flourish and continue to make social, economic and cultural impacts through their world-leading research and teaching."[2]

It works towards this by lobbying the UK government and parliament; commissioning reports and research; creating a forum in which its member institutions can discuss issues of common concern; and identify opportunities for them to work together.

Leadership[edit]

The Russell Group is led by Chief Executive Dr Tim Bradshaw and chaired by Prof Sir Anton Muscatelli, Vice-Chancellor of the University of Glasgow.

In May 2020 the Russell Group appointed the next chair Professor Dame Nancy Rothwell, President and Vice-Chancellor of The University of Manchester, starting September 2020.[19]


Russell Group Chairs 2000–2023[19]
Name Dates Institution
Sir Colin Lucas 2000–2003 Oxford
Professor Sir Michael Sterling 2003–2006 Birmingham
Professor Sir Malcolm Grant 2006–2009 UCL
Professor Michael Arthur 2009–2012 Leeds
Professor Sir David Eastwood 2012–2015 Birmingham
Professor Sir David Greenaway 2015–2017 Nottingham
Professor Sir Anton Muscatelli 2017–2020 Glasgow
Professor Dame Nancy Rothwell 2020–2023 Manchester

Members[edit]

The Russell Group currently has twenty four members,[12] of which twenty are from England, two from Scotland, and one from each of Wales and Northern Ireland. Of the English members, five are from Greater London; three from the Yorkshire and the Humber region; two from each of the North East, North West, West Midlands, South West and South East regions; and one from each of the East Midlands and East regions. Four Russell Group members are constituent colleges of the University of London and a fifth London institution, Imperial College London, was part of the University of London until 2007.

The table below gives the members of the group, along with when they joined, their student and staff numbers, and their Teaching Excellence Framework rating).

University[20] Year of joining Undergraduate students (2019/20)[21] Postgraduate students (2019/20)[22] Total students (2019/20)[23] Total academic staff (2018/19)[24] TEF award[25]
Shield of the University of Birmingham.svgUniversity of Birmingham 1994 23,155 12,605 35,760 4,020 Gold
Shield of the University of Bristol.svgUniversity of Bristol 1994 20,035 7,340 27,375 3,285 Silver
University of Cambridge coat of arms.svgUniversity of Cambridge 1994 12,860 8,475 21,340 6,215 Gold
Shield of the University of Cardiff.svgCardiff University 1998 23,755 9,505 33,260 3,330 Silver
Durham shield.pngDurham University 2012 14,730 4,790 19,520 1,720 Gold
University of Edinburgh arms.svgUniversity of Edinburgh 1994 23,060 12,310 35,375 7,310 N/A
University of Exeter arms.svgUniversity of Exeter 2012 20,320 6,615 26,935 2,810 Gold
Shield of the University of Glasgow.svgUniversity of Glasgow 1994 21,165 11,300 32,465 4,275 N/A
Shield of Imperial College London.svgImperial College London 1994 10,475 8,925 19,400 4,055 Gold
Shield of King's College London.svgKing's College London 1998 19,370 13,740 33,110 4,390 Silver
Shield of the University of Leeds.svgUniversity of Leeds 1994 25,955 10,370 36,330 3,785 Gold
Shield of the University of Liverpool.svgUniversity of Liverpool 1994 22,690 6,910 29,600 3,005 Silver
London School of Economics Coat of Arms.svgLondon School of Economics 1994 5,160 6,895 12,050 1,725 Bronze
Shield of the University of Manchester.svgUniversity of Manchester 1994 26,630 13,855 40,485 5,080 Silver
Shield of the University of Newcastle.svgNewcastle University 1994 21,300 6,775 28,070 3,010 Gold
Shield of the University of Nottingham.svgUniversity of Nottingham 1994 25,980 8,860 34,840 3,495 Gold
Coat of arms of the University of Oxford.svgUniversity of Oxford 1994 15,270 10,640 25,910 6,905 Gold
Queen Mary, University of London Crest-2.pngQueen Mary University of London 2012 14,825 6,840 21,665 3,235 Silver
Queen's University Belfast arms.svgQueen's University Belfast 2006 18,310 6,605 24,915 1,905 N/A
Shield of the University of Sheffield.svgUniversity of Sheffield 1994 19,100 10,955 30,055 3,495 Silver
Shield of the University of Southampton.svgUniversity of Southampton 1994 14,705 7,960 22,665 2,735 Silver
University College London 1994 19,715 21,380 41,095 7,700 Silver
Shield of the University of Warwick.svgUniversity of Warwick 1994 17,635 9,190 26,825 2,635 Silver
University of York coat of arms.svgUniversity of York 2012 14,075 5,715 19,790 1,935 Gold

Notes:
Constituent college of the University of London, awarding its own degrees

Status[edit]

Research[edit]

In 2015/16, following the 2014 Research Excellence Framework, the 19 English universities with HEFCE research funding allocations (excluding transitional funding) in excess of £20 million were all members of the Russell Group. The only English Russell Group institution to receive an allocation below £20 million was the LSE (£18.6 million), which ranked 22nd behind the Universities of Leicester and Lancaster (both on £19 million).[26]

In 2010/11, 19 of the 20 UK universities with the highest income from research grants and contracts were members of the Russell Group.[27] In terms of total research funding allocations from the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) in 2007/8, the top 15 universities were all Russell Group institutions.[28] LSE was 21st, due to its focus on less costly social sciences research. Queen's University Belfast, Cardiff, Glasgow and Edinburgh, were not included in this table, as they are not English institutions. The Russell Group institutions received 82% of the total HEFCE research funding allocation.[28]

The research funding figures depend on factors other than the quality of research, in particular there are variations due to institutional size and subject spread (e.g. science, technology and medicine tend to attract more money).

In 2008, 18 of the then 20 members were positioned in the top 20 of Research Fortnight's Research Assessment Exercise 'Power' Table. The other two places were occupied by Durham University and Queen Mary University of London, which were not then Russell Group members but have since joined. The two Russell Group institutions outside the top 20 were QUB (21st) and the LSE (27th), while the other two universities to have since joined were York (22nd) and Exeter (25th).[29] In the equivalent table for the 2014 Research Excellence Framework, the 24 Russell Group members occupied the top 24 positions, with the University of Lancaster in 25th being the highest-ranked non-Russell Group university.[30]

Rankings[edit]

In 2021, all eight UK universities in the ARWU top 100, sixteen of the seventeen in the QS top 100 (the other place being occupied by the University of St Andrews), and all eleven in the THE top 100 are members of the Russell Group. The Russell Group provides seven of the top ten in the Complete, Guardian, and Times/Sunday Times.

University ARWU 2021 (Global)[31] QS 2022 (Global)[32] THE 2022 (Global)[33] Complete 2022 (National)[34] Guardian 2022 (National)[35] Times/Sunday Times 2022 (National)[36]
University of Birmingham 101–150 90 105= 19 29 25
University of Bristol 78= 62 92 17 14 14
University of Cambridge 3 3= 5= 2 2 3
Cardiff University 151–200 151= 189 25 38= 35=
Durham University 301–400 82= 162= 6 5 6
University of Edinburgh 38= 16 30= 12 12 13
University of Exeter 151–200 149= 143= 13= 15 21
University of Glasgow 151–200 73 86= 16 11 12
Imperial College London 25 7 12 5 7 4
King's College London 47 35 35= 21 23 18
University of Leeds 101–150 92 127= 20 16 15
University of Liverpool 101–150 189= 178= 30= 40 30=
London School of Economics 151–200 49 27 3 4 5
University of Manchester 35= 27= 50 13= 28 23
Newcastle University 201–300 134 146= 37 55= 42
University of Nottingham 101–150 103 141 24 52 28
University of Oxford 7 2 1 1 1 2
Queen Mary University of London 201–300 117 117= 41= 51 40
Queen's University Belfast 401–500 216= 201–250 34 33 24
University of Sheffield 101–150 95 110 26 27 22
University of Southampton 151–200 77 124 15 17 16
University College London 17 8= 18= 8 9 7
University of Warwick 101–150 61 78= 9 6 8
University of York 401–500 151= 169 18 18= 19

Selectivity[edit]

All but two of the universities in the Russell Group are part of the Sutton Trust's group of 30 highly selective universities, the Sutton 30 (the absent members being Queen Mary University of London and Queen's University Belfast).[37] The Sutton 13 group of the 13 most highly selective universities only includes one non-Russell Group member, the University of St Andrews.[38] The top 10 by average UCAS points of new undergraduate students in 2019–20 included three non-Russell Group universities: St Andrews (1st; 208 points), Strathclyde (5th; 198 points) and Aberdeen (10th; 182 points).[39] The average offer rate, including conditional and unconditional offers, across 'high tariff' UK institutions (as defined by UCAS) was 73.4% in 2019.[40]

University Average Entry Tariffa[39] Offer Rate (%)b[40]
University of Birmingham 152 81.9
University of Bristol 164 74.9
University of Cambridge 205 29.0
Cardiff University 144 81.7
Durham University 184 80.4
University of Edinburgh 186 52.3
University of Exeter 157 92.8
University of Glasgow 199 69.0
Imperial College London 194 46.0
King's College London 166 70.3
University of Leeds 157 71.8
University of Liverpool 140 84.7
London School of Economics 177 41.4
University of Manchester 165 70.1
Newcastle University 144 86.5
University of Nottingham 147 81.1
University of Oxford 200 21.8
Queen Mary University of London 146 80.7
Queen's University Belfast 147 83.0
University of Sheffield 150 85.1
University of Southampton 152 78.3
University College London 185 58.6
University of Warwick 162 78.2
University of York 149 86.6

Notes:
a The average UCAS tariff achieved by new students entering the university in 2018–19. This is based on qualifications achieved, for example A-levels: A* = 56, A = 48, B = 40 UCAS points; AS level: A = 20, B = 16, C = 12.[41]
b The average offer rate for 18-year-old June deadline applicants in 2019.

Finances[edit]

The Russell Group accounted for 49.1% of the income of the higher education sector in the UK in 2013–14, having risen from 44.7% of the total in 2001–02. Over the same period the total income of Russell Group universities rose by 69.9% in real terms, compared to a sector average of 54.4%.[42] Russell Group universities are also seen as "particularly creditworthy" due to their membership of the group, allowing them to borrow money at low interest rates.[43]

The total annual income for Russell Group members for 2016–17 was £16.67 billion of which £4.38 billion was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £15.90 billion. The table below is a record of each Russell Group member's financial data for the 2016–17 financial year.

University Government Funding Body Grants (£m) Teaching Income (£m) Teaching Income as % of Total Income Research Income (£m) Research Income as % of Total Income Total Income (£m) Operating Surplus (£m) Surplus as % of Total Income Endowment Value (£m) Total Net Assets (£m)
University of Birmingham[44] 88.9 243.6 39.4% 155.4 25.1% 617.9 53.3 8.63% 112.6 1,227.6
University of Bristol[45] 78.7 305.1 48.0% 124.0 19.5% 635.6 38.3 6.03% 70.2 890.8
University of Cambridge[46] 178 264 15.4% 458 26.7% 1,714 72 4.20% 1,728 4,298
Cardiff University[47] 58.4 254 50.4% 101.2 20.1% 503.8 —8.8 —1.75% 33.1 722.9
Durham University[48] 39.4 181.7 50.3% 53.4 14.8% 361.0 33.3 9.22% 72.0 401.5
University of Edinburgh[49] 191.8 278.5 30.7% 265.3 29.3% 905.8 58.3 6.44% 392.1 2,009.7
University of Exeter[50] 40.0 219.2 55.0% 70.2 17.6% 398.9 9.6 2.41% 37.2 496.8
University of Glasgow[51] 160.4 174.7 28.8% 179.8 29.6% 607.5 41.6 6.85% 188.4 791.2
Imperial College London[52] 143.1 265.1 27.0% 348.2 35.4% 983.2 89.3 9.08% 141.7 1,462.8
King's College London[53] 123.0 300.0 38.6% 192.6 24.7% 778.2 14.0 1.80% 213.5 926.2
University of Leeds[54] 82.4 323.0 48.4% 131.1 19.6% 667.2 11.2 1.68% 72.7 748.8
University of Liverpool[55] 77.2 255.2 48.9% 94.5 18.1% 521.8 45.1 8.64% 166.5 651.4
London School of Economics[56] 26.3 199.3 57.4% 31.5 9.1% 347.4 35.5 10.22% 132.7 510.0
University of Manchester[57] 133.9 432.3 43.4% 262.1 26.3% 996.6 30.8 3.09% 222.2 1,576.8
Newcastle University[58] 69.1 216.8 46.1% 107.6 22.9% 470.7 13.6 2.89% 75.2 429.1
University of Nottingham[59] 90.1 309.3 48.5% 123.7 19.4% 637.6 25.6 4.02% 55.1 405.5
University of Oxford[60] 194.6 295.3 21.9% 559.0 41.5% 1,345.4 15.4 1.14% 828.7 3,165.2
Queen Mary University of London[61] 68.2 207.7 48.4% 107.6 22.9% 428.8 13.6 2.89% 34.3 472.0
Queen's University Belfast[62] 99.6 98.1 29.1% 79.6 23.6% 337.6 12.5 3.70% 65.4 409.3
University of Sheffield[63] 83.8 281.7 45.8% 155.9 25.4% 614.7 —10.7 —1.74% 42.2 837.5
University of Southampton[64] 76.0 246.3 42.2% 136.3 23.3% 584.0 46.2 7.91% 12.9 499.3
University College London[65] 194.6 460.6 35.3% 458.4 35.1% 1,304.7 73.0 5.60% 111.4 1,187.4
University of Warwick[66] 58.4 287.5 49.9% 120.3 20.9% 576.2 38.6 6.70% 4.8 174.3
University of York[67] 40.9 166.1 50.1% 66.0 19.9% 331.4 13.1 3.95% 7.7 339.8

Notes:
exclusive of colleges

Criticisms[edit]

'Elite' status questioned[edit]

In a statement to the Higher Education Policy Institute, David Watson of the University of Oxford suggested that the Russell Group's claim to represent 24 'leading universities' was "a real stretch". In the context of the Russell Group's reputation in the sector, he continued: "particularly dangerous, I think, is the bottom half of the Russell Group…The problem with the Russell Group is that it represents neither the sector as a whole [nor], in many cases, the best of the sector". Performance in research intensity showed that there were dozens of other UK universities "above the bottom Russellers".[68]

A Durham University academic, Vikki Boliver, published a report in 2015 claiming that the prestigious position of the Russell Group was not based on evidence, but rather successful marketing. Only the universities of Oxford and Cambridge were significantly more elite than the majority of "old" universities when a grouping analysis was performed using data on academic selectivity, research activity, teaching quality, socio-economic exclusivity and economic resources. The other 22 members of the Russell Group sit in a second tier of universities along with 17 other "old" universities (University of Aberdeen, University of Bath*, University of Dundee, University of East Anglia*, Goldsmiths*, Heriot-Watt University, University of Kent, Lancaster University*, University of Leicester*, Loughborough University*, University of Reading*, Royal Holloway*, University of St Andrews*, SOAS*, University of Strathclyde, University of Surrey* and University of Sussex*), mostly comprising former members of the defunct 1994 Group (shown by asterisks). Another 13 "old" universities and 54 "new" universities made up a third tier, with a fourth tier of 19 "new" universities. Within each tier, the differences between the institutions were less significant than the differences between the tiers.[69][70] This reflected an earlier result from 2010 that, when the "Golden Triangle" universities (defined in the study as Oxford, Cambridge, Imperial, LSE, and UCL) were omitted, the remaining (then) members of the Russell Group were outperformed by the (then) members of the 1994 Group.[71]

Ant Bagshaw from the Wonkhe think-tank has criticised the use of Russell Group membership as a proxy for selectivity in official Department for Education reports and statistics, as better measures of selectivity are available from UCAS data. He states that the idea that "Russell Group membership is synonymous with 'best'" is "persistent, but unverified". He also notes that this may lead to less scrutiny of the performance of non-Russell Group selective universities with respect to widening participation and improving access.[72]

Protectionism[edit]

The Institute of Economic Affairs has argued that the Russell Group acts out of protectionist interests. It is claimed that this will "restrict competition, discourage innovation and encourage inefficiency, thereby depriving students of lower prices and/or greater choice".[73]

Tuition fees[edit]

The Russell Group has been prominent in recent years in the debate over the introduction of tuition fees, a measure which it has strongly supported – much to the dismay of the universities' students' unions. Indeed, members of the group argued that even the fees proposed by the controversial Higher Education Bill would not be sufficient to cover the rising cost of undergraduate teaching, and successfully argued for the right to charge variable fees at much higher rates, so-called top-up fees.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Disclaimer". Russell Group. Retrieved 1 December 2019.
  2. ^ a b "About". Russell Group. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
  3. ^ Paul Blackmore (29 March 2016). "Universities vie for the metric that cannot be measured: prestige". The Guardian. "The Russell Group has successfully stage-managed the position that it is seen as comprising the best universities. Some are and some aren't, but by and large this is nonsense.
    "However, parents increasingly say they want their child to go to one."
    Pre-92 head
  4. ^ a b "Profile" (PDF). Russell Group. June 2017. pp. 6–7. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
  5. ^ "Graduates in the UK Labour Market – 2017" (Press release). Office for National Statistics. 24 November 2017. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
  6. ^ "Government publishes destination data for the first time". gov.uk. Department of Education. 12 July 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  7. ^ "Research Excellence Framework". Russell Group. 18 December 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
  8. ^ Eleanor Busby (6 June 2018). "Elite universities improve teaching scores after requesting to be judged again in government rankings". The Independent.
  9. ^ "TEF outcomes". Office for Students. Retrieved 18 July 2020.
  10. ^ Seeta Bhardwa (19 June 2019). "What is the TEF? Results of the teaching excellence framework 2019". Times Higher Education.
  11. ^ a b c d "Four universities join elite Russell Group". BBC News. 12 March 2012. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
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  13. ^ "Do you want to be in my gang?". Times Higher Education. 19 November 2009. Retrieved 1 January 2013.
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  15. ^ "Russell Group seeks leader to oversee its expanded role". Times Higher Education. 9 December 2005. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
  16. ^ a b "Queen's gets key to Russell club door". Times Higher Education. 9 November 2006. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
  17. ^ "Russell Group to advise on A-level content in post-16 shake-up". Times Higher Education. 23 January 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
  18. ^ Camilla Turner (23 May 2019). "Bright teenagers risk having university plans 'scuppered' by bad A-levels advice, Russell Group warns". Daily Telegraph.
  19. ^ a b Professor Dame Nancy Rothwell appointed Russell Group Chair, Russell Group, 15 May 2020, archived from the original on 15 June 2020, retrieved 15 June 2020
  20. ^ "Russell Group: Our Universities". Russellgroup.ac.uk. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
  21. ^ "Where do HE students study?". Higher Education Statistics Agency. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
  22. ^ "Where do HE students study?". Higher Education Statistics Agency. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
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  24. ^ "Who's working in HE". Higher Education Statistics Agency. Staff numbers by HE provider. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
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  29. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 9 June 2012. Retrieved 4 August 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
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  37. ^ Degree of Success: University Chances by Individual School (Report). The Sutton Trust. 8 July 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  38. ^ Earnings by Degrees (PDF) (Report). Sutton Trust. 18 December 2014. pp. 16–17. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
  39. ^ a b "Complete University Guide 2022 – Entry Standards". Retrieved 29 August 2021.
  40. ^ a b "2019 entry UCAS Undergraduate reports by sex, area background, and ethnic group". UCAS. Retrieved 29 August 2021.
  41. ^ "New Tariff tables". UCAS. 15 May 2018. Retrieved 26 July 2018.
  42. ^ Chris Havergal (9 December 2015). "Russell Group 'pulls further away' in funding race". Times Higher Education.
  43. ^ John Morgan (11 February 2016). "Russell Group membership a 'badge of quality' for bond investors". Times Higher Education.
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  55. ^ "Financial Statements for the Year to 31 July 2017" (PDF). University of Liverpool. p. 20. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  56. ^ "Financial Statements for the Year to 31 July 2017" (PDF). London School of Economics. p. 30. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
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  59. ^ "Financial Statements for the Year to 31 July 2017" (PDF). University of Nottingham. p. 34. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
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  61. ^ "Financial Statements for the Year to 31 July 2017" (PDF). Queen Mary, University of London. p. 28. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  62. ^ "Financial Statements for the Year to 31 July 2017" (PDF). Queen's University Belfast. p. 35. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 19 December 2017.
  63. ^ "Financial Statements for the Year to 31 July 2017" (PDF). University of Sheffield. p. 54. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  64. ^ "Southampton Financial Statement 2017" (PDF). University of Southampton. p. 27.
  65. ^ "Annual Report and Financial Statements for the year ended 31 July 2017" (PDF). UCL. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  66. ^ "Statement of accounts for the year ended 31 July 2017" (PDF). University of Warwick. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
  67. ^ "Annual Report and Financial Statements" (PDF). University of York. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  68. ^ Morgan, John (3 April 2014). "Sir David Watson: Russell Group is not all it's cracked up to be". Times Higher Education. Times Higher Education. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  69. ^ Chris Havergal (19 November 2015). "Most Russell Group universities 'little different to other pre-92s'". Times Higher Education.
  70. ^ V. Bolivar (30 September 2015). "Are there distinctive clusters of higher and lower status universities in the UK?". Oxford Review of Education. Taylor & Francis. 41 (5): 608–627. doi:10.1080/03054985.2015.1082905. S2CID 143154842.
  71. ^ Zoë Corbyn (25 March 2010). "Data disprove case for distributing research funds on historical basis". Times Higher Education. The analysis, due to be published on 25 March, uses citation data to show that when the five "golden-triangle" institutions – the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, Imperial College London, University College London and the London School of Economics – are removed from the Russell Group of large research-intensive universities, the 1994 Group of smaller research-led universities outperforms it.
  72. ^ Ant Bagshaw (14 July 2017). "It's time to stop conflating the Russell Group with the 'best'". Wonkhe. Retrieved 30 July 2017.
  73. ^ Institute of Economic Affairs: James Stanfield

External links[edit]