Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917

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All-Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917
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← 1912 25 November 1917* 1921 →

All seats of the
All-Russian Constituent Assembly
  First party Second party Third party
  Viktor Mikhaylovich Chernov.jpg Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov-Lenin.jpg Hrushevskyi Mykhailo XX.jpg
Leader Victor Chernov Vladimir Lenin Mykhailo Hrushevsky
Party SR Bolshevik Ukrainian Socialist Bloc
Seats won
347 / 765
175 / 765
86 / 765

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  YuliMartov1917PorSteinberg.jpeg Войсковой Атаман Области Войска Донского, генерал от кавалерии Каледин Алексей Максимович.PNG Pavel Milyukov 2.jpg
Leader Julius Martov Alexey Kaledin Pavel Milyukov
Party Menshevik Cossacks Cadet
Seats won
17 / 765
16 / 765
14 / 765

Elections to the All-Russian Constituent Assembly were held on 25 November 1917 (although some districts had polling on alternate days), around 2 months after they were originally meant to occur, having been organized as a result of events in the Russian Revolution of 1917. They are generally recognised to be the first free elections in Russian history.

Various academic studies have given alternative results. However, all clearly indicate that the Bolsheviks were clear winners in the urban centres, and also took around two-thirds of the votes of soldiers on the Western Front. Nevertheless, the SRs topped the polls on the strength of support from the country's rural peasantry. However, the peasantry were for the most part one-issue voters, that issue being land reform.

Background[edit]

The demand for a Constituent Assembly was a long-standing demand of the democratic and popular movements in Tsarist Russia. In the later phase of the February Revolution, Tsar Nicolas II abdicated on March 2, 1917. The Russian Provisional Government was formed and pledged to carry through with holding elections for a Constituent Assembly. Consensus emerged between all major political parties to go ahead with the election. Nevertheless, the various political parties were divided over many details on the organization of the impending election. The Bolsheviks demanded immediate elections, whilst the Socialist-Revolutionaries wanted to postpone the vote for several months for it not to collide with the harvest season. Right-wing forces also pushed for delay of the election.[1]

On March 19, 1917 a mass rally was held in Petrograd, demanding female suffrage. The march gathered some 40,000 participants. The protest was led by Vera Figner and Poliksena Shishkina-Iavein. It moved from the Petrograd City Duma to the Tauride Palace, and the demonstrators refused to vacate the palace grounds before the Provisional Government and the Soviet committed to female suffrage. On July 20, 1917, the Provisional Government issued a decree awarding voting rights for women aged 20 years and above.[2]

In May the political parties agreed on main principles of the election (proportional representation, universal suffrage and secret ballot). A special electoral commission was set up, composed of a multiple of lawyers and legal experts. The following month September 17, 1917 was set as the election date. The new Constituent Assembly was supposed to have its first meeting on September 30, 1917.[1]

In July the left-wing parties increased their pressure on the Provisional Government, reaching a nearly insurrectionist situation. In the end, the following month the left consented to a further postponement. On August 9, 1917 a new date for the election was by the Provisional Government: voting on November 12 and the first session of the Constituent Assembly would be held on November 28, 1917.[1][3]

Between the finalization of candidate lists and the election, the October Revolution broke out.[4] The October Revolution ended the reign of the Provisional Government. A new Soviet government took charge of the country, the Council of People's Commissars. Nevertheless, the new government pledged to go ahead with the election and that its rule remained provisional until its authority would be confirmed by the Constituent Assembly.[1]

Electoral system[edit]

81 electoral districts (okrugs) were formed by the Provisional Government.[5][6] Electoral districts were generally set up on (pre-revolutionary) governorate or ethnic oblast boundaries.[6][7] Moreover, there were electoral districts for the different army groups and fleets.[6] There were also an electoral district assigned for the workers at the Chinese Eastern Railroad and an one electoral district for the soldiers of the Russian Expeditionary Corps in France and the Balkans.[5]

No official electoral census exists. The estimated population of eligible voters at the time (excluding occupied territories) has been estimated at around 85 million, with the number of eligible voters in the districts were polling took place has been estimated at around 80 million.[5]

Each party had a separate ballot with a list with names of candidates, there was no general ballot. The voter would either have received copies of different party lists in advance or at the polling station. The voter would select one list, place it in an envelope, seal it and place it in the box. If any name was scratched, the vote would be invalid.[8]

Voting[edit]

The voting began on November 12-14, 1917.[9][7] The election was at the time the largest election organized in history.[10] However, only in 39 districts did the election take place as scheduled. In many districts the voting occurred in late November or early December, and in some remote placed the vote took place only in early January 1918.[3]

In spite of war and turmoil, some 47 million voters exercised their franchise, with a national voter turnout of around 64% (per Wade (2004)).[11][5] According to Wade (2004), the countryside generally had a higher voter turnout than the cities. 220 cities across the country, with a combined population of seven million, had a voter turnout of 58%. In agrarian provinces turnout generally ranged from 62 to 80%. In Tambov province urban areas had a turnout of 50.2% while rural areas had 74.5%.[12] According to Radkey (1989) national voter turnout stood at around 55%.[13]

Parties in the fray[edit]

Socialist-Revolutionaries[edit]

The Socialist-Revolutionaries emerged as the most voted party in the election, swaying the broad majority of the peasant vote. However, the agrarian programmes of the SR and Bolshevik parties were largely similar. But the peasantry was more confident with the SRs, as they knew the party from before. The Bolsheviks lacked an organizational presence in many rural areas. In areas where the Bolshevik electoral campaign had been active (for example, near to towns or garrisons) the peasant vote was somewhat evenly divided between SRs and Bolsheviks.[14]

Moreover, whilst the SRs enjoyed widespread support among the peasantry, the party lacked a strong organizational structure in rural areas. The party was highly dependent on peasant union, zemstvos, cooperatives and soviets.[15]

On the issue of war and peace, the SR leadership had vowed not to enter into a separate peace with the Central Powers. The SR leadership condemned the peace talks initiated by the Bolsheviks, but to what extent the SR leadership was prepared to continue to the war was unclear at the time. Along with the Mensheviks, the SRs supported the notion of engaging with other European socialist politicians to find a settlement to the ongoing World War.[16]

The filing of nominations for the election took place just as the split in the SR party was taking place. By late October, when the SR party lists were already set, the Left Socialist-Revolutionaries formed a separate party.[4][9][4] But whilst by the time of the election the Left SRs had constituted a separate party, the split was not completed in local SR party branches until early 1918.[15] The Kazan, Yaroslavl, Kazan and Kronstadt SR organizations went over to the Left SRs en bloc. In Ufa and Pskov the majority in the SR party organization crossed over to the Left SRs. In Petrograd the leftist faction had dominated the SR party branch prior to the October Revolution, but in the end around half of the SR party organization joined the Left SRs.[15] Notably in some of the locations leftist and rights SR lists were separately presented (Baltic Fleet, Petrograd, Kazan), the leftists prevailed over the rightists, leading D'Agostino (2011) to argue that had separate right/left SRs lists been presented nationwide the peasantry could have opted for the left (considering that there were no major difference between the factions on their agrarian programmes).[16]

A key Bolshevik argument against the legitimacy of the Constituent Assembly once it was elected was the fact that the lists had been finalized before the Left SRs constituted themselves as a separate party, and that if the Left SRs had stood separately the Bolshevik and Left SR would have won the majority vote.[17] Per Serge's account, 40 of 339 elected SR deputies were leftists and 50 belong to Chernov's centrist faction.[18]

Bolsheviks[edit]

In 1917 the Central Committee of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party (Bolsheviks) had begun to allow mass membership, without consulting with Lenin.[19] On July 1, 1917 the Central Committee sent out an instruction to local party organizations to build a broad democratic unity ahead of the elections, to reach out to Menshevik-Internationalists, left-wing SRs and trade unions.[19] In the wake of the abortive July uprising (organized by the revolutionary Petrograd Bolshevik Committee and the Military Organization), the moderates of the Central Committee again appealed to build a left socialist bloc and invited the Menshevik-Internationalists to attend the upcoming party congress as observers.[19] With the election finally approaching, Lenin took a though stand towards the Central Committee. The deplored the absence of proletarians from the list of proposed candidates that the Central Committee had adopted, charging the Committee with opening the doors for opportunists. In Lenin's view, only workers would be able to create alliances with the peasantry. One of the 'careerist' singled out by Lenin was Leo Trotsky (who recently had merged his Mezhraiontsy faction into the Bolshevik Party).[20]

The Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party (Bolsheviks) campaigned for bread, peace and a government of Soviets.[21] But the party leadership was divided on the issue of the Constituent Assembly. The moderates in the Central Committee held the opinion that the Constituent Assembly should become the supreme body to decide the future path of Russia.[19] Lenin opposed this line. In an article edited after the elections, he stated that the proletariat cannot achieve victory if it does not win the majority of the population to its side. But to limit that winning to polling a majority of votes in an election under the rule of the bourgeoisie, or to make it the condition for it, is crass stupidity, or else sheer deception of the workers. In order to win the majority of the population to its side the proletariat must, in the first place, overthrow the bourgeoisie and seize state power; secondly, it must introduce Soviet power and completely smash the old state apparatus, whereby it immediately undermines the rule, prestige and influence of the bourgeoisie and petty-bourgeois compromisers over the non-proletarian working people. Thirdly, it must entirely destroy the influence of the bourgeoisie and petty-bourgeois compromisers over the majority of the non-proletarian masses by satisfying their economic needs in a revolutionary way at the expense of the exploiters.[20]

The party emerged victorious in the two main cities; Petrograd and Moscow, and emerged the major party in urban Russia overall.[14] It won an absolute majority of votes in the Baltic Fleet, the Northern Front and the Western Front.[14] The call for immediate peace made the Bolsheviks popular in the military, winning around 42% of the votes from the armed forces.[17] Often the election result is portrayed as an indicator for impopularity of the Bolsheviks, but as per Victor Serge the strong showing of the Bolshevik vote in the main cities 18 days after the October Revolution broke out shows that there was a popular mandate from the industrial workers for the Revolution.[18]

Mensheviks[edit]

By the time of the election, the Mensheviks had lost most of their influence in the workers' soviets.[18] The election result confirmed the marginalization of the Mensheviks, obtaining a little over a million votes.[16] In a fifth of the constituencies, pro-war Mensheviks and Internationalists ran on competing slates and in Petrograd and Kharkov the defencists had set up their own local organizations.[22] Nearly half of the Menshevik vote came from Georgia.[18]

Kadets[edit]

The Kadet party had changed its name to 'People's Freedom Party' by 1917, but the new name was rarely used.[23] Kadets campaigned for national unity, law and order, honour commitments to the allies of Russia and 'honorable peace'.[21] The Kadets condemned Bolsheviks in election campaign.[24] The Kadets had sought to build a broad democratic coalition, setting up a liaison committee for alliances (Vladimir Dmitrievich Nabokov, Andrei Ivanovich Shingarev and M. S. Adzhemov) but this effort failed as the Popular Socialists and cooperative movement rejected electoral pacts with the Kadets.[25]

Whilst the Kadets emerged as the main losers in the election, they did take a sizable share of the votes in the largest cities.[1] However the Kadets were hurt by abstention amongst urban intelligentsia voters.[26] They had also lost a large share of their habitual Jewish intelligentsia vote to Jewish national coalition lists.[26]

Popular Socialists[edit]

The congress of the Popular Socialists, held on September 26, 1917, rejected the notion of an electoral alliance with the Kadets.[25] The party congress ordered that joint lists would only be organized with fellow socialist groups.[25] The Popular Socialists condemned Bolsheviks in their campaigning, whilst stressing the defenist line of their own party.[24]

Cooperative movement[edit]

The cooperative societies held an emergency congress on October 4, 1917, at which it was decided that they would contest the Constituent Assembly elections directly.[27][25] The congress discarded the notion of electoral pacts with non-socialist groups.[25] In the Petrograd election district, the list of cooperative candidates included only one notable figure, Alexander Chayanov. The other six candidates were largely unknown.[28]

National minorities[edit]

Most non-Russian voters opted for national minority parties. In the case of Ukraine, the Ukrainian Socialist-Revolutionary Party dominated the 4 electoral districts of the Ukrainian peasantry. Non-Ukrainian urban populations largely voted for Russian parties.[29] In Kiev city the Ukrainian parties obtained 26% of the vote.[30] However, in Belorussia, Belorussian nationalist groups gathered less than 1% of the votes. In Transcaucasus the vote was divided between Georgians (voting for Mensheviks), Armenians (voting for the Armenian Revolutionary Federation, also known as Dashnaksiun) and Azeris (voting for Musavat and other Muslim groups). Tatar and Bashkir lists gathered 55% of the votes in Ufa.[29]

In 14 electoral districts, 2 or more Jewish lists were in the fray.[10] In Zhitomir, 5 out of 13 parties contesting were Jewish.[10] in Gomel 4 out of 11 parties were Jewish, in Poltava 5 out of 14.[10] Some 80% of the votes cast for Jewish parties went to Jewish national coalition lists.[10] The Folkspartey was the most enthusiastic proponent of Jewish national coalition lists.[10] These coalitions, generally contesting under titles such as 'Jewish National Bloc' or 'Jewish National Election Committee' also gathered Zionists and Orthodox Jews.[10] The candidates on these lists had vowed to form a common bloc in the Constituent Assembly and implement decisions of the All-Russian Jewish Congress.[31] Jewish national lists elected Iu. D. Brutskus, A.M. Goldstein, the Moscow rabbi Yaakov Mazeh. V. I. Temkin, D. M. Kogan-Bernsthein, N. S. Syrkin and O. O. Gruzenberg (who was then close to Zionist circles). D.V. Lvovich was elected on SR-Fareynikte list and the Bundist G.I. Lure was elected on a Menshevik-Bund list.[32]

Others[edit]

Radical Democrats (rightists) got some 19,000 votes.[11]

Results[edit]

Svyatitsky and Lenin[edit]

There various different account of the election result, with varying numbers.[33] Many accounts on the election result originate from N. V. Svyatitsky's account, who was himself elected as an SR deputy to the Constituent Assembly.[33] His article was included in the one-year anniversary symposium of the Russian Revolution organized by the SR party (Moscow, Zemlya i Volya Publishers, 1918). Lenin (1919) describes Svyatitsky's account as extremely interesting. It presented results from 54 electoral districts, covering most of European Russia and Siberia. Notably is lacked details from the Olonets, Estonian, Kaluga, Bessarabian, Podolsk, Orenburg, Yakutsk, Don governorates, as well as Transcaucasus. All in all, Svyatitsky's account includes 36,257,960 votes. According to Lenin, the actual number from said 54 electoral districts was 36,262,560 votes. But Lenin reaffirms that between Svyatitisky's article and his account, the number of votes cast by party is largely identical.[34]

Lenin's account of the 1917 Russian Constituent Assembly result
(54 districts)
Bloc Votes % Party Votes %
Party of the Proletariat 9,023,963 25 Bolsheviks 9,023,963 25
Petty-bourgeoisie democratic parties 22,616,064 62 Socialist-Revolutionaries 20,900,000 58
Mensheviks 668,064 2
Popular Socialists 312,000 1
Unity 25,000
Cooperative 51,000
Ukrainian Soc.-Dem. 95,000
Ukrainian Socialists 507,000 1
German socialists 44,000
Finnish Socialists 14,000
Parties of landowners and bourgeoisie 4,539,639 13 Kadets 1,856,639 5
Association of Rural Proprietors and Landowners 215,000 1
Right groups 292,000 1
Old Believers 73,000
Jews 550,000 2
Muslims 576,000 2
Bashkirs 195,000
Letts 67,000
Polish 155,000
German 130,000
White Russians 12,000
Lists of various groups and organizations 418,000 1

Later accounts[edit]

More recent studies often use Svyatitsky's 1918 account as their starting point for further elaboration.[33] L. M. Spirin (1987) uses local newspapers and Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian archival holdings to supplement Svyatitsky, whereas Radkey predominately uses local newspapers as sources.[33] According to Arato (2017), U.S. scholar Oliver Henry Radkey is the most serious historian on the 1917 election.[35] According to Rabinovitch (2016), Spirin's account is the most complete.[33]

Spirin lumps parties together in the following categories; Bolsheviks, Kadets, SRs, Mensheviks, Petit-bourgeois nationalist, Bourgeois nationalist and Other.[6] Radkey presents some further detail on some parties, but also uses broad categories: SRs (sometimes distinguished between left/right), Bolsheviks, Mensheviks (sometimes divided between Menshevik-Internationalists and Right-wing pro-war Mensheviks), Other Socialists (with subcategories) Kadets, Special interests (including subcategories peasants, landowners, Cossacks, middle-class, others), Religious (Orthodox, Old Believers, others), Ukrainian (with subcategories), Turkic-Tatar (with subcategories), Other Nationalities (with subcategories).[36]

Deputies elected[edit]

Wade (2004) presents the party affiliation of 765 deputies elected from 73 electoral districts: 347 SRs, 47 Ukrainian SRs, 175 Bolsheviks, 17 Mensheviks, 7 Ukrainian Social Democrats, 14 Kadets, 2 Popular Socialists, another 32 Ukrainian socialists (possibly SRs or social democrats), 13 Muslim Socialists, 10 Dashnaks, 68 from other national parties, 16 Cossacks, 10 Christians and one clergyman. Another 55 deputies were supposed to have been elected from another 8 electoral districts.[11] Of the over 700 deputies known by name, over 400 participated at first session and only session of the Constituent Assembly (240 of the assembled belonged to the SR bloc).[37]

Several prominent politicians had stood as candidates in multiple electoral districts. The Central Committee of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party (Bolsheviks) had named Lenin as their candidate in 5 districts: Petrograd City, Petrograd Province, Ufa, Baltic Fleet and Northern Front. Lenin was also nominated from Moscow City.[38] On November 27 (December 10) the All-Russia Committee for Elections to the Constituent Assembly requested members of the Constituent Assembly who had been returned by several areas to present a written statement indicating the electoral district for which they accepted election. Having been elected by several areas, Lenin, too, presented such a statement.[38] Lenin opted to represent the Baltic Fleet in the Constituent Assembly. In case an elected candidate didn't send in such a statement, the All-Russian Election Commission for the Constituent Assembly would consider the person elected from the district where he obtained the highest number of votes.[39]

Results by electoral district[edit]

The voting figures presented in the table below are from Radkey (1989)[40], unless stated otherwise. In various districts, Radkey is not able to present a full account of the vote. In many cases the sources available to Radkey did not include all the lists in a specific district, meaning that in the account as a whole smaller parties tend to get underrepresented in many of the district-wise accounts. In some districts Radkey uses different sources for different lists, creating partially incomplete listings.

The names of elected deputies originate from Protasov (2008).[41] Party identity has been simplified. SR lists often included labels such as 'Socialist-Revolutionaries and Congress of Peasants Deputies' or 'Earth and Will', for example, but are here just presented as SR.

Northern[edit]

Constituency Commentary Summary of vote Elected deputies
Archangel
Archangel Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Arkhangelsk Governorate.[42] Radkey's account is missing 4 uezds, representing some 25% of the electorate the Archangel electoral district.[43] Notably, Archangel had a different electoral system than the rest of the country, as voters voted for individual candidates rather than party lists.[43]
Arkhangelsk
Party Vote %
List 3 - Socialist-Revolutionaries and Soviet of Peasants' Deputies 85,272 66.81
List 5 - Bolsheviks 21,779 17.06
List 1 - Kadets 12,086 9.47
List 2 - Mensheviks 7,335 5.75
List 3 - Citizens Group of Kurlev volost 1,160 0.91
Total: 127,632
Deputies Elected
Ivanov SR
Kvyatkovskiy SR
Olonets
Olonets Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Olonets Governorate.[42] Olonets had special electoral system, electing 2 deputies and with each voter having 2 votes. Radkey's summary excludes 126,827 duplicate votes. The Socialist-Revolutionaries and the Mensheviks had an electoral alliance, with each of the two parties presenting one candidate. Both were elected with big margins, SR candidate obtained 127,062 whilst the Menshevik candidate obtained 126,827 votes.[44]
Olonets
Party Vote %
Socialist-Revolutionaries/Mensheviks 127,062 84.62
Kadets 20,278 13.50
Other 2,813 1.87
Total: 150,153
Deputies Elected
Matveev SR-Menshevik bloc
Shishkin SR-Menshevik bloc
Vologda
Vologda Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Vologda Governorate.[42] Out of the 10 uezds in Vologda electoral district, Radkey's account has 1 uezds with a largely incomplete vote count and gaps in coverage in another 2 uezds. In Vologda the Bolsheviks and Mensheviks had a common list.[45] Soviet sources indicated that Social Democratic list was dominated by the Bolsheviks.[46]
Vologda
Party Vote %
List 1 - Socialist-Revolutionaries and Soviet of Peasants' Deputies 320,528 75.79
List 2 - Bolsheviks/Mensheviks 67,650 16.00
List 4 - Kadets 22,912 5.42
List 3 - Popular Socialists 8,071 1.91
List 5 - Unity 3,742 0.88
Total: 422,903
Deputies Elected
Galkin SR
Koryakin SR
Maslov SR
Raschesaev SR
Sorokin SR
Yuretsky SR
Vetoshkin Bolshevik

Northwestern[edit]

Constituency Commentary Summary of vote Elected deputies
Petrograd City
Petrograd city constituted an electoral district of its own, separate from the rest of the Petrograd Governorate.[42] Voter turnout in the capital was estimated at between 69.7% and 72%.[47]

The Petrograd SR branch was dominated by left-wing elements.[48]

The Kadet list (no. 2) was headed by Pavel Milyukov, followed by Maxim Vinaver, Nikolai Kutler, F.I. Rodichev, Vladimir Dmitrievich Nabokov, Andrei Ivanovich Shingarev, Countess Sofia Panina, Aleksandr Kornilov, D.D. Grimm, D.S. Zernov, Vladimir Vernadsky, A.N. Kolosov, A.D. Protopopov, Prince V.A. Obolensky, Sergey Oldenburg, L.A. Velikhov, K. N. Sokolov and V. M. Hessen.[49]

The Bolshevik (no. 4) Bolsheviks headed by Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov (Lenin), followed by Evsei Aronovich Radomyslsky (Zinoviev), Lev Davydovich Bronstein (Trotsky), Lev Borisovich Rosenfeld (Kamenev), Alexandra Kollontai, Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Stalin), Matvei Muranov, Mikhail Kalinin, Józef Unszlicht, Sergei Alexandrovich Cherepanov, Grigorii Eremeevich Evdokimov, Klavdia Ivanovna Nikolaeva and others.[49]

There was also a Women's List (no. 13).[2]

Petrograd City
Party Vote %
Bolsheviks 424,027 45.00
Kadets 246,506 26.16
Socialist-Revolutionaries 152,230 16.15
Orthodox 24,139 2.56
Popular Socialists 19,109 2.03
Mensheviks (Potresovites)[50] 17,427 1.85
Roman Catholic 14,382 1.53
Menshevik-Internationalists 11,740 1.25
Cossack 6,712 0.71
League of Women Voters 5,310 0.56
Non-Partisan 4,942 0.52
Right-wing Socialist-Revolutionaries 4,696 0.50
Ukrainian Socialist-Revolutionaries-
Fareynikte alliance
4,219 0.45
Other religious 3,797 0.40
Unity 1,823 0.19
Radical Democrats 413 0.04
Unaccounted 861 0.09
Total: 942,333
Deputies Elected
Kutler Kadet
Milyukov Kadet
Rodichev Kadet
Vinaver Kadet
Cherepanov Bolshevik
Evdokimov Bolshevik
Kalinin Bolshevik
Stalin Bolshevik
Unszlicht Bolshevik
Zinoviev Bolshevik
Kamkov SR
Shreider SR
Petrograd Governorate
Petrograd Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Petrograd Governorate, except for the capital city itself.[42] According to Radkey the result is incomplete, as data is missing for 7 minor lists.[51]
Petrograd Province
Party Vote %
Bolsheviks 229,698 51.47
Socialist-Revolutionaries 119,761 26.84
Kadets 64,859 14.53
Finnish Socialists 10,800 2.42
Estonians 8,574 1.92
Popular Socialists 5,957 1.33
Mensheviks 3,925 0.88
Orthodox 2,140 0.48
Ukrainian and Jewish List 95 0.02
Cooperative 13 0.00
Unclassified 451 0.10
Total: 446,273
Deputies Elected
Nabokov Kadet
Vysotsky SR
Zenzinov SR
Nimvitsky Bolshevik
Pozern Bolshevik
Raskolnikov Bolshevik
Shotman Bolshevik
Voskov Bolshevik
Pskov
Pskov Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Pskov Governorate.[42] Out of 13 lists that were submitted to the electoral authorities, 4 were barred from contesting.[52] The SR list was dominated by Left SR elements.[53] A priest was killed in connection with the election day, one of few violent incidents across the country.[54]
Pskov
Party Vote %
Socialist-Revolutionaries 295,012 57.25
Bolsheviks 173,631 33.69
Kadets 25,961 5.04
Mensheviks 4,870 0.95
Popular Socialists 4,059 0.79
Lettish Peasant Union/Lettish Radical Democratic Party 3,859 0.75
Pskov Provincial Union of Landowners 3,209 0.62
League of Women Voters 2,366 0.46
Pskov United Democratic Groups of Townspeople, Peasants and Workers 2,337 0.45
Total: 515,304
Deputies Elected
Bekleshov SR
Olkhin SR
Pokrovsky SR
Safonov SR
Utkin SR
Joffe Bolshevik
Usharnov Bolshevik
Yurov (Okhotin) Bolshevik
Novgorod
Novgorod Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Novgorod Governorate.[42] Whilst Novgorod was an agrarian province, the Bolsheviks obtained a good vote. This might have been due to the fact that many inhabitants were accustomed to perform seasonal work in nearby Petrograd.[55] 4 local peasants lists did not qualify to run in the election.[52]
Novgorod
Party Vote %
Socialist-Revolutionaries 220,665 45.36
Bolsheviks 203,658 41.87
Kadets 31,484 6.47
Popular Socialists 10,314 2.12
Mensheviks 9,336 1.92
Landowners 7,804 1.60
Home Owners 1,178 0.24
Cooperative 1,123 0.23
Unity 860 0.18
Total: 486,422
Deputies Elected
Gukovsky SR
Kobyakov SR
Leontiev SR
Sokolov SR
Ermakov Bolshevik
Pashin Bolshevik
Trotsky Bolshevik
Uritsky Bolshevik
Valentinov Bolshevik

Baltic[edit]

Constituency Commentary Summary of vote Elected deputies
Estonia
Estonia Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Governorate of Estonia.[42] The Bolsheviks and Estonian Labour Party had their strongest support in Reval and northern Estonia. Bolsheviks obtained 47.6% of the votes cast in Reval. The Democratic Bloc obtained 53.4% in Tartu, and did also get a good number of votes in southern Estonia.[56] Notably, the Bolsheviks benefited from popular discontent with the failure of the Provisional Government to follow through on its promises of self-determination for Estonia.[56]
Estonia
Party Vote %
Bolsheviks 119,863 39.98
Estonian Democratic Party 68,085 22.71
Estonian Labour Party 64,704 21.58
Estonian SRs 17,726 5.91
Estonian Land Union 17,022 5.68
Estonian SDs 9,244 3.08
Socialist-Revolutionaries 3,200 1.07
Total: 299,844
Deputies Elected
Anvelt Bolshevik
Pöögelmann Bolshevik
Rabchinsky Bolshevik
Vakmann Bolshevik
Seljamaa Estonian Labour
Vilms Estonian Labour
Poska Estonian Democratic
Tõnisson Estonian Democratic
Livonia
Livonia Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Livonia Governorate, as well as the parts of the Courland Governorate not under German occupation.[42] Latvia was a Bolshevik stronghold at the time, as only in Latvia did the Social Democrats continue to function as a political party following the waves of repression 1905-1908.[57] After the February Revolution, the political scene in Riga was similar to that of many other cities in Russia, with Bolsheviks becoming the dominant force in the soviets and competing for power with the moderate socialists and the city duma. By May 1917 the Bolsheviks had emerged as the main political force of Latvian Riflemen's soviet. Gradually the Bolsheviks began to dominate Riga, but on September 3, 1917 German troops seized control of the city.[58] In September 1917 the Bolsheviks had some 12,000 members in Latvia, the Mensheviks 2,600.[57]

97,781 votes (72%) were cast for Social-Democracy of the Latvian Territory, the Bolshevik affiliate organization in Latvia.[59] At the time Riga was under German occupation so no vote took place there. In 9 uezds some 9,000 votes are missing according to Radkey.[60]

Livonia
Party Vote %
Bolsheviks 97,781 71.86
Lettish Peasants Union 31,253 22.97
Mensheviks 7,046 5.18
Total: 136,080
Deputies Elected
Goldmanis Lettish Peasant Union
Bērziņš SD of Latvian Territory
Peterson SD of Latvian Territory
Rozin SD of Latvian Territory

White Russia[edit]

Constituency Commentary Summary of vote Elected deputies
Vitebsk
Vitebsk Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Vitebsk Governorate.[42] White Russian separatism was a negligible force in the electoral district.[61] Grigorii (Zvi Hirsh) Bruk, Zionist and former Kadet deputy of the First Duma, stood as candidate of the Jewish National Electoral Committee.[62]
Vitebsk
Party Vote %
List 5 - Bolsheviks 287,101 51.22
List 1 - Socialist-Revolutionaries 150,279 26.81
List 11 - Socialist-Federalists and Peasants of Latgale 26,990 4.82
List 7 - Jewish National Electoral Committee 24,790 4.42
List 9 - Mensheviks-Bund 12,471 2.22
List 10 - United Polish Organizations 10,556 1.88
List 13 - Peasants of Vitebsk Governorate 9,752 1.74
List 6 - Vitebsk Belarusian People’s Union and
Orthodox Parishes of the Faith of the Polotsk Diocese
9,019 1.61
List 3 - Kadets 8,132 1.45
List 8 - Landowners and Old Believers 6,098 1.09
List 12 - Lettish Democrats-Nationalists 5,881 1.05
List 4 - Latgallian Popular Committee and
Latgallian Socialist Party of Working People
5,118 0.91
List 2 - Popular Socialists 3,599 0.64
List 14 - Citizens of Boletskii Volost of Gorodsky Uezd 752 0.13
Total: 560,538
Deputies Elected
Boldysh SR
Bulat SR
Gizetti SR
Ceshejko-Sochacki Bolshevik
Dzerzhinsky Bolshevik
Kamenev Bolshevik
Pinson Bolshevik
Rivkin Bolshevik
Ryvkin Bolsheviks
Sarkisyants Bolshevik
Minsk
Minsk Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district consisted of the Minsk Governorate and the parts of the Vilna Governorate and the Kovno Governorate that were not under German occupation.[42][63] White Russian separatism was a negligible force in the electoral district.[61] The conservative press reported a quiet and orderly election in the province.[64] According to Radkey, his count of the result in Minsk is largely complete, only lacking 3 out of 25 volosts in Mozyrsky Uyezd. These 3 volosts had 16,755 eligible voters.[60]
Minsk
Party Vote %
Bolsheviks 579,087 63.13
Socialist-Revolutionaries 181,673 19.81
Jewish National Bloc 65,046 7.09
Polish 36,882 4.02
Mensheviks-Bund 16,277 1.77
Kadets 10,724 1.17
Radical Democrats 10,040 1.09
Jewish Soc.-Dem. Labour Party (Poalei Zion) 6,184 0.67
Fareynikte 4,880 0.53
Landowners 3,465 0.38
Gromada 2,998 0.33
Total: 917,256
Deputies Elected
Balay SR
Drizo SR
Gamzagurdi SR
Nesterov SR
Brutzkus Jewish National Electoral Committee
Alibekov Bolshevik
Freiman Bolshevik
Gromashevsky Bolshevik
Kozhuro Bolshevik
Krivoshein Bolshevik
Lander Bolshevik
Schlegel Bolshevik
Seleznev Bolshevik
Taganov Bolshevik
Mogilev
Mogilev Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Mogilev Governorate.[42] According to Radkey the vote count in Mogilev is largely incomplete. He claims to have the data for Gomel (with the votes for all 11 lists), Mogilev (with votes for the 7 most voted lists) and Orsha (with votes for the 6 most votes lists) towns as well as 80 precincts in Gomel uezd (but in these precincts, only the vote for SR and Bolshevik lists).[60] The SRs benefited from the fact that the leader heading the Mogilev Provincial Soviet of Peasants Deputies was largely popular in the province.[65]
Mogilev
Party Vote %
Socialist-Revolutionaries 50,684 37.55
Bolsheviks 28,446 21.07
Kadets 14,494 10.74
Jewish National Bloc 14,101 10.45
Mensheviks-Bund 10,549 7.81
Jewish Soc.-Dem. Labour Party (Poalei Zion) 7,900 5.85
Polish 4,635 3.43
Fareynikte 1,583 1.17
White Russians 1,385 1.03
Landowners 293 0.22
Unaccounted 924 0.68
Total: 134,994
Deputies Elected
Buslov SR
Khrisanenkov SR
Kovarsky SR
Maleev SR
Malyshitsky SR
Rappoport SR
Shishaev SR
Tsvetaev SR
Vasilevsky SR
Voronov SR
Zakrevsky SR
Zasorin SR
Kaganovich Bolshevik
Leplevsky Bolshevik
Friedman Jewish National Committee
Mazeh Jewish National Committee
Smolensk
Smolensk Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Smolensk Governorate.[42] 2 volost-level lists were barred from participating in the election.[52] List no. 3, endorsed by Smolensk Provincial Council of SR Party and the Smolensk Provincial Congress of Peasants Deputies, was headed by E.K. Breshko-Breshkovskaia and Andrei Argunov.[66]
Smolensk
Party Vote %
List 7 - Bolsheviks 361,062 54.85
List 3 - Socialist-Revolutionaries 250,134 38.00
Kadets 29,274 4.45
Mensheviks 7,901 1.20
Orthodox 5,300 0.81
Popular Socialists 2,210 0.34
National Bloc 1,708 0.26
Other 645 0.10
Total: 658,234
Deputies Elected
Argunov SR
Egorov SR
Kutuzov SR
Podvitsky SR
Bobiński Bolshevik
Ivanov Bolshevik
Leszczyński Bolshevik
Lunacharsky Bolshevik
Pokrovsky Bolshevik
Remizov Bolshevik

Central Industrial Region[edit]

Constituency Commentary Summary of vote Elected deputies
Moscow City
The electoral district covered the city of Moscow.[42] Voter turnout in the city was estimated at between 65.4% and 69.7%.[47]
Moscow City
Party Vote %
Bolsheviks 366,148 47.88
Kadets 263,859 34.50
Socialist-Revolutionaries 62,260 8.14
Democratic Socialist Bloc
(incl. Cooperative, Unity)
35,305 4.62
Mensheviks 19,690 2.57
Rightist 4,085 0.53
Popular Socialists 2,508 0.33
Ukrainian Bloc-National Bloc alliance 2,346 0.31
Commercial-Industrial 2,300 0.30
Peasants Union 2,279 0.30
Germans 2,076 0.27
Menshevik-Internationalists 1,907 0.25
Total: 764,763
Deputies Elected
Astrov Kadet
Kokoshkin Kadet
Maklakov Kadet
Novgorodtsev Kadet
Minor SR
Bukharin Bolshevik
Ignatov Bolshevik
Meshcheryakov Bolshevik
Skvortsov-Stepanov Bolshevik
Smidovich Bolshevik
Yaroslavsky Bolshevik
Moscow Governorate
Moscow Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Moscow Governorate, excluding the city of Moscow.[42] According to Radkey's account, only few votes are missing from the summary (one military voting box in Moscow uezd, the votes from a single volost in Bronnitsy uezd and the votes for smaller parties in Serpukhov uezd).[60]
Moscow Province
Party Vote %
Bolsheviks-
Menshevik-Internationalists
351,853 56.43
Socialist-Revolutionaries 159,630 25.60
Kadets 43,295 6.94
Mensheviks 27,108 4.35
Peasant Union 12,967 2.08
Rightist 8,443 1.35
Old Believer 7,467 1.20
Popular Socialists 6,058 0.97
Non-Partisan 4,497 0.72
Landowners 2,189 0.35
Total: 623,507
Deputies Elected
Dolgorukov Kadet
Bykov SR
Pavlov SR
Baryshnikov Bolshevik
Kokushkin Bolshevik
Nogin Bolshevik
Sapronov Bolshevik
Smirnov Bolshevik
Tver
Tver Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Tver Governorate.[42] Radkey lists the Tver result as 'somewhat incomplete'.[67] Russkoe Slovo reported that the election was conducted orderly, whilst SR organ Delo Naroda stated that Bolsheviks disrupted the polls in Rzhev uezd.[64] A farmer list was denied contesting the election in Tver.[52]

The Bolshevik list in Tver included as its candidates A. Y. Arosev, A. P. Vagzhanov, G. I. Gornov, A. I. Krinitsky, A. A. Medov, F. D. Panfilov and others.[68]

Tver
Party Vote %
Bolsheviks 362,687 59.27
Socialist-Revolutionaries 186,030 30.40
Kadets 32,830 5.37
Mensheviks 22,552 3.69
Landowners 3,677 0.60
Popular Socialists 2,338 0.38
Unity 975 0.16
Other 812 0.13
Total: 611,901
Deputies Elected
Tikhomirov SR
Tolmachevsky SR
Volsky SR
Arosev Bolshevik
Bulatov Bolsheviks
Medov Bolshevik
Schmidt Bolshevik
Sokolnikov Bolshevik
Vagzhanov Bolshevik
Yaroslavl
Yaroslavl Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Yaroslavl Governorate.[42] In Yaroslavl city the Bolsheviks obtained 13,974 votes, Kadets 7,268 votes, SRs 3,303 and Mensheviks 2,853.[69]
Yaroslavl
Party Vote %
Socialist-Revolutionaries 197,465 43.06
Bolsheviks 176,035 38.39
Kadets 53,730 11.72
Mensheviks 16,809 3.67
Popular Socialists 5,637 1.23
Landowners 4,497 0.98
Middle Class 4,421 0.96
Total: 458,594
Deputies elected
Konovalov Kadet
Vishniak SR
Kollontai Bolshevik
Rykov Bolshevik
Bolshakov SR
Kilchevsky SR
Kostroma
Kostroma Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Kostroma Governorate.[42] Out 15 lists submitted, 5 were rejected by the electoral authorities.[52]
Kostroma
Party Vote %
Socialist-Revolutionaries 249,838 44.97
Bolsheviks 226,905 40.84
Kadets 41,448 7.46
Mensheviks 19,488 3.51
Orthodox 17,901 3.22
Total: 555,580
Deputies Elected
Kondratiev SR
Kozlov SR
Lotoshnikov SR
Maltsev SR
Danilov Bolshevik
Larin-Lurie Bolshevik
Malyutin Bolshevik
Rostopchin Bolshevik
Vladimir
Vladimir Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Vladimir Governorate.[42] Vladimir was heavily industrialized, second only to Moscow itself. There were many textile mills in Ivanovo-Voznesensky. Out of 13 uezds, SR won in 2; Viazniki (east of industrial belt), an area with hemp and linen production where SRs scored 42,4%, and further east in Gorokhovets uezd, an area with no factories where SRs scored 57.4%.[55]) Out of 11 lists submitted, 7 were approved whilst 4 non-partisan peasants' lists were denied registration.[52]
Vladimir
Party Vote %
List 6 - Bolsheviks 337,941 55.95
List 3 - Socialist-Revolutionaries and Congress of Peasants Deputies 197,311 32.67
List 1 - Kadets 38,035 6.30
List 4 - Mensheviks 13,074 2.16
List 2 - Revival of Free Russia (rightists) 9,209 1.52
List 5 - Popular Socialists 6,908 1.14
List 7 - Cooperative 1,482 0.25
Total: 603,960
Deputies Elected
Makeev SR
Sokolov SR
Spiridonova SR
Frunze Bolshevik
Kiselyov Bolshevik
Lomov-Oppokov Bolshevik
Lyubimov Bolshevik
Naumov Bolshevik
Zhidelev Bolshevik
Kaluga
Kaluga Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Kaluga Governorate.[42]In Kaluga, the SR list was dominated by leftist elements.[40]
Kaluga
Party Vote %
Bolsheviks 225,378 57.81
Socialist-Revolutionaries 127,313 32.65
Kadets 24,125 6.19
Mensheviks 6,996 1.79
Old Believer 4,409 1.13
Gromada 1,067 0.27
Popular Socialists 601 0.15
Total: 389,889
Deputies Elected
Borodachov SR
Eliseev SR
Parol SR
Ginzburg Bolshevik
Glebov-Avilov Bolshevik
Logachev Bolshevik
Stukov Bolshevik
Zakharov Bolshevik
Tula
Tula Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Tula Governorate.[42] The votes from the city of Tula and 10 out 12 uezds are complete, according to Radkey. The votes from Efremov uezd and one of the volosts of Odoev uezd are not covered in Radkey's account.[60]
Tula
Party Vote %
Bolsheviks 219,337 45.93
Socialist-Revolutionaries 216,267 45.28
Kadets 21,298 4.46
Mensheviks 9,605 2.01
Commercial-Industrial 6,624 1.39
Popular Socialists 1,832 0.38
Cooperative 1,294 0.27
Peasants 770 0.16
Menshevik-Internationalists 550 0.12
Total: 477,577
Deputies Elected
Arvatov SR
Gurevich SR
Medvedev SR
Nearonov SR
Kaminsky Bolshevik
Kaul Bolshevik
Kolesnikov Bolshevik
Yakovleva Bolshevik

Central Black Earth Region[edit]

Constituency Commentary Summary of vote Elected deputies
Ryazan
Riazan Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Ryazan Governorate.[42] Radkey's account is missing the vote from Egoriev uezd, 1 out of 12 uezds in the electoral district.[60]
Riazan
Party Vote %
Socialist-Revolutionaries 397,229 57.14
Bolsheviks 251,815 36.22
Kadets 27,808 4.00
Popular Socialists 5,216 0.75
Mensheviks 4,389 0.63
Landowners/Old Believer alliance 1,041 0.15
Unaccounted 7,732 1.11
Total: 695,230
Deputies Elected
Barinov SR
Gendelman SR
Govorov SR
Pavlov SR
Sorokin SR
Sukharev SR
Gorshkov Bolshevik
Osinsky Bolshevik
Sereda Bolshevik
Voronkov Bolshevik
Oryol
Orel Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Oryol Governorate.[42] The Kraiskovo electoral commission chair was killed by soldiers at the time of the election.[64]
Orel
Party Vote %
Socialist-Revolutionaries 511,049 62.70
Bolsheviks 241,786 29.66
Kadets 18,345 2.25
Mensheviks 16,301 2.00
Landowner 12,911 1.58
Commercial-Industrial 4,462 0.55
Rightwing Socialist Bloc
(Popular Socialists, Cooperative, Unity)
1,384 0.17
Home Owners 438 0.05
Unaccounted 8,453 1.04
Total: 815,129
Deputies Elected
Bukin SR
Goncharov SR
Khodotov SR
Maslov SR
Matveevskaya SR
Vladykin SR
Volnov SR
Volodin SR
Andreev Bolshevik
Fokin Bolshevik
Ivanov Bolshevik
Kuznetsov Bolshevik
Kursk
Kursk Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Kursk Governorate.[42] Kursk was an agrarian, black-earth province with no industries. The Bolshevik vote was attributed to soldiers returning home from the front. [70]
Kursk
Party Vote %
Socialist-Revolutionaries 868,743 82.08
Bolsheviks 119,127 11.26
Kadets 47,199 4.46
Landowner 8,656 0.82
Popular Socialists 8,594 0.81
Mensheviks 6,037 0.57
Total: 1,058,356
Deputies Elected
Baryshnikov SR
Belosov SR
Doroshev SR
Kholodov SR
Kutepov SR
Merkulov SR
Neruchev SR
Pakhomov SR
Piyanich SR
Romanenko SR
Rusanov SR
Vlasov SR
Ozemblovsky Bolshevik
Voronezh
Voronezh Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Voronezh Governorate.[42] 8 out of 16 lists submitted were disqualified from contesting.[52]

In Voronezh city, the Kadets emerged victorious with 12 350 votes, followed by 2,611 votes for the SRs, 2,536 for Bolsheviks, 1,531 for Mensheviks and a smaller number of votes for the remaining lists.[71]

Voronezh
Party Vote %
List 3 - Socialist-Revolutionaries 875,300 79.72
List 2 - Bolsheviks 151,517 13.80
List 1 - Kadets 36,488 3.32
List 5 - Left SRs-Ukrainian SRs-
Polish Socialist Party alliance
11,871 1.08
List 4 - Mensheviks 8,658 0.79
List 8 - Union of Landowners 7,231 0.66
List 6 - Popular Socialists 6,116 0.56
List 7 - Mazury Society of Novokhopersky Uezd 796 0.07
Total: 1,097,977
Deputies Elected
Kardashov Bolshevik
Nevsky Bolshevik
Antipin SR
Bliznyuk SR
Burevoy-Soplyakov SR
Gladkikh SR
Khrenovsky SR
Kogan-Bernstein SR
Mamkin SR
Nikitin SR
Oganovsky SR
Perveeva SR
Postnikov SR
Smirnov SR
Zinin SR
Tambov
Tambov Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Tambov Governorate.[42] 73% electoral participation was reported, as the SRs had a good mobilization capacity among the peasantry. [72] In the Spassko-Kashminskaia canton, Morshansk uezd the SR local government banned the Bolshevik election campaign, alleging that the Bolsheviks were German spies. [73]
Tambov
Party Vote %
Socialist-Revolutionaries 835,556 71.22
Bolsheviks 240,652 20.51
Kadets 47,548 4.05
Mensheviks 22,425 1.91
Landowners 12,493 1.06
Popular Socialists-Cooperative alliance 7,408 0.63
Turkic-Tatar 6,222 0.53
Peasants 887 0.08
Total: 1,173,191
Deputies Elected
Batmanov SR
Bobynin SR
Chernov SR
Chernyshov SR
Ilyin SR
Kiselev SR
Kondratenkov SR
Merkulov SR
Nabatov SR
Nemtinov SR
Odintsov SR
Ryabov SR
Sletenova-Chernova SR
Volsky SR
Moiseev Bolshevik
Olminsky Bolshevik
Schlichter Bolshevik
Penza
Penza Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Penza Governorate.[42] 5 out of 11 submitted lists were disqualified (and some additional lists submitted their lists too late to register).[52] In Penza town there were 49,741 eligible voters, out of whom 17,583 voted (35%).[47]
Penza
Party Vote %
Socialist-Revolutionaries 517,226 81.29
Bolsheviks-
Menshevik-Internationalists
54,731 8.60
Ukrainian Bloc-Turkic-Tatar alliance 29,821 4.69
Kadets 25,407 3.99
Mensheviks-Bund 4,726 0.74
Popular Socialists 4,336 0.68
Total: 636,247
Deputies Elected
Avksentiev SR
Boldov SR
Fedorovich SR
Gots SR
Konogov SR
Kostin SR
Leutnov SR
Prokhorov SR
Tsyngovatov SR

Volga[edit]

Constituency Commentary Summary of vote Elected deputies
Nizhni Novgorod
Nizhni Novgorod Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Nizhni Novgorod Governorate.[42] Only in the Nizhni Novgorod constituency could the combined forces of clergy and far right make an electoral impact. [74]The Christian Union for Faith and Fatherland had a relative success. [75]
Nizhni Novgorod
Party Vote %
Socialist-Revolutionaries 314,004 54.15
Bolsheviks 133,950 23.10
Christian Union for Faith and Fatherland 48,428 8.35
Kadets 34,726 5.99
Turkic-Tatar 19,935 3.44
Old Believer 16,230 2.80
Mensheviks 7,634 1.32
Popular Socialists 2,666 0.46
Ukrainian Bloc 126 0.02
Unaccounted 2,198 0.38
Total: 579,897
Deputies Elected
Sergius Christian Unity
Fokeev SR
Kutuzov SR
Lukyanov SR
Rakov SR
Sumgin SR
Tyurikov SR
Danilov Bolshevik
Romanov Bolshevik
Simbirsk
Simbirsk Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Simbirsk Governorate.[42] Electoral participation was reported at around 58%.[47]
Simbirsk
Party Vote %
List 2 - Socialist-Revolutionaries 363,847 57.68
List 10 - Bolsheviks 93,000 14.74
List 8 - Muslim Shuro 57,000 9.04
Rightwing Socialist-Revolutionaries 29,446 4.67
Kadets 16,718 2.65
Mensheviks 3,681 0.58
Chuvash 55 0.01
Popular Socialists ?
Cooperative ?
Landowner ?
Orthodox ?
Commercial-Industrial ?
Unaccounted 67,043 10.63
Total: 630,790
Deputies Elected
Sverdlov Bolshevik
Almazov SR
Gavronsky SR
Moshkin SR
Petrov SR
Pochekuev SR
Titov SR
Vorobiev SR
Tsalikov Muslim Shuro
Kazan
Kazan Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Kazan Governorate.[42] 66% turnout was reported.[47] The Chuvash largely voted for the SRs, and the local SR party branch was dominated by leftist elements. [76]The Tatars voters were split between leftist and rightist lists. [77]
Kazan
Party Vote %
Socialist-Revolutionaries 264,158 30.77
Chuvash 226,496 26.38
Muslim Socialists 153,151 17.84
Tatar Rightwing 99,080 11.54
Bolsheviks 51,936 6.05
Kadets 31,728 3.70
Orthodox 12,322 1.44
Rightwing Socialist-Revolutionaries 9,820 1.14
Mensheviks 4,906 0.57
Popular Socialists-Cooperative alliance 2,993 0.35
Landowner-Middle Class alliance 2,001 0.23
Total: 858,591
Deputies Elected
Alyunov Chuvash
Nikolaev Chuvash
Vasiliev Chuvash
Alkin Muslim Socialist List
Waxitov Muslim Socialist List
Kolegaev SR
Martyushin SR
Mayorov SR
Mokhov SR
Sukhanov SR
Khalfin Muslim Assembly
Salekhov Muslim Assembly
Samara
Samara Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Samara Governorate.[42] Electoral turnout at 54.86%.[47] Out of 95 different lists submitted, 79 turned down (out of which approx 42 due to late submission).[52] The constituency had large German and Tatar minorities. [78] In Samara city the Bolsheviks polled 42% of the vote, the SRs 27% and Kadets 14%.[15]
Samara
Party Vote %
List 3 - Socialist-Revolutionaries 702,924 58.47
List 2 - Bolsheviks 179,533 14.93
List 13 - Muslim Shuro 126,558 10.53
List 16 - Union of Russian Citizens of
German Nationality in the Central Volga Region
47,705 3.97
Kadets 44,466 3.70
List 1 - Union of Socialists of
the Volga German Region
42,148 3.51
Orthodox 13,133 1.09
Bashkirs 12,397 1.03
Chuvash 9,036 0.75
Old Believer 6,508 0.54
Ukrainian Bloc 4,378 0.36
Popular Socialists 4,364 0.36
Mensheviks 4,166 0.35
Peasants 3,030 0.25
Unity 937 0.08
Menshevik-Internationalists 936 0.08
Total: 1,202,219
Deputies Elected
Mukhamediyarov Muslim Shuro
Tuktarov Muslim Shuro
Ermoshchenko Bolshevik
Kuybyshev Bolshevik
Maslennikov Bolshevik
Arkangelsky SR
Bashkirov SR
Belozerov SR
Brushvit SR
Chupakhin SR
Dedusenko SR
Elyashevich SR
Fortunatov SR
Klimushkin SR
Lazarev SR
Maslov SR
Bogoslovov SR
Saratov
Saratov Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Saratov Governorate.[42] Saratov had been one of the early strongholds of the SRs. [79] Kerensky was one of the SR candidates, but many voters scratched his name from the list (and thus made their votes invalid). [8] was politically turbulent, also during the election. [8] In Saratov Bolshevik campaigners were frequently attacked by rich farmers.[73] Whilst the SR won in the largely agrarian district, the Bolsheviks had a strong showing, with strong support from soldiers and from the industrial city of Tsaritsyn.[64] Khvalynsk uezd was an Old Believer stronghold, with presence of Khlysty and Skoptsky sects. [80]

The German socialists didn't field a list in Saratov, whilst the German Central Committee contested on the Volga German List 7.[81]

In Tsaritsyn 32,984 votes were cast; 16,613 for the Bolsheviks, 4,468 for the SRs, 2,889 for the Kadets and 2,669 for the Mensheviks.[82]

Saratov
Party Vote %
List 12 - Socialist-Revolutionaries 612,094 56.28
List 10 - Bolsheviks 261,308 24.03
List 3 - Union of Ukrainian and Tatar
SR Peasant Organizations List
53,445 4.91
List 7 - Volga Germans 50,025 4.60
List 1 - Kadets 27,226 2.50
List 5 - Orthodox People's 17,414 1.60
List 2 - Mensheviks 15,152 1.39
List 4 - Old Believer 13,956 1.28
List 6 - Union of Landowners 13,804 1.27
List 8 - Popular Socialists 10,243 0.94
List 9 - Society for Faith and Order 6,600 0.61
List 11 - Peasants of Petrovsk uezd and Mordva 6,379 0.59
Total: 1,087,646
Deputies Elected
Antonov Bolshevik
Milutin Bolshevik
Minin Bolshevik
Vasiliev Bolshevik
Bykhovsky SR
Chernavin SR
Chernenkov SR
Kerensky SR
Kotov SR
Minin SR
Panchurin SR
Rakitnikov SR
Ulyanov SR
Ustinov SR
Zatonsky SR
Astrakhan
Astrakhan Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered parts of the Astrakhan Governorate, excluding the areas of the Bukey Horde and the Kalmyk Steppe.[42] Radkey's account is incomplete, with some votes missing.[40]
Astrakhan
Party Vote %
Socialist-Revolutionaries 100,482 51.77
Bolsheviks 36,023 18.56
List 2 - Muslim Group 25,023 12.89
List 3 - Cossack Group 16,400 8.45
List 1 - Kadets 13,017 6.71
List 4 - Mensheviks 2,256 1.16
List 5 - Popular Socialist Group of Tsarevsky Uezd 906 0.47
Total: 194,107
Deputies Elected
Usmanov Muslim
Tereshchenko SR
Trusov Bolshevik
Figner SR
Nezhintsev SR

Kama-Ural[edit]

Constituency Commentary Summary of vote Elected deputies
Vyatka
Viatka Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Vyatka Governorate.[42] 8 out of 20 submitted lists were disqualified.[52] Cheremis ran on a joint list with the Popular Socialists. [83] Radkey's account only includes full result for 3 lists (Bolsheviks, Mensheviks, Orthodox), albeit the number of votes for the Orthodox list has been rounded off. The real vote of the other nine lists, according to Radkey, would have been more than double that what is accounted for.[60]
Vyatka
Party Vote %
List 3 - Vyatka Governorate Congress of Peasants Deputies and
the Party of Socialist-Revolutionaries
300,503 46.91
List 11 - Bolsheviks 222,272 34.70
List 4 - Muslim Union of Vyatka Governorate 37,781 5.90
List 5 - Popular Socialists and
Cheremi National Union
25,311 3.95
List 9 - Kadets 22,404 3.50
List 6 - Mensheviks 18,964 2.96
List 10 - Orthodox Parish Democratic Union 9,000 1.40
List 2 - Vyatka Governorate Commercial and Industrial Union 3,424 0.53
Left Socialist-Revolutionaries 942 0.15
List 1 - Kotelnichesky Uezd Soviet of Peasant Deputies ?
List 7 - Petropavlovsk Division of the Russian Peasant Union ?
List 8 - Group of Citizens of Yaraisky and Pachinsky Volosts ?
Total: 640,601
Deputies Elected
Pastukhov Bolshevik
Popov Bolshevik
Shvetsov Bolshevik
Sponde Bolshevik
Biryukov SR
Buzanov SR
Efremov SR
Evseev SR
Golovizin SR
Kropotov SR
Kuznetsov SR
Salamatov SR
Shulakov SR
Zbarsky SR
Yambaev Muslim Congress
Tchaikovsky Popular Socialists-Cheremi National Union alliance
Vikhlyaev SR
Perm
Perm Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Perm Governorate.[42] The Peasants Union, with more than 13,000 votes, was mainly based in Krasnoufimsk uezd. [78]
Perm
Party Vote %
Socialist-Revolutionaries 665,118 52.05
Bolsheviks 268,292 20.99
Kadets 111,241 8.71
Orthodox 47,881 3.75
Turkic-Tatar 47,578 3.72
Old Believer 35,853 2.81
Tatar Rightwing 29,683 2.32
Rightwing Socialist Bloc
(Right SRs, Popular Socialists and Unity)
29,112 2.28
Mensheviks 28,002 2.19
Peasants Union 13,748 1.08
Radical Democrats 1,381 0.11
Total: 1,277,889
Deputies Elected
Alekseev SR
Bondarev SR
Gerstein SR
Kabakov SR
Kuznetsov SR
Sigov SR
Tarabukin SR
Varushkin SR
Zateeyshchikov SR
Zdobnov SR
Zisman SR
Krol Kadet
Sumarokov Kadet
Andronnikov Bolshevik
Beloborodov Bolshevik
Krestinsky Bolshevik
Sosnovsky Bolshevik
Tukhvatullin Bashkir-Tatar group
Ufa
Ufa Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Ufa Governorate.[42] Ufa was a multinational constituency. [78] List 1, the 'Federalists-Bashkirs' (fielded by the Ufa Governorate Secretariat of the Bashkir Central Council), was headed by Ahmet-Zaki Ahmetšachovič Validov.[84] The SR list was dominated by leftist elements.[40]

In the Ust-Katav volost (hosting the Ust-Katav Wagon-Building Plant), out of 5,062 votes cast, 4,222 votes went to the Bolshevik list and 750 to the SR list.[85]

Ufa
Party Vote %
Socialist-Revolutionaries 322,166 33.68
Muslim Socialists 304,864 31.88
Bashkir 135,977 14.22
Tatar Rightwing 88,850 9.29
Bolsheviks 48,151 5.03
Kadets 15,825 1.65
Orthodox 11,178 1.17
Popular Socialists 11,429 1.19
Landowner 7,358 0.77
Cooperative 4,941 0.52
Peasants 3,078 0.32
Mensheviks 2,614 0.27
Total: 956,431
Deputies Elected
Teregulov Muslim National Council
Kuvatov Bashkir Federalist
Validov Bashkir Federalist
Akhmerov Council of Peasants' Deputies
Ibragimov Council of Peasants' Deputies
Ilyasov Council of Peasants' Deputies
Mukhametdinov Council of Peasants' Deputies
Syuncheley Council of Peasants' Deputies
Brillantov SR
Filatov SR
Osintsev SR
Steinberg SR
Trutovsky SR
Orenburg
Orenburg Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Orenburg Governorate.[42] According to Radkey, his account of the Bashkir Federalist vote is underestimated, believing that the real figure would land at around 100,000.[75]
Orenburg
Party Vote %
Bolsheviks 163,425 24.14
Orenburg Cossack Host 144,039 21.28
Socialist-Revolutionaries 110,172 16.28
Bashkir 51,787 7.65
Kadets 24,757 3.66
Turkic-Tatar 16,652 2.46
Mensheviks 7,544 1.11
Cooperative 7,296 1.08
Popular Socialists 5,681 0.84
Unaccounted 145,512 21.50
Total: 676,865
Deputies Elected
Dutov Cossack
Krivoschekov Cossack
Matushkin Cossack
Myakutin Cossack
Bogdanov Cossack
Polyakov SR
Sorokin SR
Chutskaya Bolshevik
Korostelev Bolshevik
Zwilling Bolshevik
Bikbov Bashkir Federalist
Fakhretdinov Bashkir Federalist
Manatov Bashkir Federalist

Ukraine[edit]

Constituency Commentary Summary of vote Elected deputies
Kiev
Kiev Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Kiev Governorate.[42] Kiev was a historical Black Hundred stronghold, and monarchists got some 3% of the votes in the district. [86]
Kiev
Party Vote %
Ukrainian Bloc 1,161,033 77.26
Jewish National Bloc 90,829 6.04
Bolsheviks 60,693 4.04
Rightist 48,758 3.24
Polish 42,943 2.86
Kadets 21,667 1.44
Bund 20,144 1.34
Socialist-Revolutionaries 19,220 1.28
Fareynikte 14,115 0.94
Mensheviks 11,613 0.77
Poalei Zion 4,086 0.27
USF-Popular Socialists alliance 3,072 0.20
Landowner-Middle Class alliance 2,508 0.17
Unity 928 0.06
Peasants 655 0.04
Non-Partisan 203 0.01
Other 258 0.02
Total: 1,502,725
Deputies Elected
Chechel Ukrainian Bloc
Darchuk Ukrainian Bloc
Donchenko Ukrainian Bloc
Dragomiretsky Ukrainian Bloc
Hrushevsky Ukrainian Bloc
Ilchenko Ukrainian Bloc
Khimerik Ukrainian Bloc
Khomutovsky Ukrainian Bloc
Kotik Ukrainian Bloc
Mandryka Ukrainian Bloc
Porsh Ukrainian Bloc
Prisyazhnyuk Ukrainian Bloc
Pyrkovka Ukrainian Bloc
Rohmanyuk Ukrainian Bloc
Sevryuk Ukrainian Bloc
Shvets Ukrainian Bloc
Stasyuk Ukrainian Bloc
Tkachenko Ukrainian Bloc
Vynnychenko Ukrainian Bloc
Fyalek Bolshevik
Syrkin Jewish National Committee
Volynia
Volynia Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Volhynian Governorate.[42] 17 submitted lists rejected, out of which 5 were peasants' lists.[52] The western parts of the electoral governorate were under German or Austrian occupation.[60] Radkey expresses concern that the votes account from Volynia (exclusively brought from the 1918 study by Sviatitski) may have been largely incomplete, possibly an effect of the proximity to the battle lines.[60]
Volhynia
Party Vote %
List 11 - Ukrainian Socialist-Revolutionaries and Council of Village Deputies 569,044 70.76
List 4 - Polish 57,998 7.21
Jewish national lists;
  • List 2 - Jewish National Electoral Committee
  • List 3 - Jewish National Party
  • List 8 - Jewish Community Personalities
55,967 6.96
List 12 - Bolsheviks 35,612 4.43
List 6 - Socialist-Revolutionaries 27,575 3.43
List 5 - Kadets and Non-Party Farmers 22,337 2.78
List 1 - Mensheviks-Bund 16,947 2.11
List 13 - Rightists and coreligionists 1,438 0.18
List 10 - United Jewish Socialist Labour Party (S.S. and E.S.) ?
List 9 - Poalei Zion ?
List 7 - Ukrainian Socialist-Federalists ?
Unaccounted 17,290 2.15
Total: 804,208
Deputies Elected
Cheranovsky Ukrainian SR
Gedz Ukrainian SR
Kobylchuk Ukrainian SR
Koval Ukrainian SR
Marcyniuk Ukrainian SR
Ovsyanik Ukrainian SR
Pavlyuk Ukrainian SR
Trots Ukrainian SR
Lipkovsky Polish List
Podolia
Podolia Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Podolian Governorate.[42] Podolia was close to the frontline. [87] Radkey cites that the Ukrainian Social Democratic Labour Party organ Robitchna Gazeta reported that elections were held in Podolia between Dec 3-7, and presented results from 9 out of 12 uezds, but Robitchna Gazeta's party tally greater than the vote cast in the 9 uezds, possibly pointing to results included from the remaining 3 uezds.[87] The conservative Russkoe Slovo reported normal voting conditions in Podolia.[64]
Podolia
Party Vote %
Ukrainian Bloc 652,306 78.57
Jewish National Bloc 62,869 7.57
Polish 46,912 5.65
Bolsheviks 27,540 3.32
Socialist-Revolutionaries 10,170 1.22
Bund 7,959 0.96
Kadets 7,951 0.96
Mensheviks 4,028 0.49
Ukrainian Toilers List 3,810 0.46
Fareynikte 3,415 0.41
Poalei Zion 2,164 0.26
Popular Socialists 852 0.10
Other 284 0.03
Total: 830,260
Deputies Elected
Antonovych Ukrainian Bloc
Blonski Ukrainian Bloc
Dudich Ukrainian Bloc
Dyachuk Ukrainian Bloc
Gerasimenko Ukrainian Bloc
Golovchuk Ukrainian Bloc
Grigoriev Ukrainian Bloc
Isaevich Ukrainian Bloc
Litvitsky Ukrainian Bloc
Liubynsky Ukrainian Bloc
Machushenko Ukrainian Bloc
Nikolaychuk Ukrainian Bloc
Shevchenko Ukrainian Bloc
Shimanovich Ukrainian Bloc
Tkach Ukrainian Bloc
Verkhola Ukrainian Bloc
Widybida-Rudenko Ukrainian Bloc
Bartoszewicz Polish List
Chernigov
Chernigov Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Chernigov Governorate.[42] Chernigov was an agrarian province. The Bolshevik Party was absent in most uezds and weak in others. But returning soldiers, about a quarter of the electorate, boosted the Bolshevik vote. [88]
Chernigov
Party Vote %
Ukrainian Socialist-Revolutionaries 484,456 49.76
Bolsheviks 271,174 27.85
Socialist-Revolutionaries 105,565 10.84
Kadets 28,864 2.96
Jewish National Bloc 28,308 2.91
Ukrainian Non-Partisans 12,650 1.30
Landowners 11,810 1.21
Mensheviks 10,813 1.11
Ukrainian Socialist-Federalists-
Popular Socialists alliance
10,089 1.04
Old Believer 4,858 0.50
Poalei Zion 2,808 0.29
Non-Partisans 1,005 0.10
Peasants 911 0.09
Commercial-Industrial 335 0.03
Total: 973,646
Deputies Elected
Breshko-Breshkovskaya SR
Kostenetsky Ukrainian SR
Kovalevsky Ukrainian SR
Kovbasa Ukrainian SR
Kuzmenko Ukrainian SR
Lashkevich Ukrainian SR
Odinets Ukrainian SR
Sayenko Ukrainian SR
Shapoval Ukrainian SR
Shrag Ukrainian SR
Bosch Bolshevik
Motorra Bolshevik
Pyatakov Bolshevik
Ryndich Bolshevik
Poltava
Poltava Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Poltava Governorate.[42] Poltava was an agrarian province . [89]Voter turnout was reported at 74%.[47] The Russian SRs (dominated by the left) ran a joint list with the Ukrainian SRs (dominated by Left) [90]The Selianska Spilka ('Village Union'), the agrarian wing of the Ukrainian SR, confronted the Farmers (Landowners) Party, excluding Landowners from local election commissions. The campaign against the Landowners Party occasional took violent shape.[89]
Poltava
Party Vote %
List 8 - Ukrainian Socialist-Revolutionaries 727,247 63.28
List 17 - Socialist-Revolutionaries-
Ukrainian Socialist-Revolutionaries alliance
198,437 17.27
Bolsheviks 64,460 5.61
List 2 - Farmer-Owners 61,115 5.32
Ukrainian Social Democrats 22,613 1.97
Kadets 18,105 1.58
Jewish National Committee 13,722 1.19
Jewish List 12,100 1.05
Ukrainian Socialist-Federalists 9,092 0.79
Folkspartey 6,448 0.56
Mensheviks-Bund 5,993 0.52
Popular Socialists-Cooperative alliance 4,391 0.38
List without title 1,657 0.14
Fareynikte 1,482 0.13
Ukrainian National Republican 1,070 0.09
Poalei Zion 879 0.08
Local peasant soviet 445 0.04
Total: 1,149,256
Deputies Elected
Kovalyov Ukrainian SR-SR alliance
Poloz Ukrainian SR-SR alliance
Terletsky Ukrainian SR-SR alliance
Galagan Ukrainian SR
Ivchenko Ukrainian SR
Kovalenko Ukrainian SR
Kovalevsky Ukrainian SR
Kulichenko Ukrainian SR
Petrenko Ukrainian SR
Polotsky Ukrainian SR
Semenyaga Ukrainian SR
Sten'ka Ukrainian SR
Stepanenko Ukrainian SR
Yanko Ukrainian SR
Kharkov
Kharkov Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Kharkov Governorate.[42] The SR list in Kharkov was dominated by the left-wing, contesting jointly with the Ukrainian SRs. The rightwing pro-war SR faction had its own list, headed by E.K. Breshko-Breshkovskaia. [91] The Bolsheviks won the election in Kharkov city. [91]
Kharkov
Party Vote %
Socialist-Revolutionaries-
Ukrainian SRs alliance
796,552 72.86
Bolsheviks 114,743 10.49
Kadets 58,302 5.33
Rightwing SRs 42,329 3.87
Landowners 13,847 1.27
Menshevik-Internationalists 12,192 1.12
Popular Socialists 11,852 1.08
Orthodox 10,479 0.96
Commercial-Industrial 6,493 0.59
Jewish National Bloc 6,366 0.58
Mensheviks 6,024 0.55
Germans 5,221 0.48
Ukrainian Middle Class 3,776 0.35
Unity 2,293 0.21
Fareynikte 917 0.08
Poalei Zion 875 0.08
Peasants 530 0.05
Rightwing Socialist Bloc 530 0.05
Total: 1,093,321
Deputies Elected
Muranov Bolshevik
Sergeyev Bolshevik
Alekseev SR
Dyakonov SR
Kachinsky-Oreshin SR
Karelin SR
Kravchenko SR
Mikhailichenko SR
Ovcharenko SR
Popov SR
Severov-Odoyevsky SR
Shkorbatov SR
Streltsov SR
Svyatitsky SR
Yekaterinoslav
Ekaterinoslav Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Yekaterinoslav Governorate.[42] Yekaterinoslav was a large province; ethnically and economically diverse. [92] The Ekaterinoslav electoral district recorded the highest vote for a landowners list in the country. List 1 Landowners and Nonpartisan Progressives gathered 26,597 votes (2.2%), and was headed by Mikhail Rodzianko (an Octobrist leader, having served as the presiding officer in the 3rd and 4th Dumas, elected on the Stolypin franchise). [93] The conservative press reported a quiet and orderly election in the province.[64]
Ekaterinoslav
Party Vote %
Ukrainian Socialist-Revolutionaries 556,012 46.60
Socialist-Revolutionaries 231,717 19.42
Bolsheviks 213,163 17.87
Jewish National Bloc 37,032 3.10
Kadets 27,551 2.31
Mensheviks 26,909 2.26
Landowner 26,597 2.23
Germans 25,977 2.18
Popular Socialists-
Cooperative alliance
9,496 0.80
Greeks 9,143 0.77
Peasant-Orthodox alliance 8,068 0.68
Unity 7,363 0.62
Fareynikte 5,831 0.49
Bund 4,883 0.41
Poalei Zion 3,307 0.28
Total: 1,193,049
Deputies Elected
Gvozdikovsky SR
Popov SR
Rosenblum SR
Socheva SR
Bachinsky Ukrainian SR
Karpenko Ukrainian SR
Korzh Ukrainian SR
Mitsyuk Ukrainian SR
Radomsky Ukrainian SR
Romanenko Ukrainian SR
Rosin Ukrainian SR
Storubel Ukrainian SR
Stromenko Ukrainian SR
Surgae Ukrainian SR
Averin Bolshevik
Lutovinov Bolshevik
Petrovsky Bolshevik
Voroshilov Bolshevik
Kherson
Kherson Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Kherson Governorate.[42] According to Radkey, the Odessa city results appeared complete, the Odessa uezd possibly incomplete, the Kherson uezd having results from 195 out of 223 voting centers, no indication about whether 2 other uezds' results were complete or not. From the remaining 2 uezds the results were missing altogether.[60]

D. Lvovich of Fareynikte elected as SR list candidate.[94]

Kherson
Party Vote %
Ukrainian SRs-SRs
-Fareynikte alliance
266,771 42.98
Jewish National Bloc 86,190 13.89
Bolsheviks 81,826 13.18
Ukrainian Soc.-Dem. Labour Party 63,159 10.18
Kadets 53,770 8.66
Germans 27,879 4.49
Mensheviks-Bund 14,369 2.31
Orthodox 13,038 2.10
Popular Socialists-
Cooperative alliance
5,626 0.91
Rightist 4,217 0.68
Peasant-Old Believer alliance 2,188 0.35
Poalei Zion 1,687 0.27
Total: 620,720
Deputies Elected
Gruzenberg Jewish National Bloc
Tyomkin Jewish National Bloc
Meiendorf German
Asmolov SR
Bontzarevich SR
Eremenchuk SR
Feofilaktov SR
Gavrilyuk SR
Glevenko SR
Holubovych SR
Gordievsky SR
Lvovich SR
Richter SR
Trichevsky SR
Troichuk SR
Vekhtev SR
Yuritsin SR
Velikhov Kadet
Chekhivsky Ukrainian SD
Sklyar Bolshevik

Southern-Black Sea[edit]

Constituency Commentary Summary of vote Elected deputies
Bessarabia
Bessarabia Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Bessarabia Governorate.[42] Radkey's account is substantially incomplete. [95] According to Radkey, only the results from Kishinev and 3 out of 8 uezds could be gathered by scholars.[96] The 5 uezds left out of the count were more populous.[60] 17 lists were in the fray in Bessarabia. The demographics of the district were divided between Rumanians (48%), Ukrainians (20%) and Russians (8%). Among the elected deputies, SR deputies were Jewish or Russian, whilst the peasant soviet deputies were Rumanian.[96]

As per Serge, some 600,000 people took part in the vote, with the Peasant soviet obtaining some 200,000 votes, SRs 200,000 votes, Jewish national list 60,000, Kadets 40,000 and the Moldavian National Party 14,000.[97]

Some 12,000 votes were cast in the Kishinev garrison (60% voter turnout); The Internationalist list got 4,859 votes, the SRs 4,689 votes, 845 for Ukrainian socialists and 704 for the Kadets.[98]

Bessarabia
Party Vote (Radkey) % (Radkey) % (Rus)
List 2 - Socialist-Revolutionaries 85,349 33.63 31.6
List 1 - Soviet of Peasants' Deputies 69,085 27.22 35.3
List 9 - Jewish National Electoral Committee 28,785 11.34 10.2
List 8 - Bolsheviks-
Menshevik-Internationalists
25,569 10.07 8.2
List 5 - Kadets 16,545 6.52 n/a
List 6 - Moldovan National Party and
the Bessarabian Union of Credit and Savings Associations
6,643 2.62 2.1
List 3 - Union of Landowners 5,246 2.07 n/a
List 11- Ukrainian Socialist Organizations 4,241 1.67 4.1
List 4 - Bund-Mensheviks 1,438 0.57 n/a
List 10 - Bessarabian Popular Socialist Labour Party 376 0.15 n/a
List 7 - Socialist Party of the Workers of the South-East Railway ? n/a
List 12 - Union of Citizens of German Nationality ? n/a
List 13 - Cooperative Group ? n/a
List 14 - 3rd section of the Telitsky volost of Bendery uezd ? n/a
List 15 - Inhabitants of Telitsky volost ? n/a
List 16 - 4th section of the Telitsky volost ? n/a
List 17 - Poalei Zion ? n/a
Unaccounted 10,536 4.15 n/a
Total: 253,813 n/a
Deputies Elected
Cojocari Peasants Soviets
Erhan Peasants Soviets
Inculet Peasants Soviets
Katoros Peasants Soviets
Rudev Peasants Soviets
Stepanov Peasants Soviets
Aleksandrov SR
Imas SR
Mekhonoshin SR
Slonim SR
Sukhovikh SR
Sukhovikh SR
Lurie Menshevik-Bund
Urusov Kadet
Avilov Bolshevik
Taurida
Taurida Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Taurida Governorate.[42] One peasant list had been denied registration.[52]

Taurida had a 54.74% voter turnout.[47] Radkey's account is missing Berdiansk uezd with some 3,400 electors and Vodiansk volost of Melitopol uezd.[60] All in all there were 753 precincts in the Taurida electoral district.[60]

Taurida
Party Vote %
Socialist-Revolutionaries 300,100 52.22
Turkic-Tatar 68,581 11.93
Ukrainian Socialist-Revolutionaries 61,541 10.71
Kadets 38,794 6.75
Bolsheviks 31,612 5.50
Germans 27,681 4.82
Mensheviks 15,176 2.64
Jewish National Bloc 13,986 2.43
Landowner 7,715 1.34
Popular Socialists 4,643 0.81
Unity 2,273 0.40
Poalei Zion 1,745 0.30
Molokan 885 0.15
Total: 574,732
Deputies Elected
Bogdanov Kadet
Saltan Ukrainian SR
Alyasov SR
Bakuta SR
Bondar SR
Nikonov SR
Popov SR
Tolstov SR
Zak SR
Seidamet Provisional Crimean
Muslim Executive Committee

Southeastern[edit]

Constituency Commentary Summary of vote Elected deputies
Don Cossack Region
Don Cossack Region Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Don Host Oblast.[42] The Provisional Government had provided a degree of autonomy to the Don region, recognizing the authority of the Cossacks over the land. In June 1917 General Alexey Kaledin was elected as ataman. The Kadets had sought to form a joint Kadet-Cossack list in the district, and a number of Kadet national leaders had visited the area ahead of the election. The effort failed, over differences of opinion on land ownership of non-Cossacks.[25]

In Rostov-on-Don the Bolsheviks obtained 25,529 votes, Cossacks 14,248 votes and the Kadets 13,637 votes.[99] In Nakhichevan-on-Don the Bolsheviks obtained 9,172 votes, Kadets 3,426 votes and Cossacks 2,556 votes.[99]

Don Cossack Region
Party Vote %
Cossack 636,966 45.28
Socialist-Revolutionaries 478,901 34.05
Bolsheviks 205,497 14.61
Kadets 43,345 3.08
Mensheviks 17,504 1.24
Old Believer 8,183 0.58
Rightwing Socialist Bloc-Unity alliance 5,718 0.41
Landowner 5,457 0.39
Popular Socialists-Cooperative alliance 5,049 0.36
Total: 1,406,620
Deputies Elected
Babin SR
Kolesnikov SR
Kurilov SR
Mamonov SR
Nikolaev SR
Nikolsky SR
Shvetsov SR
Ageyev Cossack
Arakantsev Cossack
Bogaevsky Cossack
Kaledin Cossack
Kharlamov Cossack
Melnikov Cossack
Popov Cossack
Ulanov Cossack
Voronkov Cossack
Lozovsky Bolshevik
Syrtsov Bolshevik
Vasilchenko Bolshevik
Stavropol
Stavropol Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Stavropol Governorate, as well as the Karanogai precinct (which was part of the Terek Oblast).[42] In Pyatigorsk the Bolsheviks won some 8,000 votes, half of the votes from the town.[100]
Stavropol
Party Vote %
Socialist-Revolutionaries 291,395 88.69
Bolsheviks 17,430 5.31
Kadets 10,938 3.33
Peasants 3,205 0.98
Orthodox 3,078 0.94
Old Believer 1,836 0.56
Popular Socialists-
Cooperative alliance
670 0.20
Total: 328,552
Deputies Elected
Bocharnikov SR
Dementiev SR
Emelyanov SR
Garnitsky SR
Gutorov SR
Onipko SR

Caucasus[edit]

Constituency Commentary Summary of vote Elected deputies
Kuban-Black Sea
Kuban-Black Sea Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Kuban Oblast and the Black Sea Governorate.[42] Kuban was fully engulfed by civil war by the time of the vote.[5] 16 seats had been allotted to the Kuban-Black Sea electoral district, but the election was only held in Ekaterinodar and some surrounding villages were the Kuban Territorial Council was in control. [101][5]
Ter-Dagestan
Ter-Dagestan Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Terek Oblast (except the Karanogai precinct and the aimak of the Kalmyks) and the Dagestan Oblast.[42] Voting was delayed in Ter-Dagestan and was held between November 26 and December 5. In some areas the votes were counted but not reported, in other areas votes were left uncounted. [102] In Radkey's account a complete result was only available for Vladikavkaz city. He includes sporadic results of the major parties in some towns and garrisons. Radkey's account contains no results from rural areas.[60]

Bolsheviks obtained 44% of the vote in Vladikavkaz. This situation could be compared to that by March 1917 the Bolshevik Party had been so weak in the city that it had been decided to form a joint Bolshevik-Menshevik Party Committee in the city.[100] According to Wade, the election was not carried through to completion in Ter-Dagestan.[5]

Ter-Dagestan
Party Vote %
Bolsheviks 21,495 55.95
Kadets 7,725 20.11
Socialist-Revolutionaries 4,292 11.17
Cossack 3,062 7.97
Mensheviks 958 2.49
Chechen-Ingush 332 0.86
Ukrainian Bloc 209 0.54
Popular Socialists 53 0.14
Turkic ?
Unaccounted 291 0.76
Total: 38,417
Caspian
Caspian Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The Caspian electoral district, which included areas of the Kalmyk steppe of the Astrakhan Governorate, was thinly populated.[101] 1 seat was assigned to the constituency.[101] A special Pricaspian electoral district had been formed, including areas of the Kalmyk steppe of Astrakhan governorate.[7] The Pricaspian Oblast Election Commission was set up on September 16, 1917 by the Central Committee for the Kalmyk People's Administration.[7] The Chairman was B.E. Krishtafovich, CCKPA Chairman, accompanied by members I.O. Ochirov (assistant CCKPA chair), S.B. Bayanov, E.A. Sarangov, E.S. Bakayev and with F.I. Plyunov as its secretary.[7] On September 23, 1917 the Pricaspian Oblast Election Commission set up 52 electoral precincts: 10 in Maloderbetovsky ulus 10 precincts, 10 in Manychsky ulus, 7 in Yandyko-Mochaznyi ulus, 12 in Ikitsokhuro-Kharakhusovksy 12, 9 precincts in the uluses of Bagaotsokhuro-Khoshoutovsky and Erketenevsky and 4 precincts in the Kuma aimak of the Terek oblast (which initially had not been planned to be part of the Caspian Electoral District).[7] A list was submitted, signed by 137 electors, with the 33-year old lawyer Sandzhi Bayanovich Bayanov as its candidate.[7] Due to late arrival of electoral material, the vote was postponed to November 26-28, 1917.[7] The vote was reportedly held on these dates, in some places with very low turnout. Bayanov received a majority of votes.[7]
Deputies Elected
Bayanov ?
Transcaucasus
Transcaucasus Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Baku Governorate, the Elizavetpol Governorate, the Erivan Governorate, the Kutais Governorate, the Tiflis Governorate, the Batum Oblast, the Kars Oblast, the Sukhum Okrug and the Zakatal Okrug.[42] The vote was held November 26-28, within two weeks of the formation of the Transcaucasian Commissariat (Zavakom).[103] 15 lists were in the fray in Transcaucasus. [104]The three largest parties in Transcaucasus were the Mensheviks, the Musavat Party and the Armenian Revolutionary Federation (Dashnaksiun).[105] Whilst the Mensheviks were the most voted party, it should be noted that here Menshevism had become intertwined with Georgian nationalism. [106]Soon after the election, the Georgian Mensheviks would become openly nationalistic.[104]

Bolsheviks won the election Baku city (followed closely by Musavat and Dashnaksiun), Ittihad won the elections in the rural areas of Baku uezd, in the villages of the Absheron Peninsula. Musavat won most of the Azerbaijani vote in Baku guberniia, followed by Ittehad.[105] In Tiflis the Bolsheviks quadrupled their vote compared to the July 1917 city duma election.[107]

The numbers in the column to the right originate from Hovannisian (1967)[108] and Vestnik Evrazii (2004)[109] The source for Vestnik Evrazii for the results stems from the State Archive of the Russian Federation.[109]

These two references present a more complete account than that of Radkey. Radkey’s account lists a total of 1,887,453 votes, including 215,121 unspecified residue votes. [40] Radkey’s effort to map the votes in Transcaucasus was frustrated by the insistence of Soviet source to lump parties like Musavat and Dashnaksiun into a single bloc.[75] Between Hovannisian and Vestnik Evrazii, the votes for the Mensheviks, Kadets, SRs and Bolsheviks are identical. Vestnik Evrazii presents the vote for the Popular Socialist list, which is not detailed in Hovannasian. Vestnik Evrazii groups the Dashnaks, the Muslim Socialist Bloc and Hummet together (825,672 votes) and 728,206 for Bourgeois parties (presumably including Musavat). In the case of Musavat, Hummet, Ittihad and Dashnaks, the figures from Hovannisian are used. Hovannisian does not present a total of votes, so the total from Vestnik Evrazii is utilized instead.

Comparing the account from Hovannisian with that of Swietochowski (2004)[103] the numbers for the Mensheviks, Musavat, the Muslim Socialist Bloc, SRs, Hummet and Ittihad are identical. The minor discrepancies between Hovannisian and Swietochowski are different vote for Bolshevik list (93,581 in Hovannisian and Vestnik Evrazii, 95,581 in Switeochowski), the Dashnaks got 40 votes more in Swietochowski’s account and Swietochowski lists a total of 2,455,274 (plus 2,172 compared to Vestnik Evrazii).[103] Maḣmudov (2004)[110] and Balaev (1998)[111] carries the same numbers as Swietochowski.

Transcaucasus
per Hovannisian (1967)/Vestnik Evrazii (2004)
Party Vote %
List 1 - Mensheviks 661,934 26.98
List 10 - Musavat Party 615,816 25.10
List 4 - Armenian Revolutionary Federation 558,440 22.76
List 12 - Muslim Socialist Bloc 159,770 6.51
List 3 - Socialist-Revolutionaries 117,522 4,79
List 5 - Bolsheviks 93,581 3.81
List 11 - Hummet 84,748 3.45
List 14 - Ittihad 66,504 2.71
List 2 - Kadets 25,637 1.05
List 9 - Popular Socialists 514 0.02
Others:

List 6 - Georgian Socialist-Federalists
List 7 - Armenian Populist Party
List 8 - Georgian National Democrats
List 13 - Transcaucasian Muslims
List 15 - Zionists

68,636 2.80
Total: 2,453,102
Deputies Elected
Bekzadyan Menshevik
Chkheidze Menshevik
Chkhenkeli Menshevik
Djibladze Menshevik
Gegechkori Menshevik
Georgadze Menshevik
Lomtatidze Menshevik
Ramishvili, I. V. Menshevik
Ramishvili, N. V. Menshevik
Skobelev Menshevik
Smirnov Menshevik
Tsereteli Menshevik
Zhordania Menshevik
Zurabov Menshevik
Aghayev Musavat
Jafarov Musavat
Gardashov Musavat
Mahmudov Musavat
Mamedbekov Musavat
Rasulzadeh Musavat
Seidov Musavat
Sultanov Musavat
Topchubashov Musavat
Yusifbeyli Musavat
Akhundov Hummet
Gaidarov Muslim Socialist Bloc
Kantemirov Muslim Socialist Bloc
Safikurdski Muslim Socialist Bloc
Ganiev Ittihad
Atabekyan SR
Lunkevich SR
Ambartsumyan Dashnak
Gazazyan Dashnak
Hovhannisyan-Varandyan Dashnak
Ohanjanyan Dashnak
Shahatunyan Dashnak
Shahnazaryan-Araratyan Dashnak
Zavriev Dashnak
Ter-Ovanesyan (Kachaznuni) Dashnak
Tigranyan Dashnak
Zoryan-Rostom Dashnak
Shaumian Bolshevik

Siberia[edit]

Constituency Commentary Summary of vote Elected deputies
Tobolsk
Tobolsk Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Tobolsk Governorate.[42] Tobolsk hosted one of only 2 undivided Social Democratic lists in the fray across the country. [112] Soviet sources indicated that the Social Democratic list was Menshevik-dominated. [46]

Soviet sources reported voter turnout at a mere 33.5%.[47]

Tobolsk
Party Vote %
Socialist-Revolutionaries 388,328 78.53
Peasants Union-Popular Socialists alliance 50,780 10.27
Turkic-Tatar 25,830 5.22
Kadets 13,793 2.79
Mensheviks-Bolsheviks alliance 12,061 2.44
Left Socialist-Revolutionaries 3,733 0.75
Total: 494,525
Deputies Elected
Sukhanov, A. S. Peasants Union-
Popular Socialists alliance
Barantsev SR
Evdokimov SR
Gul'tyaev SR
Ivanitsky-Vasilenko SR
Kotelnikov SR
Krasnousov SR
Mikhailov SR
Mukhin SR
Sukhanov, P. S. SR
Steppes
Steppe Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Akmolinsk Oblast and the Semipalatinsk Oblast.[42] Radkey's account only includes votes from Omsk and surroundings.[60] According to Wade (2004), it is unclear whether the election was carried through to completion in the electoral district.[5]
Steppe
(only Omsk and surroundings)
Party Vote %
Bolsheviks 11,681 37.71
Kadets 4,925 15.90
Mensheviks-Rightwing Socialist Bloc 4,712 15.21
Socialist-Revolutionaries 4,018 12.97
Muslim Left 1,841 5.94
Menshevik-Internationalists 1,660 5.36
Cossack 1,069 3.45
Ortodox 555 1.79
Alash 181 0.58
Unaccounted 332 1.07
Total: 30,974
Tomsk
Tomsk Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Tomsk Governorate.[42] 3 out of 9 lists submitted were rejected by the electoral authorities, including a moderate Turko-Tatar list.[52][40]

12,046 votes were cast at the Tomsk garrison. The Bolshevik list won 69% of the votes there, with 8,316 votes. The SR list got 2,683 votes (22.27%), the Kadet list 385 votes (3.20%), Popular Socialist 278 votes (2.31%), 73 votes (0.61%) for the Menshevik list and 10 votes (0.08%) for the Cooperative list.[113]

Tomsk
Party Vote %
List 2 - Socialist-Revolutionaries 541,153 85.16
List 3 - Bolsheviks 51,456 8.10
List 1 - Kadets 18,618 2.93
List 4 - Popular Socialists 15,802 2.49
List 5 - Mensheviks 5,769 0.91
List 6 - Cooperative 2,686 0.42
Total: 635,484
Deputies Elected
Smirnov Bolshevik
Grigoriev SR
Lindberg SR
Markov SR
Markov SR
Mikhailov SR
Omelkov SR
Semenov SR
Shisharin SR
Sukhomlin SR
Altai
Altai Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Altai Governorate.[42] List 1, the Old Believers of Altai, was headed by the 28-year old Samuel Fomichev.[114]
Altai
Party Vote %
List 2 - Socialist-Revolutionaries 621,377 87.03
List 7 - Bolsheviks-
Menshevik-Internationalists
45,268 6.34
List 1 - Old Believers 17,292 2.42
List 5 - Kadets 12,108 1.70
List 6 - Russian Germans 8,048 1.13
List 3 - Popular Socialists 6,068 0.85
List 4 - Mensheviks 3,785 0.53
Total: 713,946
Deputies Elected
Devisorov SR
Krivorotov SR
Levin SR
Lomshakov SR
Lyubimov SR
Ramazanov SR
Rogovsky SR
Rudnev SR
Sotnin SR
Shaposhnikov SR
Shnyrev SR
Kosorotov SR
Shatilov SR
Yenisei
Yenisei Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Yenisei Governorate.[42] Moreover, the Russian citizens living in the Uryankhay Kray formed part of the constituency.[42] 1 submitted peasant list was rejected.[52] According to Radkey the results from Krasnoyarsk city and 5 out of 6 uezds appeared complete, with thinly populated Turukhansk uezd missing.[60]
Yenisei
Party Vote %
Socialist-Revolutionaries 229,723 64.48
Bolsheviks 95,307 26.75
Kadets 12,017 3.37
Popular Socialists 8,703 2.44
Mensheviks 4,531 1.27
Left Socialist-Revolutionaries 3,668 1.03
Siberian Autonomist 2,299 0.65
Total: 356,248
Deputies Elected
Okulov Bolshevik
Rogov Bolshevik
Eideman SR
Fomin SR
Gurov SR
Kolosov SR
Irkutsk
Irkutsk Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Irkutsk Governorate.[42]
Irkutsk
Party Vote %
Socialist-Revolutionaries 113,378 54.47
Buryats 39,248 18.85
Bolsheviks-
Menshevik-Internationalists
31,587 15.17
Kadets 8,834 4.24
Popular Socialists-
Siberian Autonomist alliance
6,925 3.33
Mensheviks 5,534 2.66
Orthodox 2,653 1.27
Total: 208,159
Deputies Elected
Korshunov SR
Krol SR
Timofeev SR
Vampiloon Buryat
Gavrilov Bolshevik
Transbaikal
Transbaikal Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Transbaikal Oblast.[42] 6 out of the 15 submitted lists in Transbaikal were rejected.[52]
Transbaikal
Party Vote %
Socialist-Revolutionaries 49,363 50.26
Buryat National Committee 17,083 17.39
Transbaikal Cossacks 12,854 13.09
Bolsheviks-
Menshevik-Internationalists
8,560 8.71
Kadets 4,111 4.19
Popular Socialists 2,682 2.73
Mensheviks 2,154 2.19
Old Believer 1,418 1.44
Total: 98,225
Deputies Elected
Bogdanov Buryat National Committee
Dobromyslov SR
Flegontov SR
Kruglikov SR
Pumpyanskiy SR
Simakov SR
Taskin Transbaikal Cossacks
Priamursky
Amur-Maritime Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The Priamursky electoral district consisted of the Amur Oblast, the Maritime Province and the Sakhalin Oblast.[42][96][115] However, local leaders had preferred to have three separate constituencies.[115] The election was held on time in the constituency. From the Maritime Province the results were seemingly complete. In areas north of the Amur river some problems in voting occurred, with 312 polling stations reporting and 77 didn't (another reference stated that no election had been held in some 50 polling stations). The constituency had no significant ethnic minority except Ukrainians[116]

The SRs had suffered a four-way split in the constituency, with the branches in Amur and Maritime contesting separately. Ahead of the election the Maritime Province Peasants Soviets threw out the SR party representatives and fielded a separate list (in Amur, however, the peasants soviets stayed loyal to the SR party).[96] There was also a left SR list, distinctively urban.[96]

In Khabarovsk, 5,445 out of 12,727 eligble voters cast their votes; Kadets 1,639 votes (30.10%), Maritime Province SR 968 votes (17.78%), Maritime Peasants Soviet 712 votes (13.08%), Mensheviks 662 votes (12.16%), Bolsheviks 652 votes (11.97%), Cossacks 623 votes (11.44%), Ukrainian Bloc 85 votes (1.56%), Amur SR 24 votes (0.44%) and Left SR 18 votes (0.33%).[117]

In Blagoveshchensk the Kadets finished in first place (with some 2,800 votes), followed by the Mensheviks (2,300 votes), Bolsheviks (1,983 votes) and Amur SRs (1,267) votes.[117] In Nikolayevsk-on-Amur 1,529 votes were cast; Kadets 411 votes (26.88%), Maritime Province SRs 400 votes (26.16%), Mensheviks 311 votes (20.34%), Bolsheviks 287 votes (18.77%) and others 120 votes (7.85%).[117]

Amur-Maritime
Party Vote %
List 2 - Maritime Peasants Soviets 56,718 27.08
List 7 - Amur Province Socialist-Revolutionaries 41,152 19.65
List 5 - Bolsheviks 40,850 19.50
List 3 - Amur and Ussuri Cossacks 22,612 10.80
List 9 - Kadets 17,233 8.23
List 4 - Mensheviks 15,458 7.38
List 1 - Maritime Province Socialist-Revolutionaries 6,513 3.11
List 8 - Left Socialist-Revolutionaries 5,805 2.77
List 6 - Ukrainian Bloc 3,125 1.49
Total: 209,466
Deputies Elected
Mandrikov Maritime Peasants Soviet
Petrov Maritime Peasants Soviet
Sorokin Maritime Peasants Soviet
Vykhristov Maritime Peasants Soviet
Kozhevnikov Amur and Ussuri Cossacks
Neibut Bolshevik
Alekseevsky Amur SR
Chinese Eastern Railroad
The Chinese Eastern Railroad electoral district was located outside the borders of Russia.[5] In March 1917, in response to the abdication of the Tsar, Lieutenant General Dmitri Horvath (the Chinese Eastern Railroad Zone administrator since 1902) proclaimed an 'All Russian Provisional Government' based in Harbin.[118][119][120] However, Horvath's regime was soon challenged by emergence of soviet power in the Chinese Eastern Railroad Zone (to the dismay of Western powers).[118] Nevertheless, Harbin was far detached from events in Petrograd and a more liberal atmosphere prevailed in Russian politics there; foreign diplomats took note that the monarchist Horvath and the Bolshevik leader Martemyan Ryutin could meet for lunch at the Railway Club in Harbin.[121]

Four candidates were nominated for the Chinese Eastern Railroad seat; Horvath ran as the Kadet candidate, representing the pre-revolutionary status quo. Nikolai Strelkov of the Railwaymens' Union contested as the Menshevik candidate, the Jewish businessman and Chair of the Chinese Eastern Railroad Executive Committee Faytel Volfovich was the SR candidate and the ensign and Harbin Soviet chairman Ryutin the Bolshevik candidate.[122][123][124][121]

The vote was held for the Chinese Eastern Railroad seat on November 29, 1917.[123] The voter turnout stood at around 60%.[122]

According to a contemporary account published in the organ of the Nikolsk-Ussuriysky Soviet (whose totals differ somewhat from the figures of Radkey), the vote in Harbin was won by Strelkov (4,874 votes, 31.74%), followed by Horvath (4,450 votes, 28.98%), Ryutin (4,412 votes, 28.73%) and Volfovich (1,620 votes, 10.55%).[117] In the 26 precincts of the western line, Ryutin was the most vote candidate (5,991 votes, 38.25%), followed by Strelkov (5,845 votes, 37.32%), Volfovich (2,519 votes, 16.08%) and Horvath (1,307 votes, 8.35%).[117] In the four precincts of the eastern line, Ryutin emerged as the winner with 1,461 votes (39.84%), followed by Strelkov (1,187 votes, 32.37%), Volfovich (831 votes, 22.66%) and Horvath (188 votes, 5.13%).[117]

Chinese Eastern Railroad
Party Vote %
Mensheviks 13,139 37.37
Bolsheviks 10,612 30.18
Kadets 6,327 18.00
Socialist-Revolutionaries 5,081 14.45
Total: 35,159
Deputies Elected
Strelkov Menshevik
Yakutsk
Yakutsk Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Yakutsk Oblast.[42] An election was held and deputies elected, but Radkey was unable to trace the any voting figures.[101]
Deputies Elected
Xenophonov Federal Labour Union
Pankratov SR
Kamchatka
Kamchatka Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Kamchatka Oblast.[42] The vote was held in the Kamchatka electoral on October 29, 1917, well ahead of the rest of the country, in order to allow its sole deputy to be able to catch the last steamship to Petrograd to attend the opening of the Constituent Assembly.[5] Radkey claims to only have been able to trace results from the town of Zavoyko, but the Zavoyko poll was disqualified as the vote had been held one day in advance.[60] 275 people had voted in Zavoyko, 258 of them for SR, 9 for Social Democrats and 8 for others. [40]
Deputies Elected
Lavrov SR

Turkestan[edit]

Constituency Commentary Summary of vote Elected deputies
Horde
Horde Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The Horde (or 'Orda') electoral district covered the areas of the Bukey Horde in the Transvolga, which were areas of the Astrakhan Governorate.[5][42] Khanskaya Stavka was the administrative center of the electoral district.[5] According to Radkey, 2 lists had registered in the Horde electoral district. As per Radkey's account, no information on whether election was held.[40] As per Wade (2004), members of the local revolutionary committee began arresting the District Election Commission officials as the vote tallying was ongoing.[5]
Deputies Elected
Kulmanov Alash
Tanachev Alash
Uralsk
Uralsk Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Ural Oblast as well as the Mangyshlak uezd of the Transcaspian Oblast (except for areas inhabited by Turkmens).[42]
Uralsk
Party Vote %
List 1 - Ural Regional Kirghiz Committee 278,014 75.01
Cossack 61,476 16.59
Peasants 26,059 7.03
Socialist-Revolutionaries 5,076 1.37
Total: 370,625
Deputies Elected
Alibekov Ural Regional Kirghiz Committee
Dosmukhamedov, J. D. Ural Regional Kirghiz Committee
Dosmukhamedov, K. D. Ural Regional Kirghiz Committee
Ipmagambetov Ural Regional Kirghiz Committee
Karatlev Ural Regional Kirghiz Committee
Borodin Cossack
Volosov SR
Turgai
Turgai Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Turgai Oblast.[42] According to Radkey the vote was held in one uezd, but that the result was not known.[40]
Deputies Elected
Baitursynov Alash
Berimzhanov Alash
Doshchanov Alash
Temirov Alash
Pakhomov SR
Transcaspian
Transcaspian Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Transcaspian Oblast, except for most of the Mangyshlak uezd (only the volosts inhabited by Turkmens remained part of the Transcaspian electoral district).[42] The Transcaspian electoral district was assigned 2 seats in the Constituent Assembly.[101] According to Radkey, an election was held but results not known.[101] Per Wade (2004), it is certain that no election took place in the Transcaspian electoral district.[5]
Samarkand
Samarkand Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Samarkand Oblast.[42] Samarkand was assigned 5 seats.[101] According to Radkey, an election was held but results were not known to him.[101]
Deputies Elected
Abdukhalilov Muslim organizations of
the Samarkand region
Behbudiy Muslim organizations of
the Samarkand region
Farhatov Muslim organizations of
the Samarkand region
Maksudi Muslim organizations of
the Samarkand region
Amu Darya
Amu Darya Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Amu Darya Division of the Syr-Darya Oblast.[42] According to Radkey, not known whether voting took place, no results. 1 seat had been allotted to Amu Darya.[101] Per Wade (2004), it is certain that no election took place in Amu Darya.[5]
Syr Darya
Syr Darya Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Syr-Darya Oblast, except for the Amu Darya Division.[42] Voting was postponed until mid-Dec 1917, then to January 19, 1918.[102] In the end no vote ever took place.[102][5] 9 seats had been allotted to Syr Darya.[101]
Fergana
Fergana Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Fergana Oblast.[42] Election was held and deputies elected, but Radkey unable to trace the any voting figures.[101] Seemingly, per Soviet sources cited by Radkey, there were 5 deputies elected from Fergana, out of whom 1 SR.[61]
Deputies Elected
Khodzhaev Muinil Islam Society
Tyuryayev Muinil Islam Society
Akaev All-Fergana List of Muslim Organizations
Chaykin All-Fergana List of Muslim Organizations
Shokay All-Fergana List of Muslim Organizations
Mirza-Akhmedov All-Fergana List of Muslim Organizations
Shagiakhmetov All-Fergana List of Muslim Organizations
Shashahmedov All-Fergana List of Muslim Organizations
Urazaev All-Fergana List of Muslim Organizations
Yuldash-Kariev All-Fergana List of Muslim Organizations
Yurgul-Agayev All-Fergana List of Muslim Organizations
Semirechie
Semirechie Electoral District - Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.png
The electoral district covered the Semirechie Oblast.[42] The electoral battle in Semirechie stood between a general soviet list (SRs and Mensheviks) and the Kirgiz-Cossack alliance. The Bolshevik list had been banned.[40]
Semirechie
Party Vote %
List 3 - Alash-
Semirechie Cossack Host
219,832 52.85
List 2 - Socialist Bloc
(Socialist-Revolutionaries, Mensheviks)
167,793 40.34
Uighur-Dungan alliance 28,368 6.82
Total: 415,993
Deputies Elected
Shebalin Socialist Bloc
Tynyshpaev Socialist Bloc
Amanzholov Alash-Cossack alliance
Jainakov Alash-Cossack alliance
Saurambaev Alash-Cossack alliance
Shendrikov Alash-Cossack alliance

Military districts[edit]

Constituency Commentary Summary of vote Elected deputies
Baltic Fleet
The electoral district covered the military forces and employees and workers at bases under the command of the Baltic Fleet.[125] The Baltic Fleet was a revolutionary bastion.[86] Electoral participation stood at around 70%. 76% of sailors voted, but the sailors were outnumbered by workers and soldiers at the naval bases.[47] Baltic Fleet used a separate electoral system, where the voter could vote for two individual candidates rather than fixed party lists.[126][127]

The Bolsheviks in Tsentrobalt submitted their petition, with some two hundred signatures, to the electoral commission on October 12, 1917.[127] Their list had Lenin as its first candidate and with Pavel Dybenko as its second name.[127] Whilst the conducting the election campaign, the Bolsheviks in the Baltic Fleet prepared their role in the pending uprising against the Provisional Government.[127]

On the diametrical opposite end of the political spectrum was the Officers' Union or PROMOR. Different officers groups had emerged in the wake of the February Revolution, with the Union of Naval Officers of Revel (SMOR) being the most dynamic.[127] SMOR was led by Commander Boris Dudorov, who would be named Deputy Minister of War for the Navy under Kerensky.[128] In Helsingfors the first officers' union had been formed on March 10, 1917, led by captains I. I. Rengarten and Prince M. B. Cherkassky.[129] This group had some 200 followers, including SR-oriented officers.[129] The Rengarten-Cherkassky liberal group was initially affiliated with the Union of Officer-Republicans of the People's Army, but this bond did not last as the latter platform shifted further to the left.[127] A more right-wing oriented and larger group in Helsingfors was formed on March 22, 1917; the Union of Union of Officer-Republicans, Doctors and Officials of the Army and Navy of the Sveaborg Base with Lt. Vladimir Demchinsky as its chairman.[127][129] Demchinsky's group included Kadets and conservatives, and opposed socialism.[129] SMOR and Demchinsky's group supported the Provisional Government and opposed to revolutionary and antiwar politics in the navy. There were also smaller groups of officials (such as in Åbo).[127][129] On May 23, 1917 the different officers' groups united in the 'All-Baltic Professional Union of Officers, Doctors and Officials of the Fleet and Bases of the Baltic Sea' or PROMOR.[127] The Officers' Union candidates for the Constituent Assembly were Demchinsky and Rengarten.[127]

The official SR list for the Baltic Fleet constituency was dominated by the left-wing.[127] Its candidates were Prosh Proshian and Pavel Shishko.[127] The right-wing SRs fielded Sergey Tsion (leader of the 1906 Sveaborg rebellion) and Maslov as their candidates.[127] The fifth and last candidature was a supposedly non-partisan group with Lopatin and Magnitzky as their candidates.[130]

The election campaign received plenty attention in the fleet newspapers.[127] The campaign of non-Bolshevik candidates was largely confined to Helsingfors.[127] The outcome of the vote indicated strong dissatisfaction with the performance of the Provisional Government, as the combined Bolshevik/Left SR vote stood at around 85% (the highest of all electoral constituencies nationwide).[127] Radkey claims Dybenko was the most voted Bolshevik candidate, placing Lenin second.[126] Dybenko was himself a sailor, and likewise in the case of the SRs sailor candidates Shisko and Maslov scored higher votes than non-sailor political leaders.[127]

Saul (1978) expresses strong concerns over the accuracy of the result presented by Radkey.[127] Saul (1978) reports the following result from the Helsingfors region of the Baltic Fleet electoral district (with results from 97 out of 100 electoral precincts); 22,670 votes for Dybenko, 22,237 votes for Lenin, 13,617 votes for Shishko, 12,906 votes for Proshian, 7,620 votes for Maslov, 7,351 votes for Tsion, 855 votes for Demchinsky and 838 votes for Rengarten.[127] According to Soviet sources the non-partisan group got one percent of the votes in Helsingfors.[127] In Kronstadt a 84% vote for the Bolsheviks was recorded.[127] On the battleships the Bolsheviks won some 70% of the vote, whilst the (left) SRs dominated the vote in the Åbo–Åland region (which had smaller ships).[127]

Baltic Fleet
Party Vote %
Bolsheviks 65,093 57.70
Socialist-Revolutionaries 30,510 27.04
Rightwing Socialist-Revolutionaries 13,249 11.74
Officers' Union 2,018 1.79
Non-Partisan 1,948 1.73
Total: 112,818
Deputies Elected
Dybenko Bolshevik
Lenin Bolshevik
Black Sea Fleet
The electoral district covered the military forces and employees and workers at bases under the command of the Black Sea Fleet.[125]
Black Sea Fleet
Party Vote %
Socialist-Revolutionaries 22,251 42.28
Ukrainian Socialist-Revolutionaries 12,895 24.50
Bolsheviks 10,771 20.47
Tsentroflot 4,769 9.06
Mensheviks 1,943 3.69
Total: 52,629
Deputies Elected
Bunakov-Fondaminsky SR
Northern Front
Apart from the Northern Front itself, the electoral district also included the Russian troops stationed in Finland (except those under the Baltic Fleet command) as well as the Lake Peipus Flotilla.[125] Voter turnout stood at 72.36482% per official records.[47]
Northern Front
Party Vote %
Bolsheviks 471,828 56.13
Socialist-Revolutionaries 249,832 29.72
Ukrainian Socialist-Revolutionaries-
Muslim Socialist alliance
88,956 10.58
Kadets 13,687 1.63
Mensheviks 5,966 0.71
Popular Socialists 5,868 0.70
Menshevik-Internationalists 4,454 0.53
Total: 840,591
Deputies Elected
Ivanov SR
Kolerov SR
Likhach SR
Rabinovich SR
Utgof SR
Klochok Ukrainian-Muslim List
Antonov-Ovseyenko Bolshevik
Medvedev Bolshevik
Nakhimson Bolshevik
Podvoisky Bolshevik
Sedyakin Bolshevik
Sheiman Bolshevik
Sklyansky Bolshevik
Smilga Bolshevik
Stučka Bolshevik
Vasiliev Bolshevik
Western Front
The electoral district covered the Western Front.[125] The result for Muslim Socialists stems from a newspaper report in Russkiye Vedomosti, which had data from 472 out of 602 voting centres.[131]
Western Front
Party Vote %
Bolsheviks 653,430 66.95
Socialist-Revolutionaries 180,582 18.50
Ukrainian Socialist Bloc 85,062 8.72
Muslim Socialists 16,846 1.73
Kadets 16,750 1.72
Mensheviks-Bund 5,622 0.58
White Russians 4,380 0.45
Radical Democrats 3,055 0.31
Rightwing SRs, Popular Socialists,
Unity alliance
2,840 0.29
Unaccounted 7,433 0.76
Total: 976,000
Deputies Elected
Bazyak Ukrainian Bloc
Lebedinets Ukrainian Bloc
Morgenstiern SR
Nikolayev SR
Zetel-Zusman SR
Anuchin Bolshevik
Apeter Bolshevik
Fedenev Bolshevik
Ksenofontov Bolshevik
Kukonkov Bolshevik
Lysyakov Bolshevik
Miasnikian Bolshevik
Rogozinsky Bolshevik
Grzelszczak Bolshevik
Tikhmenev Bolshevik
Vasiliev Bolshevik
Yakovlev Bolshevik
South-Western Front
The electoral district covered the South-Western Front.[125]
South-Western Front
Party Vote %
List 1 - Socialist-Revolutionaries and
Soviet of Peasants Deputies of the South-Western Front
402,930 40.00
List 4 - Bolsheviks 292,626 29.05
List 3 - Ukrainian Socialist-Revolutionaries,
Ukrainian Soc.-Dem. Labour Party and Socialist-Cossacks
168,354 16.71
List 2 - Mensheviks 79,630 7.90
List 6 - Socialist Group of Muslim Soldiers
of the South-Western Front
32,910 3.27
List 7 - Kadets
List 10 - Kadets and Allies
13,724 1.36
List 9 - Popular Socialists 3,084 0.31
List 5 - Unity and Non-Partisans,
United by the Desire to Save the Motherland
?
List 8 - Congress of the Delegates of Polish Servicemen ?
Unaccounted 14,165 1.41
Total: 1,007,423
Deputies Elected
Dansky SR
Detlaf SR
Dikansky SR
Filippovsky SR
Levenberg SR
Lishchev SR
Moiseenko SR
Nikotin SR
Sokolov SR
Surgutchev SR
Troyanovsky Menshevik
Bereznyak Ukrainian SR
Dolgov Ukrainian SR
Kutsyak Ukrainian SR
Chudnovsky Bolshevik
Kokovikhin Bolshevik
Lashevich Bolshevik
Marchenkov Bolshevik
Pyatakov Bolshevik
Rozmirovich Bolshevik
Trubachev Bolshevik
Rumanian Front
The electoral district covered the Rumanian Front.[125] Moreover, the constituency covered the Danube Flotilla.[125] To Radkey some 12,000-15,000 votes appeared to be missing from official records.[131]
Rumanian Front
Party Vote %
List 3 - Socialist-Revolutionaries 666,438 59.05
List 1 - United Ukrainian Socialists 186,219 16.50
List 6 - Bolsheviks 173,804 15.40
List 4 - Mensheviks 36,115 3.20
List 2 - Muslim Socialists 23,136 2.05
List 7 - Kadets 21,443 1.90
List 5 - Popular Socialists 4,514 0.40
List 9 -Lettish Soldiers 3,386 0.30
List 8 - Moldovan SRs ?
Unaccounted 13,545 1.20
Total: 1,128,600
Deputies Elected
Grischenko Ukrainian Socialist Bloc
Petliura Ukrainian Socialist Bloc
Pisnachevsky Ukrainian Socialist Bloc
Ternichenko Ukrainian Socialist Bloc
Abramov SR
Alekseevsky SR
Andrianov SR
Bocharnikov SR
Bylinkin SR
Erofeev SR
Ilinskiy SR
Kotlin SR
Krakovetsky SR
Lordkipanidze SR
Markov SR
Shmelyov SR
Krylenko Bolshevik
Mostovenko Bolshevik
Ryazanov Bolshevik
Solers Bolshevik
Caucasian Front
The electoral district covered the Caucasian Front.[125] Moreover it included the Urmia-Van Flotilla.[125] Radkey's summary only includes votes from Erzerum fortress, with 16,824 votes. [132] However, the Ukrainian vote in Erzerum was missing in the source material available to Radkey.[131]
Caucasian Front:
Erzerum Fortress
Party Vote %
Socialist-Revolutionaries 6,537 38.86
Bolsheviks 6,211 36.92
Armenian Revolutionary Federation 1,948 11.58
Mensheviks 1,113 6.62
Kadets 357 2.12
Georgians 51 0.30
Unaccounted 607 3.61
Total: 16,824
Deputies Elected
Berezov SR
Donskoy SR
Mikhailov SR
Pyzhev SR
Tumanov SR
Badaev Bolshevik
Russian forces in France and the Balkans
The Russian Expeditionary Force in France and the Russian troops in the Balkans (the Salonika Front) formed electoral districts of its own, with some 50,000 eligible voters.[5][125] Each of these districts were supposed to elect one deputy each.[125] According to Wade (2004) it is unclear whether any election took place among these forces.[5]

Ballots[edit]

Electoral campaign materials[edit]

References[edit]

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Further reading[edit]

  • Badcock, Sarah. "'We're for the Muzhiks' Party!'Peasant Support for the Socialist Revolutionary Party During 1917." Europe-Asia Studies 53.1 (2001): 133-149.
  • Rabinovitch, Simon. "Russian Jewry goes to the polls: an analysis of Jewish voting in the All‐Russian Constituent Assembly Elections of 1917." East European Jewish Affairs 39.2 (2009): 205-225.
  • Radkey, Oliver Henry. Russia goes to the polls: the election to the all-Russian Constituent Assembly, 1917 (Cornell University Press, 1989)
  • Smith, Scott Baldwin. Captives of Revolution: The Socialist Revolutionaries and the Bolshevik Dictatorship, 1918–1923 (University of Pittsburgh Pre, 2011)
  • Von Hagen, Mark. Soldiers in the proletarian dictatorship: the Red Army and the Soviet socialist state, 1917-1930 (Cornell University Press, 1990)