Governorate of Estonia

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Governorate of Estonia
Eestimaa kubermang
Province of Estonia
Governorate of the Russian Empire

1721–1917
Flag Coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
Location of Estonia
Governorate of Estonia
Capital Reval
History
 •  Established (de facto) 9 June 1719
 •  Established (de jure) 10 September 1721
 •  Renamed 1796
 •  Autonomy granted 12 April 1917
Population
 •  (1897) 412,716 
Political subdivisions 5
Map of the Governorate of Estonia of the Russian Empire

The Governorate of Estonia[1] (also Esthonia;[2] Estonian: Eestimaa kubermang; German: Gouvernement Est(h)land) or Duchy of Estonia, also known as the Government of Estonia, was a governorate of the Russian Empire in what is now northern Estonia. It bordered the Livonian Governorate to the south.

The Governorate was gained by the Russian Empire from Sweden during the Great Northern War in 1721.[3][4] The Russian Tsars held the title Duke of Estonia (Russian: Князь Эстляндский, Knyaz' Estlyandskii), during the Imperial Russian era in English sometimes also referred to as Prince of Estonia.[5]

Until the late 19th century the governorate was administered independently by the local Baltic German nobility through a feudal Regional Council (German: Landtag).[6]

History[edit]

Initially named the Reval Governorate after the city of Reval (today known as Tallinn), the Governorate originated in 1719 from territories which Russia conquered from Sweden in the course of the Great Northern War of 1700-1721. Sweden formally ceded its former dominion of Swedish Estonia to Russia in the Treaty of Nystad in 1721. During subsequent administrative reordering, the governorate was renamed in 1796 as the Governorate of Estonia. While the rule of the Swedish kings had been fairly liberal with greater autonomy granted for the peasantry, the regime tightened under the Russian tsars and serfdom was not abolished until 1819.[citation needed]

The governorate consisted the northern part of the present-day Estonia, approximately corresponding to:

After the Russian February Revolution, on 12 April [O.S. 30 March] 1917) the governorate expanded to include northern Livonia, thereby forming the Autonomous Governorate of Estonia. Tallinn remained under Soviet control until 25 February 1918. The Estonian National Council declared Estonian independence (23 February 1918), but German troops occupied the Estonian mainland in the course of February and March 1918.

Subdivisions[edit]

The governorate was subdivided into four Kreises (uyezds).[7]

Leaders of the governorate[edit]

Language[edit]

Livonian ConfederationTerra MarianaEstonian SSRDuchy of Livonia (1721–1917)Duchy of Livonia (1629–1721)Duchy of Livonia (1561–1621)Duchy of Estonia (1721–1917)Duchy of Estonia (1561–1721)Danish EstoniaDanish EstoniaEstoniaAncient EstoniaHistory of Estonia

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Baltic States from 1914 to 1923 By LtCol Andrew Parrott. Archived 19 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ William Henry Beable (1919), "Governments or Provinces of the Former Russian Empire: Esthonia", Russian Gazetteer and Guide, London: Russian Outlook
  3. ^ Juan Pan-Montojo; Frederik Pedersen, eds. (2007). Communities in European History: Representations, Jurisdictions, Conflicts. Edizioni Plus. p. 227. ISBN 9788884924629.
  4. ^ Bojtár, Endre (1999). Foreword to the Past. Central European University Press. ISBN 978-963-9116-42-9.
  5. ^ Ferro, Marc; Brian Pearce (1995). Nicholas II. Oxford University Press US. ISBN 978-0-19-509382-7.
  6. ^ Smith, David James (2005). The Baltic States and Their Region. Rodopi. ISBN 978-90-420-1666-8.
  7. ^ Эстляндская губерния (in Russian). Руниверс. Retrieved 22 December 2013.
  8. ^ Language Statistics of 1897 (in Russian)
  9. ^ Languages of which number of speakers in all Governorate were less than 1000

Further reading[edit]

Coordinates: 59°26′14″N 24°44′43″E / 59.43722°N 24.74528°E / 59.43722; 24.74528