Sukhoi Superjet 100
|A Superjet 100 during its test flight|
|Manufacturer||Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Plant|
|First flight||19 May 2008|
|Introduction||21 April 2011 with Armavia|
|Number built||150+ as of Sep. 2018|
|Program cost||US$ 1.5 billion|
|Developed into||Sukhoi Superjet 130|
The Sukhoi Superjet 100 (Russian: Сухой Суперджет 100, tr. Sukhoy Superdzhet 100) or SSJ100 is a regional jet designed by Sukhoi, a division of the United Aircraft Corporation. Its development started in 2000, it made its maiden flight on 19 May 2008 and its first commercial flight on 21 April 2011 with Armavia.
The 46–49 t (101,000–108,000 lb) MTOW plane typically seats 87 to 98 passengers and is powered by two 77 to 79 kN (17,000 to 18,000 lbf) PowerJet SaM146 turbofans developed by a joint venture between French Safran and Russian NPO Saturn. By May 2018, 127 were in service and by September the fleet had logged 300,000 revenue flights and 460,000 hours.
- 1 Development
- 2 Design
- 3 Operational history
- 4 Variants
- 5 Orders and deliveries
- 6 Specifications
- 7 Accidents and incidents
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Development of the aircraft began in 2000, when JSC Sukhoi was incorporated to develop the RRJ60/75/95 project in May. Studies of the Russian Regional Jet (RRJ) began in 2001, with initial studies based on three sizes: the RRJ-60/75/95 with 60, 78 and 98 seats respectively. Sukhoi targeted a market for 800 aircraft including 250-300 from Russia. Boeing provided consultancy services on programme management and aircraft definition. In June 2001, the SCAC announced the Russian regional jet (RRJ) programme. Rosaviakosmos agreed with Boeing to jointly develop and market it and in July 2001, Sukhoi agreed with Ilyushin to oversee certification and with Boeing to manage marketing and sales support.[unreliable source]
On 15 October 2001, the Russian government allocated $46.6 million to develop a new 70-80 seat regional jet, then Rosaviakosmos selected Sukhoi, planning a 2006 first flight and 2007 service entry. A choice had to be made between the Pratt & Whitney PW800 and the SM146, a Snecma DEM21 gas generator combined with an Aviadvigatel "cold section": the program allocated $63.5 million to develop a 4–5 tf (8,800–11,000 lbf) engine between 2003 and 2015. In December 2002, the joint Snecma/Saturn SaM146 was selected to power the regional jet.
In March 2003, the Russian government decided to build 200 RRJs.[unreliable source] In October 2003, key suppliers were selected, including: Thales for avionics, Messier-Bugatti-Dowty for landing gear, Honeywell for the auxiliary power unit, Liebherr for flight controls, Intertechnique for fuel systems, Parker Hannifin for hydraulic systems, B/E Aerospace for interiors. In 2004, EASA certification was applied for and it was expected six months after the Russian approval.
In February 2005, the Komsomolsk-on-Amur plant was selected for the final assembly, implementing jig-less assembly, automatic component alignment and automatic riveting. The RRJ60/75 were then dropped, to focus on the largest 98-seat RRJ-95, with the 78-seater to follow and perhaps a future stretch. On 17 July at the Farnborough Air Show, the RRJ95 was renamed Sukhoi Superjet 100. On 7 December, Aeroflot purchased 30 aircraft, becoming the first customer.
On 22 August 2007, Sukhoi and Alenia Aeronautica established the SuperJet International joint venture for customer support outside Russia and Asia. Alenia Aeronautica took a 25% stake in SCAC for $250 million, valuing it $1 Billion. The development was anticipated at $1 billion with another $1 billion needed to develop the powerplant and for customer support.
On 28 January 2007, the first SSJ was transported by an Antonov 124 from Komsomolsk-on-Amur to Zhukovsky, Moscow Oblast, for ground tests conducted by the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI). On 26 September 2007, the Superjet was rolled out at Dzyomgi Airport in Komsomolsk-on-Amur. By October 2007, initial deliveries were scheduled for 2009 and three models were planned: the 95-98-seater at first, followed by a 75-78-seat shrink and a 110-passenger stretch.
On 21 February 2008, the SaM146 engine was first run. The Gromov Flight Research Institute used an Ilyushin Il-76LL to test the engine. On 19 May 2008, The Superjet 100 took off for the first time from Komsomolsk-on-Amur. By July, certification was expected for the third quarter of 2009, with deliveries after. On 24 December 2008, the second SSJ made its maiden flight.
By January 2009, the first two aircraft had completed over 80 flights, and the engines had accumulated 2,300 hours of tests. On 1 April 2009, the two prototypes flew 3,000 km (1,600 nmi) from Novosibirsk to Moscow. On 17 April 2009, EASA pilots flew the two prototypes. On 26 July 2009, the third prototype flew.
As it made its international debut at the 2009 Paris Air Show, Malév Hungarian Airlines was to order 30 Superjets worth $1 billion. As of June 2009, 13 aircraft were under construction, with the first four scheduled to be handed over to clients by the end of 2010. After 2012, the company expected to build 70 aircraft per year. Armenian Armavia was to receive the first two, followed by Aeroflot, having ordered 30 with an option for 15 more. Other customers include Russia's Avialeasing, Swiss AMA Asset Management Advisor, and Indonesian Kartika Airlines.
On 29 December 2009, deliveries were delayed until the engines were ready. On 4 February 2010, the fourth prototype flew with engines removed from the first prototype due to delays in engine production, including NPO Saturn quality problems.[verification needed] By 28 May 2010, all engine tests needed for certification were completed, including the final simulation of a bird flock encounter. On 19 November 2010, FMS tests were completed; the FMS was developed by Canada's CMC Electronics for Thales. On 15 September 2010, static tests for certification of the aircraft were completed by TsAGI.
By June 2010, certification was 90% complete but was delayed due to SaM146 engine problems.[contradictory] The engines had an increased weight and excessive fuel consumption. In September 2010, certification was expected for November. In October 2010, noise was tested for certification authorities, Russian IAC and European EASA. On 4 November 2010, the first production aircraft, intended for Armavia, was first flown. By November 2010, the SSJ test fleet had made 948 flights totalling 2,245 hours.
By 21 December 2010, emergency evacuation (completed in 73 seconds, within the 90 imparted, with 98 volunteers and five crew) and rejected takeoff, probing the tires and brakes at maximum energy with no thrust reversal, were completed in Zhukovsky near Moscow, for IAC and EASA certification. On 3 February 2011, IAC granted a Type Certificate. EASA's Type Certificate followed on 3 February 2012, allowing operations in European countries.
In service developments
London City Airport is a major destination for Irish airline CityJet, which is receiving 15 SSJ100s, but its steep 5.5° approach requires new control laws, wing flap setting and modified brakes: test flights were to begin in December 2017, with certification planned for 2018, and the modified aircraft to be available in 2019.
A new "sabrelet" winglet, helping takeoff and landing performance and delivering 3% better fuel burn, will be standard and available for retrofit. Designed with CFD tools by Sukhoi and TsAGI, the “saberlets” debuted flight tests on 21 December 2017. They should improve hot and high airport performance and cut costs up to $70,000 per year. Parts of the wing are reinforced for the aerodynamic loads distribution change.
By November 2018, the TsAGI carried out wind tunnel tests on two modified wing designs to save structural weight: one with less wing sweep and the other with more relative thickness, also enhancing aerodynamics and load capabilities, and improving fuel efficiency by nearly 10%.
Sukhoi is planning a 'Russified' Superjet 100 for 2020: a smaller PD-10 variant of the Aviadvigatel PD-14 engine could be developed; and Russian inertial navigation system and APU could replace Honeywell's; the landing gear produced by Safran would also need to be replaced. Russian content should double to 30% as US restrictions limit its export potential. Sukhoi forecasts 345 sales from 2018 to 2030, mostly in post-Soviet states and some in south-east Asia and Latin America, including an improved range business jet version. Sukhoi expects to produce 30 SSJs in 2018, as in 2017. The seating capacity is to be raised to 110, and hot and high operations to 4000 m and 50°C. A freighter variant is also being studied.
Russian government has earmarked ₽3.2 billion ($51 million) toward the SSJ100R with indigenous propulsion and avionics, introduced at the Eurasia Airshow 2018 in Antalya alongside the SSJ75. Sukhoi Civil Aircraft lost 5 billion roubles in two years, raising its debt to 25.3 billion roubles, but hopes for more orders from Iranian airlines to replace Boeing, Airbus, and ATR orders cancelled following the US withdrawal from the Iran nuclear deal. With 30 yearly deliveries, UAC claims a 37.5% market share of 80-120 seaters, or 19% of the regional jet market. For the three years from 2018, UAC plans to invest ₽13.3 billion ($212 million) in the SSJ. On 12 July 2018, while evaluating the winglets, the right landing gear failed to release fully, the test aircraft dumped fuel and made an emergency landing with no injuries at the Gromov Flight Research Institute; it will be repaired and returned to flight.
To resist the Airbus-Boeing duopoly pressure on regional jets through the Embraer E-Jet E2 and the Airbus A220, Sukhoi would upgrade the SSJ100 to the SSJ100B and the "Russianised" SSJ100R. The SSJ100B would feature more powerful SaM146-1S18 engines, improved avionics software, enhanced high-lift devices controls and retrofittable "sabrelet" blended wingtip devices. Its navigation system would be tested over the North Pole. The SSJ100R would replace western components by Russian ones for government customers and countries subject to Western sanctions.
Western content accounts for 55-60% of an SSJ100 cost but sanctions against Russia are tightening. Replacing US parts such as the INS, APU, and cabin by Russian or European substitutes would allow deliveries to Iran Air Tours and Iran Aseman, which signed letters of intent for 40 SSJs in 2017, but European partners will not risk US retaliation and, as of December 2018,[update] Sukhoi has not received any feedback from the US authorities regarding exports to Iran. After 2021, the SSJ100R would be produced without Western components: the Thales avionics would be replaced by KRET units and the SaM146 engines by a PD-9 scaled-down variant of the Aviadvigatel PD-14; fuel burn would be reduced by 5-8% with a new composite wing. The U.S.-made inertial navigation system, auxiliary power unit, and cabin interior will also be replaced by Russian equivalents.
The five-abreast cross-section is more optimised beyond 70 seats than the four-abreast Bombardier CRJs and Embraer E-Jets but smaller than the six-abreast Airbus A320 and Boeing 737. The SSJ100 typically seats 87 to 98 passengers. In Russia, it replaces the aging Tupolev Tu-134 and Yakovlev Yak-42 aircraft. It competes with the Antonov An-148, Embraer E190 and the Bombardier CRJ1000. It aims for lower operating costs than its competitors for the price of $23–25 million. Sukhoi claims direct operating costs are 6–8% lower than the Embraer 190/195 and fuel burn is on a par with the Antonov An-148 but with 22 more passengers.[verification needed] Sukhoi claims cash operational costs are lower than competitors by 8-10%, with reduced fuel burn per seat and longer maintenance intervals.
The design meets CIS AP-25, US FAR-25 and EU JAR-25 aviation rules, and conforms to ICAO Chapter 4 and FAR 36 Section 4 noise standards from 2006. The PowerJet SaM146 turbofans, provide 13,500 to 17,500 lbf (60 to 78 kN) of thrust, at noise and emissions levels that satisfy current ICAO requirements.[importance?]
Russia CIS Observer qualifies it as the most important Russian civil aircraft. The Russian Ministry of Industry and Trade supports it as a priority project. Development cost $1.4 billion excluding the SaM146 engine, with 25% funded from the federal budget. It is the first new civil non-amphibious jet aircraft developed in post-Soviet Russia.
Over 30 foreign partnerships are involved. The SaM146 engines are developed, manufactured and marketed by PowerJet, a joint-venture between the French Snecma and Russia's NPO Saturn. A joint venture between Alenia (later part of Leonardo S.p.A.) and Sukhoi, SuperJet International, was responsible for marketing in Europe, the Americas, Africa, Japan and Oceania, though Leonardo pulled out in early 2017 because of Superjet's poor financial performance and Sukhoi regained a 100% share in SCAC. Assembly is performed at the Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Plant in the Russian Far East, while the Novosibirsk Aircraft Production Association produces components; both are upgrading their facilities and were expecting to produce 70 airframes by 2012.
On 19 April 2011, the first production aircraft was handed over to Armavia at Zvartnots Airport in Yerevan, to be operated to Moscow and Sochi, as well as Ukrainian cities. The aircraft was named after Yuri Gagarin. On 21 April, the first commercial flight landed at Moscow Sheremetyevo. The flight lasted 2 h 55 min; Armavia used the Airbus A319 on this route before switching to the Superjet 100. On 1 May, it made its first commercial flight to Venice Airport in around 4 hours, it had accumulated 50 hours in 24 flights by then.
By March 2012, the six aircraft operated by Aeroflot were flying 3.9 hours/day instead of the standard 8-9 hours due to failures and parts delivery delays, and the airline asked for compensation. In August 2012, Armavia announced that it had returned both of its SSJ100s to the manufacturer. Armavia then avoided further deliveries. In February 2013, Sukhoi stated teething problems are usual in new airliners.
The SSJ entered service with Mexican Interjet on 18 September 2013; in their first four weeks, the first two aircraft operated were flown 580 times over 600 hours with a daily utilisation of 9.74 hours and a dispatch reliability of 99.03%. By June 2014, Interjet had received seven SSJ100s and the dispatch reliability had increased to 99.7%. On 12 September 2014, Interjet started regular passenger flights to the US, on the Monterrey, Mexico – San Antonio, Texas route.
On 3 June 2016, the Irish carrier CityJet received its first SSJ100. This was the first SSJ delivery to a western European airline and the first new aircraft delivery of any type for CityJet.
On 24 December 2016, the Russian Federal Air Transport Agency grounded six jets after a tail component of an IrAero SSJ100 showed metal fatigue, leading Sukhoi to inspect the entire fleet. By 27 December, all aircraft had been inspected and it had been shown that the defect was not systemic as it featured multiple redundancies and a safety margin doubling the normal loads. All of Interjet's SSJ100s were also inspected. Five Aeroflot and one IrAero aircraft were affected, and their faulty parts were replaced by January 2017.
In June 2017, dispatch reliability increased to 97.85% from 96.94% a year earlier, while there were 89.6 malfunctions per 1,000 flight-hours, down by 40%. On 21 July 2017, following the discovery of horizontal stabiliser rear spar cracks, the EASA mandated compulsory inspections.
In January 2018, Bloomberg reported that four of Interjet's 22 SSJ100s were being cannibalised for parts to keep others running after having been grounded for at least five months because of SaM146 maintenance delays. This was later refuted by Interjet. One grounded SSJ100 was due to be back in service on 19 January 2018 and the remaining three in March.
In August 2018, Russian regional carrier Yakutia Airlines considered withdrawing their SSJs, after two were grounded because their engines were removed after 1,500-3,000 cycles, below the 7,000 specified, and no replacements were available. PowerJet was expanding its repair capacity and lease pool as engine maturity improved, noting that the SaM146 engine achieved 99.9% dependability since its 2011 introduction.
In September 2018, Interjet was reported to be considering replacing its SSJ100s with Airbus A320neos, to make better use of its slots, with the SSJ technical problems possibly also a factor. On 12 September, Interjet denied the report. It was later reported that Interjet intends to phase out some of its Superjets and take 20 more Airbus A320neos, maybe alongside newer Superjet deliveries; it will have access to an enhanced SSJ spares inventory in Mexico City and is installing a flight simulator in Toluca. The updated SSJs would have winglets, a higher MTOW and improved systems and interior. Sukhoi has also proposed to increase the cabin density from 93 to 108 seats by reducing the pitch from 34 to 30 in (86 to 76 cm).
Interjet claims its capital cost for 10 Superjets is equivalent to the pre-delivery payment for one Airbus A320. The pre-delivery payment amounts to 15-30% of an aircraft list price. An A320 list price was $88.3M in 2012.
By then, Brussels Airlines was seeking alternatives for its four SSJ100s wet-leased from CityJet until March 2019, as teething problems affected their reliability. By February 2019, CityJet’s remaining five SSJ100s stood idle and were expected to be transferred to Slovenia’s Adria Airways, which committed for 15 in late 2018, though Adria subsequently cancelled its order in April 2019.
In October 2018, Sukhoi and engine contractor UEC agreed on a plan, backed by the Russian government, to focus on customer support rather than deliveries in order to improve dispatch reliability. At the end of November 2018, United Aircraft Corporation transferred SCAC from Sukhoi Holding to the Irkut Corporation, to become UAC's airliner division.
As of March 2019[update], 15 of Interjet's 22 SSJs were out of service. Talks with Sukhoi were deadlocked, with Interjet reportedly unwilling to pay for repairs to the PowerJet SaM146 engines. Interjet's reliability issues are compounded by the lack of service facilities for the SSJ, a factor which also contributed to the poor reliability recorded by CityJet.
Initially, three variants would seat 60, 78 and 98 passengers: the RRJ-60, RRJ-75 and RRJ-95, respectively. By 2007, the RRJ-60 had been dropped, to focus on the 98-seater, with the 78-seater to follow. The basic version was certified by the EASA on 3 February 2012, the RRJ-95LR100 with an MTOW increased from 45.88 to 49.45 t (101,100 to 109,000 lb) and the RRJ-95B100 with thrust increased from the SaM146-1S17 of 76.84 to 79 kN (17,270 to 17,760 lbf) -1S18s were added on 7 March 2017. The RRJ-95LR100 range is increased to 4,578 km (2,472 nmi). The RRJ-95B100 takeoff distance is reduced by 10%.
In 2005, Aeroflot ordered 30 Sukhoi Superjet 100 aircraft with 98 seats in one class. Later, the airline decided to upgrade the avionics (FMS and weather radar) and modify the aircraft configuration to have 87 seats in two classes, with extra cabin crew seat, lavatory and galley. To avoid delivery delays, the first 10 SSJ100s were delivered with the original "light" specification; subsequent aircraft were updated ("full"). In the first half of 2014 Sukhoi began to replace Aeroflot's "light" aircraft by "full" versions. The last "full" version was delivered in June 2014; "light" aircraft are operated by other Russian airlines.[importance?]
130-140 seat stretch
In 2011, the Russian Ministry of Industry and Trade mentioned the stretched Superjet 130NG, seating 130. It would have an aluminum fuselage and composite wings. The wing includes the center section, elevator and rudder.[contradictory] Compared to other airliners, the new materials should reduce weight by 15-20%, increase service life by 20-30% and reduce operating costs by 10-12%. Its development was still proposed in August 2012. With 130 to 140 seats, it would bridge the gap between the 110-115 seat SuperJet and 150-200 seat Irkut MC-21.
In 2013, funding was planned to start in 2016 for a production from 2019-2020. It would use a derivative of the Irkut MC-21 composite wing and Pratt & Whitney PW1000G engines. The SSJ100 could be stretched for 115 passengers, before the 130-seat Sukhoi Superjet 130NG. It would compete with the Airbus A220 and Embraer E-Jet E2 family.
115-120 seat stretch
In 2016, a 12 seats stretch to reach 120 with a longer fuselage, larger wings but the same engines and tail was planned for introduction in 2020. In 2017, with a business plan for 150, a go-ahead for the NG 130-seat stretch depends on the availability of engines with sufficient thrust and was due by the end of the year. While the aircraft could carry up to 120 passengers with the existing engine, and up to 125 passengers with airframe continuous improvements, PowerJet can certificate a thrust increase of 2% within three years. Sukhoi was to decide by the first quarter of 2018 whether to launch first a shortened 75-seat or a stretched variant needing higher thrust SaM146s or an alternative engine.
75 seat shrink
At the February 2018 Singapore Air Show, Sukhoi launched a 75-seat shrink, to enter service in 2022. With a smaller, optimised aluminium or composite wing, it would be powered by 17,000 lbf (76 kN) Pratt & Whitney PW1200Gs, detuned SaM146s or Aviadvigatel PD-14 derived PD-7s. The 3–3.5 m (9.8–11.5 ft) shorter fuselage would be 3 t (6,600 lb) lighter and it would fall within US scope clauses, but would require Western service and support experience.
Demand for such jets is 200-300 in Russia and up to 3,000 overseas; introduction could slip to early 2023. As Sukhoi and Irkut may be consolidated into United Aircraft, some structures and avionics could be closer to the Irkut MC-21 for commonality. A unified platform with identical controls would ease pilot conversions; S7 Airlines committed to 75 aircraft. In July 2018, a composite wing was preferred and a 3m test section will be manufactured and tested, it would retain the SaM146 and empty weight should be reduced by 12-15%.
In 2018, serial production was planned for 2025, four years after its design approval. By 2019, the priority had shifted to the replacement of Western parts so that the Superjet can be sold to NATO-sanctioned countries like Iran. S7 Airlines, which had committed to 75 of the shortened aircraft, may seek alternatives from Bombardier or Embraer.
Orders and deliveries
|As of 30 April 2018[update]|
By August 2016, 133 SSJ100s were in operation with eight airlines and five governmental and business aviation organizations. In October 2017, there were 105 SSJ100 in service worldwide: some used by government bodies such as the Royal Thai Air Force and Kazakh government agencies. The fleet logged 230,000 flights in 340,000 hours since its commercial operations debuted in 2011. At least 30 SSJ100s were to be delivered in 2017, increasing to 38 in 2018 and 37 in 2019. In May 2018, ten years after its first flight, the fleet of 127 have logged over 275,000 commercial flights and 420,000h. In September 2018, it had logged over 300,000 revenue flights lasting 460,000 hours.
|Seating||87 (2-class) to 108 (1-class)|
|Seat pitch||30-32 in (economy), 38 (premium)|
|Length||29.94 m (98 ft 3 in)|
|Wingspan||27.80 m (91 ft 2 in)|
|Wing area||83.80 m² / 902 ft² (9.22 AR)|
|Height||10.28 m (33 ft 9 in)|
|Fuselage||3.46 m (11 ft 4 in) diameter:451|
|Cabin||3.236 m (127.4 in) width × 2.12 m (6 ft 11 in) height|
|MTOW||45,880 kg (101,150 lb), LR: 49,450 kg (109,020 lb)|
|OEW||24,250 kg (53,460 lb), LR: 25,100 kg (55,300 lb)|
|Max. payload||12,245 kg (26,996 lb)|
|Max. Fuel||15,805 L (4,175 US gal)|
|Cargo||21.97 m3 (776 cu ft)|
|Takeoff (MTOW)||1,731 m (5,679 ft), LR: 2,052 m (6,732 ft)|
|Ceiling||12,500 m (41,000 ft)|
|Cruise||Mach 0.78 (828 km/h / 448 knots at FL400)|
|Max. cruise||Mach 0.81 (870 km/h / 469 knots at FL400)|
|Range (98 pax)||3,048 km (1,894 mi), LR: 4,578 km (2,845 mi)|
|2 x Turbofan||SaM146-1S17, LR: SaM146-1S18|
|2 x Thrust||68.5 kN (15,400 lbf), LR: 71.6 kN (16,100 lbf)|
Accidents and incidents
- On 9 May 2012, a demonstration flight directly struck the 7,200-foot (2,200-metre) high Mount Salak in Indonesia, killing all 45 on board: the TAWS was ignored by the pilot, distracted by a conversation with a potential customer.
- On 21 July 2013, during autoland evaluation with a single engine in a crosswind at Keflavík Airport in Iceland, the plane hit and slid down the runway with the gear up. During an intended go-around, the fatigued pilot throttled down the wrong engine, the plane did not have enough energy, continued to lose altitude and hit the runway even if the pilot realized his mistake and throttled up the engine. One of the five crew was injured during evacuation, the Icelandic Aircraft Accident Investigation Board investigated the event and issued nine recommendations. The aircraft was repaired and flew again on 27 December 2013.[not in citation given]
- On 10 October 2018, a Yakutia Airlines SSJ100 slid off the runway at Yakutsk Airport as the main landing gear collapsed. All 87 passengers and five crew were safely evacuated and none were seriously injured. The excursion may have been caused by ice on the runway or the airstrip's poor state of repair. The airliner is damaged beyond repair and should be written off.
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
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