Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Kuznetsov
|→ Soviet Union → Russia|
|Name||Admiral Flota Sovetskogo Soyuza Kuznetsov (Russian: Адмирал Флота Советского Союза Кузнецов)|
|Ordered||3 March 1981|
|Laid down||1 April 1982|
|Launched||6 December 1985|
|Commissioned||20 January 1991 (fully operational in 1995)|
|Class and type||Kuznetsov-class aircraft carrier|
|Draft||10 m (32 ft 10 in)|
|Speed||29 knots (54 km/h; 33 mph)|
|Range||8,500 nmi (15,700 km; 9,800 mi) at 18 kn (33 km/h; 21 mph)|
Admiral Flota Sovetskogo Soyuza Kuznetsov (Russian: Адмира́л фло́та Сове́тского Сою́за Кузнецо́в, romanized: Admiral Flota Sovetskogo Soyuza Kuznetsov or "Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Kuznetsov", originally the name of the fifth Kirov-class battlecruiser) is an aircraft carrier (heavy aircraft cruiser in Russian classification) serving as the flagship of the Russian Navy. It was built by the Black Sea Shipyard, the sole manufacturer of Soviet aircraft carriers, in Nikolayev within the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR) and launched in 1985, becoming fully operational in the Russian Navy in 1995. The initial name of the ship was Riga; it was launched as Leonid Brezhnev, embarked on sea trials as Tbilisi, and was finally named Admiral Flota Sovetskogo Soyuza Kuznetsov after Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Nikolay Gerasimovich Kuznetsov.
She was originally commissioned in the Soviet Navy, and was intended to be the lead ship of the two-ship Admiral Kuznetsov class. However, its sister ship Varyag was still incomplete when the Soviet Union disbanded in 1991. The second hull was eventually sold by Ukraine to China, completed in Dalian and commissioned as Liaoning.
The ship has been out of service and in repairs since 2018. The repair process has been hampered by accidents, embezzlement of funds, and other setbacks. After the floating drydock PD-50 sank in Kola Bay (Murmansk) in an accident that killed one worker in October 2018, the ship was towed to Sevmorput Yard No 35. In another mishap in December 2019, a major fire killed at least one worker and injured ten others. In June 2022, the ship was transferred to a drydock at the 35th Ship Repair Plant in Murmansk, where it remained until February 2023. The current projection is that repairs will be completed and the ship will be transferred back to the Russian Navy sometime in 2024, however this may be pushed back to 2025 if issues arise during overhaul and testing.
The design of Admiral Kuznetsov class implies a mission different from that of the United States Navy's carriers. The term used by its builders to describe the Russian ships is Tyazholyy Avianesushchiy Kreyser (TAVKR) – "heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser" – intended to support and defend strategic missile-carrying submarines, surface ships, and naval missile-carrying aircraft of the Russian Navy.
Admiral Kuznetsov's main fixed-wing aircraft is the multi-role Sukhoi Su-33. It can perform air superiority, fleet defence, and air support missions and can also be used for direct fire support of amphibious assault, reconnaissance and placement of naval mines. The carrier also carries the Kamov Ka-27 and Kamov Ka-27S helicopters for anti-submarine warfare, search and rescue, and small transport.
For take-off of fixed-wing aircraft, Admiral Kuznetsov has a ski-jump at the end of its bow. When taking off, aircraft accelerate toward and up the ski-jump using their afterburners. This results in the aircraft leaving the deck at a higher angle and elevation than on an aircraft carrier with a flat deck and catapults. The ski-jump take-off is less demanding on the pilot's body, since the acceleration is lower, but results in a clearance speed of only 120–140 km/h (75–87 mph) requiring an aircraft design which will not stall at those speeds.
The "cruiser" role is facilitated by Admiral Kuznetsov's complement of 12 long-range surface-to-surface anti-ship P-700 Granit (NATO reporting name: Shipwreck) cruise missiles, resulting in the ship's Russian type designator of "heavy aircraft-carrying missile cruiser".
Unlike most western naval ships that use gas turbines or nuclear power, Admiral Kuznetsov is a conventionally powered ship that uses mazut as a fuel, often leading to a visible trail of heavy black smoke that can be seen at a great distance. Russian naval officials have said that the failure to properly preheat the heavy mazut fuel prior to entering the combustion chamber may contribute to the heavy smoke trail associated with the ship.
Transiting the Turkish Straits
Admiral Kuznetsov's designation as an aircraft-carrying cruiser is very important under the Montreux Convention, as it allows the ship to transit the Turkish Straits. The Convention prohibits countries from sending an aircraft carrier heavier than 15,000 tons through the Straits. Since the ship was built in the Ukrainian SSR, Admiral Kuznetsov would have been stuck in the Black Sea if Turkey had refused permission to pass into the Mediterranean Sea. However, the Convention does not limit the displacement of capital ships operated by Black Sea powers. Turkey allowed Admiral Kuznetsov to transit the Straits, and no signatory to the Montreux Convention ever issued a formal protest of its classification as an aircraft-carrying cruiser.
1982–1991: construction and dispute of ownership
Admiral Flota Sovetskogo Soyuza Kuznetsov, constructed at Chernomorskiy Shipyard, also known as Nikolayev South Shipyard, in Nikolayev within the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR) was launched in 1985, and became fully operational in 1995. An official ceremony marking the start of construction took place on 1 September 1982; in fact it was laid down in 1983. The vessel was first named Riga, then the name was changed to Leonid Brezhnev, this was followed by Tbilisi. Finally, on 4 October 1990, it was renamed Admiral Flota Sovetskogo Soyuza N.G. Kuznetsov, referred to in short as Admiral Kuznetsov. The ship was 71% complete by mid-1989. In November 1989 it undertook its first aircraft operations.
After the 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt and the independence of Ukraine, Ukrainian president Leonid Kravchuk sent a telegram to the ship's commander Viktor Yarygin, declaring that Admiral Kuznetsov was Ukrainian property, and that the ship should remain in Sevastopol until the Ukrainian government made a decision on its fate. Deputy commander of the Northern Fleet Yuri Ustimenko urgently arrived from the Arctic to pre-empt the Ukrainian government and gave the order for Admiral Kuznetsov to sail to Vidyayevo so the ship could remain in the Soviet fleet. In December 1991, it sailed from the Black Sea to join the Northern Fleet.
From 23 December 1995 through 22 March 1996 Admiral Kuznetsov made its first 90-day Mediterranean deployment with 13 Su-33, 2 Su-25 UTG, and 11 helicopters aboard. The deployment of the Russian Navy's flagship was undertaken to mark the 300th anniversary of the establishment of the Russian Navy in October 1696. The deployment was to allow the carrier, which was accompanied by a frigate, destroyer and oiler, to adapt to the Mediterranean climate and to perform continuous flight operations until 21:00 each day, as the Barents Sea only receives about one hour of sunlight during this time of year. During that period the carrier lay at anchor off the port of Tartus, Syria. Its aircraft often made flights close to the Israeli shore line and were escorted by Israeli F-16s. During the deployment, a severe water shortage occurred due to evaporators breaking down.
The ship was immobilized in a Northern Fleet shipyard at the end of 1997 after repairs had been halted due to a lack of funding. After the overhaul was completed, the ship returned to active service in the Northern fleet on 3 November 1998.
Admiral Kuznetsov remained in port for two years before preparing for another Mediterranean deployment scheduled for the winter of 2000–2001. This deployment was canceled due to the explosion and sinking of the nuclear-powered submarine Kursk. Admiral Kuznetsov participated in the Kursk rescue and salvage operations in late 2000. Plans for further operations were postponed or cancelled. In late 2003 and early 2004, Admiral Kuznetsov went to sea for inspection and sea trials. In October 2004, the ship participated in a fleet exercise of the Russian Navy in the Atlantic Ocean. During a September 2005 exercise, a Su-33 accidentally fell from the carrier into the Atlantic Ocean. On 27 September 2006, it was announced that Admiral Kuznetsov would return to service in the Northern Fleet by the year's end, following another modernization to correct some technical issues. Admiral Vladimir Masorin, Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Navy, also stated that Su-33 fighters assigned to it would return after undergoing their own maintenance and refits.
From 5 December 2007 through 3 February 2008 Admiral Kuznetsov made its second Mediterranean deployment. On 11 December 2007, Admiral Kuznetsov passed by Norwegian oil platforms in the North Sea, 60 nautical miles (110 km) outside Bergen, Norway. Su-33 fighters and Kamov helicopters were launched from Admiral Kuznetsov while within international waters; Norwegian helicopter services to the rigs were halted due to the collision risk with the Russian aircraft. Admiral Kuznetsov later participated in an exercise on the Mediterranean Sea, together with 11 other Russian surface ships and 47 aircraft, performing three tactical training missions using live and simulated air and surface missile launches. Admiral Kuznetsov and its escorts returned to Severomorsk on 3 February 2008. Following maintenance, it returned to sea on 11 October 2008 for the Stability 2008 strategic exercises held in the Barents Sea. On 12 October 2008, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev visited the ship during the exercise.
From 5 December 2008 through 2 March 2009, Admiral Kuznetsov made its third Mediterranean deployment. On 5 December 2008, the carrier and several other vessels left Severomorsk for the Atlantic for a combat training tour, including joint drills with Russia's Black Sea Fleet and visits to several Mediterranean ports. On 7 January 2009, a small fire broke out onboard Admiral Kuznetsov while anchored off Turkey. The fire, caused by a short circuit, led to the death of one crew member by carbon monoxide poisoning. On 16 February 2009, it was involved in a large oil spill, along with other Russian naval vessels, while refuelling off the south coast of Ireland. On 2 March 2009, Admiral Kuznetsov returned to Severomorsk, and in September 2010 it left dry dock after scheduled repairs and preparations for a training mission in the Barents Sea, later that month.
The Russian Main Navy Staff announced that Admiral Kuznetsov would begin a deployment to the Atlantic and Mediterranean in December 2011. In November 2011, it was announced that Admiral Kuznetsov would lead a squadron to Russia's naval facility in Tartus.
A Russian naval spokesman announced via the Izvestia daily that "The call of the Russian ships in Tartus should not be seen as a gesture towards what is going on in Syria... This was planned already in 2010 when there were no such events there" noting that Admiral Kuznetsov would also be making port calls in Beirut, Genoa and Cyprus. On 29 November 2011, Army General Nikolay Makarov, Chief of the Russian General Staff, said that Russian ships in the Mediterranean were due to exercises rather than events in Syria, and noted that Admiral Kuznetsov's size does not allow it to moor in Tartus.
On 6 December 2011, Admiral Kuznetsov and its escort ships departed the Northern Fleet home base in Severomorsk for a Mediterranean deployment to exercise with ships from the Russian Baltic and Black Sea Fleets. On 12 December 2011, Admiral Kuznetsov and its escorts, were spotted northeast of Orkney off the coast of northern Scotland, the first such time it had deployed near the UK. HMS York shadowed the group for a week; due to severe weather, the group took shelter in international waters in the Moray Firth, some 30 miles (48 km) from the UK coast. Admiral Kuznetsov then sailed around the top of Scotland and into the Atlantic past western Ireland, where it conducted flight operations with its Sukhoi Su-33 'Flanker' jets and Kamov Ka-27 helicopters in international airspace. On 8 January 2012, Admiral Kuznetsov anchored near shore outside Tartus while other ships from its escort entered the port to use the leased Russian naval support facility to replenish their supplies, after which all ships continued their deployment on 9 January. In February 2012, Admiral Kuznetsov returned to its home base of Severomorsk, having lost propulsion during the return voyage in the Bay of Biscay. The tugboat Nikolay Chiker took the vessel in tow and aided Admiral Kuznetsov's return.
On 1 June 2013, it was announced that the ship would return to the Mediterranean by the end of the year, and on 17 December, Admiral Kuznetsov departed its home base for the Mediterranean. On 1 January 2014, Admiral Kuznetsov celebrated New Year's Day while at anchor in international waters of the Moray Firth off northeast Scotland. The anchorage allowed replenishment of ship's supplies and respite for the crew from stormy weather off the southwest coast of Norway. It then proceeded to the Mediterranean Sea,[not specific enough to verify] docking in Cyprus on 28 February. In May 2014, the ship and its task group: the Kirov-class nuclear-powered cruiser Petr Velikiy; tankers Sergey Osipov, Kama and Dubna; the ocean-going tug Altay and the Ropucha-class landing ship Minsk (part of the Black Sea Fleet), passed the UK while sailing for home. Despite financial and technical problems, resulting in limited operations for the ship, it was expected that Admiral Kuznetsov would remain in active service until at least 2030.
Admiral Kuznetsov set sail on 15 October 2016 from Severomorsk for the Mediterranean, accompanied by seven other vessels of the Russian Navy including the nuclear-powered battlecruiser Pyotr Velikiy and two Udaloy-class destroyers. The carrier was accompanied by an ocean-going tugboat as a precaution due to potential propulsion failure. The carrier air wing included six to eight Sukhoi Su-33 fighters, four MiG-29KR/KUBR multi-role aircraft, Ka-52K "Katran" navalised attack helicopters, Ka-31R "Helix" AEW&C helicopters and Ka-27PS "Helix-D" search and rescue helicopters. All the Su-33 aircraft had been upgraded with the Gefest SVP-24 bombsights for free-fall bombs, giving them a limited ground-attack capability. Analysts suggested that a lack of trained pilots restricted the number of fixed-wing aircraft that could be deployed from the carrier.
In the largest Russian military deployment since the Cold War, the carrier battle group sailed through the English Channel on 21 October. The British Royal Navy responded to this test by sending two of its own ships to escort the Russian warships. On 26 October 2016, the ship was reported to have passed through the Strait of Gibraltar and refuelled at sea off North Africa the following day. On 3 November 2016, the carrier battle group paused off the east coast of Crete. On 14 November 2016, a MiG-29K crashed into the sea after taking off from the carrier. The pilot ejected safely from the plane and was rescued by helicopter. The plane had run out of fuel waiting to land while the crew was attempting to repair a broken arresting cable. The carrier commander could have diverted the aircraft to land at a nearby airbase, but hesitated in the hope that the arresting gear would be repaired in time.
On 15 November 2016—as part of a large-scale engagement—Admiral Kuznetsov launched Su-33 strikes against the positions of terrorist groups Islamic State and Al-Nusra in the provinces of Idlib and Homs in Syria. This was the first time the aircraft carrier had ever participated in combat operations. The Russian Defence Ministry later reported that at least 30 militants had been killed as a result of those strikes, including three field commanders, among them Abul Baha al-Asfari, leader of Al-Nusra reserve forces in the provinces of Homs and Aleppo. Al-Asfari had also planned and led several insurgent attacks on the city of Aleppo. The Su-33s reportedly used 500 kg (1,100 lb) precision-guided munitions. On 3 December 2016, an Su-33 crashed into the sea after attempting to land on the carrier. The pilot was safely recovered by a search and rescue helicopter. Later it was revealed that the arresting gear mechanism had failed to hold the aircraft, and was damaged in the attempt. Following this second incident, the air wing was transferred to shore at Khmeimim Air Base near Latakia to continue military operations while the carrier's arresting gear issues were addressed.
In early January 2017, it was announced that Admiral Kuznetsov and its battlegroup would be ceasing operations in Syria and returning to Russia as part of a scaling back of Russian involvement in the conflict. During its deployment off Syria, aircraft from Admiral Kuznetsov carried out 420 combat missions, hitting 1,252 hostile targets. On 11 January 2017, Admiral Kuznetsov was conducting live-fire training exercises in the Mediterranean off the coast of Libya. The Russian defence ministry announced that on 11 January, Admiral Kuznetsov was visited by Libya's military leader Khalifa Haftar, who had a video conference with Russian defence minister Sergey Shoygu while on board.
On 20 January, Admiral Kuznetsov was sighted passing west through the Strait of Gibraltar and six days later, it was escorted back along the English Channel by three Eurofighter Typhoons of the Royal Air Force and the Type 23 frigate HMS St Albans. It arrived back in Severomorsk on 9 February. On 23 February 2017, President Vladimir Putin said that the ship's deployment to the Mediterranean had been his personal initiative.
Admiral Kuznetsov started an overhaul and modernization program in the first quarter of 2017 to extend its service life by 25 years. The ship was to undergo modernization at the 35th Ship Repair Plant in Murmansk between 2018 and 2021, upgrading the ship's power plant and electronics systems.
On 30 October 2018, the ship was damaged when Russia's biggest floating drydock, PD-50, sank, causing one of its 70-ton cranes to crash onto the ship's flight deck, leaving behind a 19-square-metre (200 sq ft) hole. One person was reported missing and four were injured as the drydock sank in Kola Bay. The ship was in the process of being removed from the dock when the incident occurred and was towed to a nearby yard after the incident. The cost of repairing the damage was estimated to be RUB 70 million (about US$1 million). The fallen crane was removed by the end of 2018.
In late May 2019, repair work of the aircraft carrier was underway. That same month, it was also announced that two graving docks in Murmansk would be merged and enlarged to accommodate the ship, the work taking a year and a half. In December 2019, a major fire broke out on board the ship as work continued on the ship's refit. Two people died and more than a dozen were injured in the fire, and damage to the ship was estimated at US$8 million.
In June 2021, Vladimir Korolev, Vice President of the United Shipbuilding Corporation announced that the overhaul and upgrade of Admiral Kuznetsov was expected to be completed by the first half of 2023. The avionics, flight deck with the ski jump, electric equipment, and the power plant are expected to be replaced as part of this process. The carrier would also receive a new fully domestic takeoff and landing control system, with the onboard airpower remaining the same. Due to the lack of a large enough drydock, a new drydock was being constructed in Murmansk. In November 2021 it was reported that "bad weather" had caused significant delays to repair work which might push back the completion of the refit by more than one year.
The ship was finally dry-docked on 20 May 2022. By 27 July 2022, the drydock had been drained, allowing repairs on the aircraft carrier to commence. On 15 August 2022, the head of the United Shipbuilding Corporation confirmed that Admiral Kuznetsov would be handed over to the Russian Navy in the first quarter of 2024, and that the ship is expected to remain in service for at least another 25 years. On 22 December 2022, as the ship was being prepared to leave drydock, another fire occurred. The fire was extinguished, and no casualties were reported. On 25 January 2023, it was reported that Admiral Kuznetsov would leave the drydock in February 2023. The aircraft carrier was removed from the drydock on 21 February 2023, although it was initially reported that the operation had been suspended due to heavy fog. Current projections are that the overhaul of the carrier will last into 2024.
Flight deck, June 2006
Sukhoi Su-33 aircraft on the flight deck during exercises in the Barents Sea, October 2008
Kamov Ka-27 on the flight deck, October 2008
Sukhoi Su-25UTG on the flight deck, April 2011
Russian sailors lined up on the flight deck, November 2016
At the rehearsal of the parade of ships of the Northern Fleet on 27 July 2017
- Apalkov, Yu.V. (2003). Korabli VMF SSSR, Tom 2, Udarnye Korabli (in Russian). Sankt Peterburg: Galeya Print.
- Karpenko, A.V. "Тяжелый Авианесущий Крейсер "адмирал Флота Советского Союза Кузнецов" Проекта 11435 Подборка материалов по авианосцу от Карпенко" [Heavy Aircraft Carrier "Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Kuznetsov" Project 11435]. Bastion (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2 November 2016. Retrieved 3 November 2016.
- "Admiral Flota Sovetskogo Soyuza Kuznetsov". Rusnavy.com. Archived from the original on 24 February 2020. Retrieved 22 December 2014.
- "Kuznetsov Class – Project 1143.5". Globalsecurity.org. 7 September 2011. Archived from the original on 8 October 2014. Retrieved 22 December 2014.
- each 2 × 30 mm Gatling AA plus 32 3K87 Kortik SAM
- Balakin, Sergey; Zablotskiy, Vladimir (2007). Sovetskii Avianostsy [Soviet Aircraft Carriers] (in Russian). Moscow: Yauza.
- Apalkov, Yu.V. (2003). Korabli VMF SSSR [Ships of the Soviet Navy] (in Russian). Sankt Peterburg: Galeya Print.
- Storey, Ian; Ji, You (Winter 2004). "China's Aircraft Carrier Ambitions: Seeking Truth from Rumors". Naval War College Review. 57 (1). Archived from the original on 12 December 2006.
- Suciu, Peter (2 December 2022). "Why Would Russia Bring Back Its 'Dumpster Fire' Aircraft Carrier?". MSN. Retrieved 10 January 2023.
- Staalesen, Atle (30 October 2018). "Aircraft carrier is damaged as dry dock sinks". The Barents Observer. Retrieved 10 January 2023.
- Ullah, Zahra; Tarasova, Darya; Lendon, Brad (12 December 2019). "Russia's only aircraft carrier catches fire; 1 dead and 2 missing". CNN. Retrieved 10 January 2023.
- Alona Mazurenko (9 January 2023). "Russians brought their only aircraft carrier to critical condition and looking for those responsible". Ukrainska Pravda. Retrieved 10 January 2023.
- "Источник ТАСС допустил сдвиг сдачи "Адмирала Кузнецова" на 2025 год". flotprom.ru (in Russian). 4 July 2023. Retrieved 7 July 2023.
- "Su-3: Single-seat carrier-based fighter". KnAAPO. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011.
- Gordon, Yefim; Davidson, Peter (2006). Sukhoi Su-27 Flanker. Warbird Tech Series, Vol. 42. North Branch, MN: Specialty Press. p. 54. ISBN 978-1-58007-091-1.
- Gao, Charlie. "Russia's Aircraft Carrier Is a Smokey Mess: Here's Why". Yahoo! News. Retrieved 26 July 2020.
- Miller, David V.; Hine, Jonathan T. Jr. (31 January 1990). Soviet Carriers in the Turkish Straits (PDF). Newport, Rhode Island: Naval War College. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 November 2016. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
- Pike, John. "Montreux Convention 1936". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
- Bulatov, V. N.; Булатов, В. Н. (2006). Admiral Kuznet︠s︡ov (in Russian). Moskva: Molodai︠a︡ gvardii︠a︡. p. 373. ISBN 5-235-02871-6. OCLC 70352676.
- "Минобороны России". Russian Ministry of Defence (in Russian). Archived from the original on 11 April 2019. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
- Almond, Peter (11 January 1996). "U.S. Poised to Rescue Russian Sailors". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 4 August 2022.
- Rosenberg, Ran; Gilboa, Hagai (June 2002). "מפגשים מהסוג הרוסי" [Encounters of the Russian Kind]. IAF Journal (in Hebrew) (145). Archived from the original on 20 December 2013.
- Silverstone, Paul H., ed. (1999). "Naval Intelligence". Warship International. 36 (1): 81. JSTOR 44892634.
AIRCRAFT CARRIER Admiral Kuznetsov rejoined the fleet 3 Nov 1998 after major refit.
- Felgenhauer, Pavel (2 November 2004). "A Foolhardy Naval Exercise". The Moscow Times. Archived from the original on 7 November 2004 – via CDI Russia Weekly.
- "Затонувший Су-33 бомбить не будут - он разрушится сам" [The sunken Su-33 will not be bombed - it will collapse on its own]. Lenta.ru (in Russian). 7 September 2005. Archived from the original on 10 June 2015. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
- Klungtveit, Harald S.; Gulseth, Hege Løvstad (11 December 2007). "Russiske jagerfly lager kaos i Nordsjøen" [Russian fighter jets wreak havoc in the North Sea]. Dagbladet (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 26 September 2008. Retrieved 18 September 2008.
- Solsvik, Terje; Moskwa, Wojciech (11 December 2007). "Russian Navy disrupts access to N. Sea oilfields". Reuters. Archived from the original on 12 November 2012. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
- "Russian warships head to Atlantic, Mediterranean". Moscow. AP. 5 December 2008. Retrieved 9 December 2008.[dead link]
- Smith, Lewis (17 February 2009). "Huge oil slick from Russian ship heads for British coastline". The Times. Retrieved 17 February 2009.
- "Russia sent military ships to base in Syria". Pravda.ru. 30 November 2011. Archived from the original on 1 December 2011. Retrieved 1 December 2011.
- Grove, Thomas (28 November 2011). "Russia sending warships to its base in Syria". Reuters. Archived from the original on 29 November 2011. Retrieved 1 December 2011.
- "Russia to send warships to Syria in 2012: report". Spacewar.com. 29 November 2011. Archived from the original on 30 November 2011. Retrieved 3 December 2011.
- Interfax, Moscow, 29 November 2011
- RIA Novosti, 6 December 2001
- "York completes a week shadowing Russia's biggest warship around the British Isles". Royal Navy. 22 December 2011. Archived from the original on 23 April 2012.
- Interfax, 8 January 2012
- Mizokami, Kyle (10 November 2015). "Tugboat Endures a Stomach-Churning Ride While Pulling a Russian Aircraft Carrier". Popular Mechanics. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
- "Admiral Kuznetsov aircraft carrier to start long-range mission in Mediterranean in late 2013". Russia Beyond The Headlines. 1 June 2013. Archived from the original on 14 March 2018. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
- "Корабельная группа Северного флота отправилась в дальний поход" [Carrier group of the Northern Fleet went on a long voyage]. Zvezda (in Russian). 17 December 2013. Archived from the original on 19 December 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
- Russian TV station Zvezda
- "Russian aircraft carrier docks in Cyprus". Famagusta Gazette. 28 February 2014. Archived from the original on 1 March 2014. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
- "Royal Navy sails to meet Russian Task Group". Royal Navy. 8 May 2014. Archived from the original on 17 March 2018. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
- "Advancing, blindly". The Economist. 18 September 2008. Archived from the original on 19 September 2008. Retrieved 18 September 2008.
- Thell, Michael (1 August 2006). "Russia plans new life for naval assets". Jane's.com. Archived from the original on 1 February 2009.
- "Авианосная группа кораблей Северного флота начала поход в Средиземное море" [Carrier group of the Northern Fleet began a voyage to the Mediterranean]. RIA Novosti (in Russian). 15 October 2016. Archived from the original on 15 October 2016. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
- Ripley, Tim (17 October 2016). "Russian carrier sails for the Mediterranean". IHS Jane's 360. Jane's. Archived from the original on 18 October 2016. Retrieved 17 October 2016.
- "Belching smoke through the Channel, Russian aircraft carrier so unreliable it sails with its own breakdown tug". The Daily Telegraph. 22 October 2016. Archived from the original on 23 October 2016. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
- McGarry, Brendan (21 October 2016). "Russian Aircraft Carrier Smokes Through English Channel". Defensetech. Archived from the original on 26 March 2017. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
- "'Sea Flankers' prepare for Syria". Combat Aircraft. 30 September 2016. Archived from the original on 1 December 2016. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
- "Russian Navy MiG-29K lost in Mediterranean". Combat Aircraft. 14 November 2016. Archived from the original on 16 November 2016. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
- "Carrier-based Ka-52K bound for Syria". Combat Aircraft. 21 October 2016. Archived from the original on 16 November 2016. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
- Majumdar, Dave (19 September 2016). "Russia's Only Aircraft Carrier Is Headed For Syria (But Suffers From One Big Flaw)". The National Interest. Archived from the original on 7 November 2016. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
- "Russian warships pass through English Channel". BBC News. 21 October 2016. Retrieved 11 January 2023.
- "Anger as Spain prepares to let Russian warships refuel on way back to Aleppo bombing". The Guardian. 26 October 2016. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
- "Russia warships: Admiral Kuznetsov battle group 'refuels off North Africa'v". BBC News. 27 October 2016. Archived from the original on 28 October 2016. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
- Borger, Julian (4 November 2016). "Ominous news for Aleppo as Russian frigate reaches Syrian coast". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 5 November 2016. Retrieved 6 November 2016.
- Karnozov, Vladimir (5 December 2016). "Russia's Carrier Operations Start with Mishaps". AIN Online.
- "Russia uses aircraft carrier for big attack on Syrian rebels". Reuters. 15 November 2016. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
- "Commander of Syrian radical group killed in Russia's strikes". Xinhua News Agency. 17 November 2016. Archived from the original on 14 April 2017. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
- Cenciotti, David (5 December 2016). "Russian Su-33 crashed in the Mediterranean while attempting to land on Admiral Kuznetsov aircraft carrier". The Aviationist. Archived from the original on 5 December 2016. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
- "Russian Combat Jets To Operate From Syria Airbase Following Carrier Landing Malfunction". Defense World. 6 December 2016. Archived from the original on 7 December 2016. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
- Kramer, Andrew E. (6 January 2017). "Russian Aircraft Carrier Is Called Back as Part of Syrian Drawdown". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
- Vasilescu, Valentin (16 January 2017). "In Syria the Russian Navy and Air Force are testing new means of defense against an invasion by NATO". Algora Blog. Archived from the original on 14 April 2017. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
- Tomlinson, Lucas Y. (11 January 2017). "Russia steps up military presence in Syria, despite Putin promise". Fox News. Archived from the original on 12 January 2017. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
- "Командующий Ливийской национальной армией посетил "Адмирал Кузнецов"" [Commander of the Libyan National Army visited "Admiral Kuznetsov"]. RIA Novosti (in Russian). 11 January 2017. Archived from the original on 18 January 2017.
- "East Libya strongman visits Russian aircraft carrier in Mediterranean: RIA". Reuters. 11 January 2017. Archived from the original on 1 July 2017.
- "UK warship escorts Russian carrier in English Channel". BBC News. 25 January 2017. Archived from the original on 26 January 2017. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
- "В Североморске помпезно встретили "Адмирала Кузнецова" и "Петра Великого", вернувшихся из сирийского похода (ВИДЕО)" ["Admiral Kuznetsov" and "Peter the Great", returning from the Syrian campaign, are greeted in Severomorsk (VIDEO)]. NEWSru (in Russian). 9 February 2017. Archived from the original on 9 February 2017.
- "Путин назвал сирийский поход "Адмирала Кузнецова" личной инициативой" [Putin called Admiral Kuznetsov's Syrian campaign a personal initiative]. RBC Daily (in Russian). 23 February 2017. Archived from the original on 24 February 2017. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
- "Путин назвал поход "Адмирала Кузнецова" в Сирию личной инициативой" [Putin called Admiral Kuznetsov's trip to Syria a personal initiative]. Zvezda (in Russian). 23 February 2017. Archived from the original on 25 February 2017. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
- Soper, Karl (1 August 2016). "Admiral Kuznetsov overhaul designed to maintain carrier capability while Russia considers future carrier options". Jane's Navy International. 121 (6).
- Johnson, Reuben F. (26 April 2018). "Russian Navy to upgrade Kuznetsov". Jane's Information Group. Archived from the original on 28 April 2018. Retrieved 27 April 2018.
The modernization work is to be carried out by the 35th Ship Repair Plant in Murmansk, which is a satellite facility of the Zvezdochka Ship Repair Centre in Severodvinsk. Russia's deputy defense minister for procurement, Yuri Borisov, stated in April that the entire re-fit would be complete by the end of 2020 and the ship back in service in 2021.
- Episkopos, Mark (2 February 2019). "Russia's Only Aircraft Carrier Is in Serious Trouble". The National Interest. Archived from the original on 12 February 2019. Retrieved 11 February 2019 – via Yahoo! News.
- Hollings, Alex (31 December 2018). "70-ton crane removed from 200-foot hole it made in Russian aircraft carrier flight deck". TheNewsRep. Archived from the original on 1 June 2019. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
- "Is Russia Retiring the Kuznetsov? Likely Not Yet". Medium. 31 May 2019. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
- Staalesen, Atle. "Murmansk gets Russia's biggest dry dock". The Barents Observer. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
- Cole, Brendan (22 December 2022). "Russia's Only Aircraft Carrier Catches Fire". Newsweek. Retrieved 11 January 2023.
- "Russian MoD Calls For Accelerating Repairs To Aircraft Carrier's Dock". Naval News. 14 April 2021. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
- "Repairs to the Russian aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov delayed". navyrecognition.com. 8 November 2021. Retrieved 8 November 2021.
- "Авианосец "Адмирал Кузнецов" успешно встал в док" [Aircraft carrier "Admiral Kuznetsov" successfully docked]. ria.ru (in Russian). 20 May 2022. Retrieved 20 May 2022.
- "Для начала докового ремонта авианосца "Адмирал Кузнецов" осушили док 35-го СРЗ" [To start the dock repair of the aircraft carrier "Admiral Kuznetsov" the dock of the 35th shipyard was drained]. TASS (in Russian). 27 July 2022.
- "Авианосец "Адмирал Кузнецов" после ремонта прослужит не менее 25 лет - ОСК" [Aircraft carrier "Admiral Kuznetsov" after repairs will serve at least 25 years - USC]. militarynews.ru (in Russian). 15 August 2022.
- "Источники: вывод "Адмирала Кузнецова" из сухого дока завершится только в феврале". flotprom.ru (in Russian). 25 January 2023.
- "Докование "Адмирала Кузнецова" завершено". flotprom.ru (in Russian). 22 February 2023.
- "Russian Aircraft Carrier Admiral Kuznetsov Starts To Leave Drydock, Local Sources Claim A Minor Fire Onboard". Naval News. TASS News Agency. 22 December 2022. Retrieved 23 December 2022.