Russian aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Admiral Kuznetsov
Admiral Kuznetsov aircraft carrier.jpg
Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Kuznetsov
History
Soviet Union → Russia
NameAdmiral Flota Sovetskogo Soyuza Kuznetsov (Russian: Адмирал Флота Советского Союза Кузнецов)
NamesakeNikolay Kuznetsov
Ordered3 March 1981
Builder
Laid down1 April 1982[1]
Launched6 December 1985[1]
Commissioned20 January 1991[2] (fully operational in 1995)
RefitMay–August 2015[citation needed] July 2018–present[3][4]
StatusUndergoing refit
BadgeSh32 TAK Kuznecov.jpg
General characteristics
Class and type Kuznetsov-class aircraft cruiser/aircraft carrier
Displacement
Length
  • 305 m (1,000 ft 8 in) o/a[1]
  • 270 m (885 ft 10 in) w/l
Beam
  • 72 m (236 ft 3 in)[1] o/a
  • 35 m (114 ft 10 in) w/l[1]
Draft10 m (32 ft 10 in)[1]
Propulsion
  • Steam turbines, 8 turbo-pressurised boilers, 4 shafts, 200,000 hp (150 MW)
  • 4 × 50,000 hp (37 MW) turbines
  • 9 × 2,011 hp (1,500 kW) turbogenerators
  • 6 × 2,011 hp (1,500 kW) diesel generators
  • 4 × fixed pitch propellers
Speed29 knots (54 km/h; 33 mph)[1]
Range8,500 nmi (15,700 km; 9,800 mi) at 18 kn (33 km/h; 21 mph)[1]
Endurance45 days[1]
Complement
  • 1,690 (total); 1,690 ship's crew[1]
  • 626 air group
  • 40 flag staff
  • 3,857 rooms
Armament
Aircraft carried

Admiral Flota Sovetskogo Soyuza Kuznetsov (Russian: Адмира́л фло́та Сове́тского Сою́за Кузнецо́в "Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Kuznetsov", originally the name of the fifth Kirov-class battlecruiser) is an aircraft carrier (heavy aircraft cruiser in Russian classification) serving as the flagship of the Russian Navy. She was built by the Black Sea Shipyard, the sole manufacturer of Soviet aircraft carriers, in Nikolayev within the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR). The initial name of the ship was Riga; it was launched as Leonid Brezhnev, embarked on sea trials as Tbilisi, and finally named Admiral Flota Sovetskogo Soyuza Kuznetsov after Admiral of the fleet of the Soviet Union Nikolay Gerasimovich Kuznetsov.[7]

She was originally commissioned in the Soviet Navy, and was intended to be the lead ship of the two-ship Admiral Kuznetsov class. However, her sister ship Varyag was still incomplete when the Soviet Union disbanded in 1991.[8] The second hull was eventually sold by Ukraine to China, completed in Dalian and commissioned as Liaoning.[9] As of July 2021, Admiral Kuznetsov is out of service for a refit. In November 2018, it was damaged by a falling 70-ton crane from the floating dry dock PD-50 and a fire that killed two during the refit. The dry dock, which sank due to a power outage while holding Admiral Kuznetsov,[10] was vital to repairing the carrier,[11] which is not expected to re-enter service until 2022 at the earliest.[12] In 2021, the Vice President of the United Shipbuilding Corporation (USC), Vladimir Korolev, told the TASS news agency that the vessel was expected to begin post-repair sea trials in mid-2023 and rejoin the fleet later that year,[13] although this may have been pushed back a year or more due to delays.[14]

Design[edit]

The design of Admiral Kuznetsov class implies a mission different from that of the United States Navy's carriers. The term used by her builders to describe the Russian ships is Tyazholyy Avianesushchiy Kreyser (TAVKR) – "heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser" – intended to support and defend strategic missile-carrying submarines, surface ships, and naval missile-carrying aircraft of the Russian Navy.

The deck configuration has three launch positions for fixed-wing aircraft.

Admiral Kuznetsov's main fixed-wing aircraft is the multi-role Sukhoi Su-33. It can perform air superiority, fleet defence, and air support missions and can also be used for direct fire support of amphibious assault, reconnaissance and placement of naval mines.[15] The carrier also carries the Kamov Ka-27 and Kamov Ka-27S helicopters for anti-submarine warfare, search and rescue, and small transport.

For takeoff of fixed wing aircraft, Admiral Kuznetsov uses a ski-jump at the end of her bow. When taking off, aircraft accelerate toward and up the ski-jump using their afterburners. This results in the aircraft leaving the deck at a higher angle and elevation than on an aircraft carrier with a flat deck and catapults. The ski-jump take-off is less demanding on the pilot, since the acceleration is lower, but results in a clearance speed of only 120–140 km/h (75–87 mph) requiring an aircraft design which will not stall at those speeds.[16] The "cruiser" role is facilitated by Admiral Kuznetsov's complement of 12 long-range surface-to-surface anti-ship P-700 Granit (NATO reporting name: Shipwreck) cruise missiles. As a result, this armament is the basis for the ship's Russian type designator of "heavy aircraft-carrying missile cruiser".

Unlike most western naval ships that use gas turbines or nuclear power, Admiral Kuznetsov is a conventionally powered ship that uses mazut as a fuel, often leading to a visible trail of heavy black smoke that can be seen at a great distance. Russian naval officials have said that the failure to properly preheat the heavy mazut fuel prior to entering the combustion chamber may contribute to the heavy smoke trail associated with the ship.[17]

Transiting the Turkish Straits[edit]

Admiral Kuznetsov's designation as an aircraft-carrying cruiser is very important under the Montreux Convention, as it allows the ship to transit the Turkish Straits. The Convention prohibits countries from sending an aircraft carrier heavier than 15,000 tons through the Straits. Since the ship was built in the Ukrainian SSR, Admiral Kuznetsov would have been stuck in the Black Sea if Turkey had refused permission to pass into the Mediterranean Sea.[18] However, the Convention does not limit the displacement of capital ships operated by Black Sea powers. Turkey allowed Admiral Kuznetsov to transit the Straits, and no signatory to the Montreux Convention ever issued a formal protest of her classification as an aircraft-carrying cruiser.[19]

History[edit]

1990s[edit]

Admiral Kuznetsov in the waters south of Italy with USS Deyo, foreground, steaming off her port side.

Admiral Flota Sovetskogo Soyuza Kuznetsov, constructed at Chernomorskiy Shipyard, also known as Nikolayev South Shipyard, in Nikolayev, now Mykolaiv, Ukrainian SSR, was launched in 1985, and became fully operational in 1995. An official ceremony marking the start of construction took place on 1 September 1982; in fact she was laid down in 1983. The vessel was first named Riga, then the name was changed to Leonid Brezhnev, this was followed by Tbilisi. Finally, on 4 October 1990,[8] she was renamed Admiral Flota Sovetskovo Soyuza N.G. Kuznetsov, referred to in short as Admiral Kuznetsov.[7] The ship was 71% complete by mid-1989. In November 1989 she undertook her first aircraft operation trials. In December 1991, she sailed from the Black Sea to join the Northern Fleet. Only from 1993 on did she receive aircraft.

From 23 December 1995 through 22 March 1996 Admiral Kuznetsov made her first 90-day Mediterranean deployment with 13 Su-33, 2 Su-25 UTG, and 11 helicopters aboard.[20] The deployment of the Russian Navy's flagship was undertaken to mark the 300th anniversary of the establishment of the Russian Navy in October 1696. The deployment was to allow the carrier, which was accompanied by a frigate, destroyer and oiler, to adapt to the Mediterranean climate and to perform continuous flight operations until 21:00 each day, as the Barents Sea only receives about one hour of sunlight during this time of year.[21] During that period the carrier lay at anchor off the port of Tartus, Syria.[22] Her aircraft often made flights close to the Israeli shore line and were escorted by Israeli F-16s.[22] During the deployment, a severe water shortage occurred due to evaporators breaking down.[21]

At the end of 1997 she remained immobilized in a Northern Fleet shipyard, awaiting funding for major repairs, which were halted when they were only 20% complete. The overhaul was completed in July 1998, and the ship returned to active service in the Northern fleet on 3 November 1998.

2000–2010[edit]

Sukhoi Su-33 aircraft aboard Admiral Kuznetsov during exercises in the Barents Sea in 2008.

Admiral Kuznetsov remained in port for two years before preparing for another Mediterranean deployment scheduled for the winter of 2000–2001. This deployment was cancelled due to the explosion and sinking of the nuclear-powered submarine Kursk. Admiral Kuznetsov participated in the Kursk rescue and salvage operations in late 2000. Plans for further operations were postponed or cancelled. In late 2003 and early 2004, Admiral Kuznetsov went to sea for inspection and trials. In October 2004, she participated in a fleet exercise of the Russian Navy in the Atlantic Ocean.[23] During a September 2005 exercise, a Su-33 accidentally fell from the carrier into the Atlantic Ocean.[24] On 27 September 2006, it was announced that Admiral Kuznetsov would return to service in the Northern Fleet by the year's end, following another modernization to correct some technical issues. Admiral Vladimir Masorin, Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Navy, also stated that Su-33 fighters assigned to her would return after undergoing their own maintenance and refits.

President Dmitry Medvedev inside the hangar of Admiral Kuznetsov, behind is the Kamov Ka-27 helicopter

From 5 December 2007 through 3 February 2008 Admiral Kuznetsov made its second Mediterranean deployment.[20] On 11 December 2007, Admiral Kuznetsov passed by Norwegian oil platforms in the North Sea, 60 nautical miles (110 km) outside Bergen, Norway.[25] Su-33 fighters and Kamov helicopters were launched from Admiral Kuznetsov while within international waters; Norwegian helicopter services to the rigs were halted due to the collision risk with the Russian aircraft. Admiral Kuznetsov later participated in an exercise on the Mediterranean Sea, together with 11 other Russian surface ships and 47 aircraft, performing three tactical training missions using live and simulated air and surface missile launches.[26] Admiral Kuznetsov and her escorts returned to Severomorsk on 3 February 2008. Following maintenance, she returned to sea on 11 October 2008 for the Stability 2008 strategic exercises held in the Barents Sea. On 12 October 2008, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev visited the ship during the exercise.

From 5 December 2008 through 2 March 2009, Admiral Kuznetsov made her third Mediterranean deployment.[20] On 5 December 2008, she and several other vessels left Severomorsk for the Atlantic for a combat training tour, including joint drills with Russia's Black Sea Fleet and visits to several Mediterranean ports.[27][28] On 7 January 2009, a small fire broke out onboard Admiral Kuznetsov while anchored off Turkey. The fire, caused by a short circuit, led to the death of one crew member by carbon monoxide poisoning.[29] On 16 February 2009, she was involved in a large oil spill, along with other Russian naval vessels, while refuelling off the south coast of Ireland.[30] On 2 March 2009, Admiral Kuznetsov returned to Severomorsk, and in September 2010 she left dry dock after scheduled repairs and preparations for a training mission in the Barents Sea, later that month.

2011–2012 Mediterranean deployment[edit]

Admiral Kuznetsov, shadowed by British destroyer HMS York off the UK coast, en route to her 2011 Mediterranean cruise

The Russian Main Navy Staff announced that Admiral Kuznetsov would begin a deployment to the Atlantic and Mediterranean in December 2011. In November 2011, it was announced that Admiral Kuznetsov would lead a squadron to Russia's naval facility in Tartus.[31][32]

A Russian naval spokesman announced via the Izvestia daily that "The call of the Russian ships in Tartus should not be seen as a gesture towards what is going on in Syria... This was planned already in 2010 when there were no such events there" noting that Admiral Kuznetsov would also be making port calls in Beirut, Genoa and Cyprus.[33] On 29 November 2011, Army General Nikolay Makarov, Chief of the Russian General Staff, said that Russian ships in the Mediterranean were due to exercises rather than events in Syria, and noted that Admiral Kuznetsov's size does not allow her to moor in Tartus.[34]

Admiral Kuznetsov (right) at anchor in Severomorsk, alongside new Indian Navy aircraft carrier INS Vikramaditya, 2012

On 6 December 2011, Admiral Kuznetsov and her escort ships departed the Northern Fleet home base for a Mediterranean deployment to exercise with ships from the Russian Baltic and Black Sea Fleets.[35] On 12 December 2011, Admiral Kuznetsov and her escorts, were spotted northeast of Orkney off the coast of northern Scotland, the first such time she had deployed near the UK. HMS York shadowed the group for a week; due to severe weather, the group took shelter in international waters in the Moray Firth, some 30 miles (48 km) from the UK coast. Admiral Kuznetsov then sailed around the top of Scotland and into the Atlantic past western Ireland, where she conducted flight operations with her Sukhoi Su-33 'Flanker' jets and Kamov Ka-27 helicopters in international airspace.[36] On 8 January 2012, Admiral Kuznetsov anchored near shore outside Tartus while other ships from her escort entered the port to use the leased Russian naval support facility to replenish their supplies, after which all ships continued their deployment on 9 January.[37] In February 2012, Admiral Kuznetsov returned to her home base of Severomorsk, having lost propulsion during the return voyage in the Bay of Biscay. The tugboat Nikolay Chiker took the vessel in tow and aided Admiral Kuznetsov's return.[38]

2013–2014 deployment[edit]

Admiral Kuznetsov escorted by HMS Dragon off the UK coast, May 2014

On 1 June 2013, it was announced that the ship would return to the Mediterranean by the end of the year,[39] and on 17 December, Admiral Kuznetsov departed her home base for the Mediterranean.[40] On 1 January 2014, Admiral Kuznetsov celebrated New Year's Day while at anchor in international waters of the Moray Firth off northeast Scotland. The anchorage allowed replenishment of ship's supplies and respite for the crew from stormy weather off the southwest coast of Norway. She then proceeded to the Mediterranean Sea,[41] docking in Cyprus on 28 February.[42] In May 2014, the ship and her task group: the Kirov-class nuclear-powered cruiser Petr Velikiy; tankers Sergey Osipov, Kama and Dubna; the ocean-going tug Altay and the Ropucha-class landing ship Minsk (part of the Black Sea Fleet), passed the UK while sailing for home.[43] Despite financial and technical problems, resulting in limited operations for the ship,[44] it was expected that Admiral Kuznetsov would remain in active service until at least 2030.[45]

Mid-life refit[edit]

In April 2010, it was announced that by late 2012, the ship would enter Severodvinsk Sevmash shipyard for a major refit and modernization,[46] including upgrades to obsolete electronics and sensor equipment, installation of a new anti-aircraft system (Pantsir-M) and an increase of the air wing with the removal of the P-700 Granit anti-ship missiles.[clarification needed] Possible upgrades include exchanging the troublesome steam powerplant to gas-turbine, or even nuclear propulsion, and installation of catapults to the angled deck.[46][dubious ]

The Navy expected to acquire Mikoyan MiG-29K aircraft for Admiral Kuznetsov by 2011; this later was confirmed by a defense sub-contractor[47][48] The MiG-29Ks would replace the 19 carrier-based Su-33 fighters, a resource set to become obsolete by 2015. Producing more Su-33s is possible but not cost-effective for such small volumes; the MiG-29K is more convenient as the Indian Navy also placed an order for a total of 45 aircraft, thereby reducing development and manufacturing costs. India paid $730 million for the development and delivery of 16 MiG-29Ks; 24 additional aircraft for the Russian Navy would cost about $1 billion.[47]

2016 Syrian campaign[edit]

Following ongoing maintenance, Admiral Kuznetsov set sail on 15 October 2016 from the Kola Bay for the Mediterranean, accompanied by seven other Russian Navy vessels including the nuclear-powered battlecruiser Pyotr Velikiy and two Udaloy-class destroyers.[49][50] The carrier was accompanied by an ocean-going tugboat, as a precaution due to potential propulsion failure.[38][51][52] The airwing included 6-8 Su-33 fighters,[53] four Mig-29KR/KUBR multi-role aircraft,[54] Ka-52K "Katran" navalised attack helicopters, Ka-31R "Helix" AEW&C helicopters and Ka-27PS "Helix-D" search and rescue helicopters.[55] All the Su-33 aircraft had been upgraded with the Gefest SVP-24 bombsights for free-fall bombs, giving them a limited ground-attack capability.[53] Analysts, including Mikhail Barabanov of the Moscow Defense Brief, suggested that a lack of trained pilots restricted the number of fixed-wing aircraft that could be deployed from the carrier.[56]

Russian sailors lined up on deck of Admiral Kuznetsov

On 21 October, the Admiral Kuznetsov battle group sailed through the English Channel, escorted by Royal Navy ships, while UK Defence Minister Michael Fallon speculated that the taskforce was designed to "test" the British naval response.[57] On 26 October 2016, the ship was reported to have passed through the Strait of Gibraltar[58] and refuelled at sea off North Africa the following day.[59] On 3 November 2016, the Admiral Kuznetsov battle group paused off the east coast of Crete.[60] On 14 November 2016, a MiG-29K crashed into the sea after taking off from the carrier. The pilot ejected safely from the plane and was rescued by helicopter. According to initial reports from Russian officials, the crash was a result of technical malfunction,[61][62] but it was later revealed that the plane had actually run out of fuel waiting to land while the crew was attempting to repair a broken arresting wire. The carrier commander could have diverted the aircraft to land at a nearby airbase, but hesitated in the hope that the arrestor gear would be repaired in time.[63]

On 15 November 2016, Admiral Kuznetsov, took part in "a large-scale operation against the positions of terrorist groups Islamic State and Al-Nusra, in the provinces of Idlib and Homs" in Syria by launching Su-33 fighter strikes. This was the first time the Russian aircraft carrier would take part in combat operations.[64] The Russian Defence Ministry later reported that at least 30 militants had been killed as a result of those strikes, including three field commanders, among them Abul Baha al-Asfari, leader of Al-Nusra reserves in the provinces of Homs and Aleppo. Al-Asfari had also planned and led several insurgent attacks on the city of Aleppo itself. The Su-33s reportedly used 500 kg (1,100 lb) precision bombs.[65] On 3 December 2016, an Su-33 crashed into the sea after attempting to land on the carrier. The plane crashed on its second attempt to land on the aircraft carrier in good weather conditions. The pilot was safely recovered by a search and rescue helicopter.[66] Initially it was suspected that the plane missed the wires and failed to go around, falling short of the bow of the warship, but later it was revealed that the arresting cable failed to hold the aircraft, and was damaged in the attempt. Following the two incidents, the air wing was transferred to shore at Khmeimim Air Base near Latakia, Syria to continue military operations while the carrier's arresting gear issues were addressed.[67]

Post-Syrian operations[edit]

In early January 2017, it was announced that Admiral Kuznetsov and her battlegroup would be ceasing operations in Syria and returning to Russia as part of a scaling back of Russian involvement in the conflict.[68] During her deployment off Syria, aircraft from Admiral Kuznetsov carried out 420 combat missions, hitting 1,252 hostile targets.[69] On 11 January 2017, Admiral Kuznetsov was conducting live-fire training exercises in the Mediterranean off the coast of Libya.[70] The Russian defence ministry announced that on 11 January, Admiral Kuznetsov was visited by Libya's military leader Khalifa Haftar, who had a video conference with Russian defence minister Sergey Shoygu while on board.[71][72]

On 20 January, Admiral Kuznetsov was sighted passing west through the Strait of Gibraltar and six days later, she was escorted back along the English Channel by three Eurofighter Typhoons of the Royal Air Force and the Type 23 frigate HMS St Albans.[73] She arrived back in Severomorsk on 9 February.[74] On 23 February 2017, President Vladimir Putin said that the ship's deployment to the Mediterranean had been his personal initiative.[75][76]

Refit[edit]

The carrier started an overhaul and modernisation program in the first quarter of 2017 to extend its service life by 25 years.[77] Admiral Kuznetsov was to undergo modernization at the 35th Ship Repair Plant in Murmansk between 2020 and 2021, upgrading the ship's power plant and electronics systems.[78]

PD-50 sinking[edit]

Admiral Kuznetsov docked in PD-50 (2006)

On 30 October 2018, Admiral Kuznetsov was damaged when Russia's biggest floating dry dock, PD-50, sank, causing one of its 70-ton cranes to crash onto the ship's flight deck and leaving behind a 200-square-foot (19 m2) hole in the flight deck. One person was reported missing and four injured as the dry dock sank in Kola Bay. Admiral Kuznetsov was in the process of being removed from the dock when the incident occurred, and was towed to a nearby yard after the incident.[79] According to Alexei Rakhmanov, president of the United Shipbuilding Corporation, the cost of repairing the damage was estimated to be RUB70 million (about US$1 million) and should not affect the timing of the current overhaul and modernization of the ship,[citation needed] though it is unclear how scheduling could fail to be affected by the sinking of the dry dock.[80]

The fallen crane was removed in two to three months.[81] In late May 2019, seven months later, information posted on Digital Forensic Research Lab's blog suggested that repair work of the aircraft carrier was underway.[82] That same month, it was also announced that two graving docks in Roslyakovo, Murmansk Oblast would be merged and enlarged to accommodate Admiral Kuznetsov, the work taking a year and a half.[83]

Fire[edit]

In December 2019, a major fire broke out on board Admiral Kuznetsov as work continued on the ship's refit.[84] Two people died and fourteen suffered injuries from the fire and smoke inhalation.[85] Fire-related damage aboard Admiral Kuznetsov is estimated at US$8 million.[86]

Overhaul and upgrade[edit]

The overhaul and upgrade of Admiral Kuznetsov is expected to be completed in the first half of 2023. The avionics, flight deck with the ski jump, electric equipment, and the power plant will be replaced. The carrier will also receive a new fully domestic takeoff and landing control system, with the onboard airpower remaining the same. Due to the lack of a large enough dry dock, a new dry dock is being constructed in Murmansk.[87] While this is scheduled to be completed by the end of 2021, Admiral Kuznetsov will not be docked until June 2022 due to safer weather conditions at that time.[88] The ship is not expected to return to active operations until late 2023.[89] In November 2021 it was reported that "bad weather" had caused significant delays to repair work which might push back the completion of the refit by more than one year.[14]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Apalkov, Yu.V. (2003). Korabli VMF SSSR, Tom 2, Udarnye Korabli (in Russian). Sankt Peterburg: Galeya Print.
  2. ^ Karpenko, A.V. "Тяжелый Авианесущий Крейсер "адмирал Флота Советского Союза Кузнецов" Проекта 11435 Подборка материалов по авианосцу от Карпенко" [Heavy Aircraft Carrier "Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Kuznetsov" Project 11435]. Bastion (in Russian). Retrieved 3 November 2016.
  3. ^ ""Адмирал Кузнецов" в ремонте" ["Admiral Kuznetsov" under repair]. bmpd.livejournal.com (in Russian). 23 July 2018. Retrieved 23 July 2018.
  4. ^ Balmforth, Tom (30 October 2018). "Russia's only aircraft carrier damaged after crane falls on it". Reuters. Archived from the original on 1 November 2018. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
  5. ^ a b c "Admiral Flota Sovetskogo Soyuza Kuznetsov". Rusnavy.com. Archived from the original on 24 February 2020. Retrieved 22 December 2014.
  6. ^ a b c "Kuznetsov Class – Project 1143.5". Globalsecurity.org. 7 September 2011. Archived from the original on 8 October 2014. Retrieved 22 December 2014.
  7. ^ a b Balakin, Sergey; Zablotskiy, Vladimir (2007). Sovetskii Avianostsy [Soviet Aircraft Carriers] (in Russian). Moscow: Yauza.
  8. ^ a b Apalkov, Yu.V. (2003). Korabli VMF SSSR [Ships of the Soviet Navy] (in Russian). Sankt Peterburg: Galeya Print.
  9. ^ Storey, Ian; Ji, You (Winter 2004). "China's Aircraft Carrier Ambitions: Seeking Truth from Rumors". Naval War College Review. 57 (1). Archived from the original on 12 December 2006.
  10. ^ Gallagher, Sean (30 October 2018). "Russia's only aircraft carrier damaged as its floating dry dock sinks". Ars Technica. Retrieved 5 November 2018. Due to interruptions in the supply of electric power to PD-50, the floating dock dived out in an off-design mode.
  11. ^ Pickrell, Ryan (9 November 2018). "A devastating shipyard accident appears to have sunk Russia's efforts to save its sole aircraft carrier". Business Insider. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
  12. ^ "Russian Navy heavy aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov to return at sea in 2022". NavyRecognition.com. 5 December 2020. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  13. ^ Manaranche, Martin (24 June 2021). "Russian Aircraft Carrier To Rejoin The Fleet In Late 2023". Naval News. Retrieved 24 June 2021.
  14. ^ a b "Repairs to the Russian aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov delayed". navyrecognition.com. 8 November 2021. Retrieved 8 November 2021.
  15. ^ "Su-3: Single-seat carrier-based fighter". KnAAPO. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011.
  16. ^ Gordon, Yefim; Davidson, Peter (2006). Sukhoi Su-27 Flanker. Warbird Tech Series, Vol. 42. North Branch, MN: Specialty Press. p. 54. ISBN 978-1-58007-091-1.
  17. ^ Gao, Charlie. "Russia's Aircraft Carrier Is a Smokey Mess: Here's Why". Yahoo! News. Retrieved 26 July 2020.
  18. ^ Miller, David V.; Hine, Jr., Jonathan T. (31 January 1990). Soviet Carriers in the Turkish Straits (PDF). Newport, Rhode Island: Naval War College. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 November 2016. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
  19. ^ Pike, John. "Montreux Convention 1936". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
  20. ^ a b c "Минобороны России". Russian Ministry of Defence (in Russian). Archived from the original on 11 April 2019. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  21. ^ a b Almond, Peter (11 January 1996). "U.S. Poised to Rescue Russian Sailors". The Washington Post.[dead link]
  22. ^ a b Rosenberg, Ran; Gilboa, Hagai (June 2002). "מפגשים מהסוג הרוסי" [Encounters of the Russian Kind]. IAF Journal (in Hebrew) (145). Archived from the original on 20 December 2013.
  23. ^ Felgenhauer, Pavel (2 November 2004). "A Foolhardy Naval Exercise". The Moscow Times. Archived from the original on 7 November 2004 – via CDI Russia Weekly.
  24. ^ "Затонувший Су-33 бомбить не будут - он разрушится сам" [The sunken Su-33 will not be bombed - it will collapse on its own]. Lenta.ru (in Russian). 7 September 2005. Archived from the original on 10 June 2015. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
  25. ^ Klungtveit, Harald S.; Gulseth, Hege Løvstad (11 December 2007). "Russiske jagerfly lager kaos i Nordsjøen" [Russian fighter jets wreak havoc in the North Sea]. Dagbladet (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 26 September 2008. Retrieved 18 September 2008.
  26. ^ Solsvik, Terje; Moskwa, Wojciech (11 December 2007). "Russian Navy disrupts access to N. Sea oilfields". Reuters. Archived from the original on 12 November 2012. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
  27. ^ "Russian warships head to Atlantic, Mediterranean". Moscow. AP. 5 December 2008. Retrieved 9 December 2008.[dead link]
  28. ^ "Russian naval task force heads to Atlantic, Mediterranean". RIA Novosti. Moscow. 5 December 2008. Archived from the original on 8 December 2008. Retrieved 9 December 2008.
  29. ^ "Sailor killed in fire on board Russian warship off Turkey". RIA Novosti. 7 January 2009. Archived from the original on 25 January 2009. Retrieved 7 January 2009.
  30. ^ Smith, Lewis (17 February 2009). "Huge oil slick from Russian ship heads for British coastline". The Times. Retrieved 17 February 2009.
  31. ^ "Russia sent military ships to base in Syria". Pravda.ru. 30 November 2011. Archived from the original on 1 December 2011. Retrieved 1 December 2011.
  32. ^ Grove, Thomas (28 November 2011). "Russia sending warships to its base in Syria". Reuters. Archived from the original on 29 November 2011. Retrieved 1 December 2011.
  33. ^ "Russia to send warships to Syria in 2012: report". Spacewar.com. 29 November 2011. Archived from the original on 30 November 2011. Retrieved 3 December 2011.
  34. ^ Interfax, Moscow, 29 November 2011
  35. ^ RIA Novosti, 6 December 2001
  36. ^ "York completes a week shadowing Russia's biggest warship around the British Isles". Royal Navy. 22 December 2011. Archived from the original on 23 April 2012.
  37. ^ Interfax, 8 January 2012
  38. ^ a b Mizokami, Kyle (10 November 2015). "Tugboat Endures a Stomach-Churning Ride While Pulling a Russian Aircraft Carrier". Popular Mechanics. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  39. ^ "Admiral Kuznetsov aircraft carrier to start long-range mission in Mediterranean in late 2013". Russia Beyond The Headlines. 1 June 2013. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
  40. ^ "Корабельная группа Северного флота отправилась в дальний поход" [Carrier group of the Northern Fleet went on a long voyage]. Zvezda (in Russian). 17 December 2013. Archived from the original on 19 December 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
  41. ^ Russian TV station Zvezda
  42. ^ "Russian aircraft carrier docks in Cyprus". Famagusta Gazette. 28 February 2014. Archived from the original on 1 March 2014. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
  43. ^ "Royal Navy sails to meet Russian Task Group". Royal Navy. 8 May 2014. Archived from the original on 17 March 2018. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  44. ^ "Advancing, blindly". The Economist. 18 September 2008. Archived from the original on 19 September 2008. Retrieved 18 September 2008.
  45. ^ Thell, Michael (1 August 2006). "Russia plans new life for naval assets". Jane's.com. Archived from the original on 1 February 2009.
  46. ^ a b "Moscow set to upgrade Admiral Kuznetsov aircraft carrier". RIA Novosti. 6 April 2010. Archived from the original on 9 April 2010. Retrieved 7 April 2010.
  47. ^ a b "Russian Navy will probably buy 24 MiG-29K fighters designed for India". Rusnavy.com. 24 September 2009. Archived from the original on 20 December 2010. Retrieved 4 October 2009.
  48. ^ Pettersen, Trude (25 September 2009). "New fighter jets for Admiral Kuznetsov". The Barents Observer. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
  49. ^ "Авианосная группа кораблей Северного флота начала поход в Средиземное море" [Carrier group of the Northern Fleet began a voyage to the Mediterranean]. RIA Novosti (in Russian). 15 October 2016. Archived from the original on 15 October 2016. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
  50. ^ Ripley, Tim (17 October 2016). "Russian carrier sails for the Mediterranean". IHS Jane's 360. Jane's. Archived from the original on 18 October 2016. Retrieved 17 October 2016.
  51. ^ "Belching smoke through the Channel, Russian aircraft carrier so unreliable it sails with its own breakdown tug". The Daily Telegraph. 22 October 2016. Archived from the original on 23 October 2016. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
  52. ^ McGarry, Brendan (21 October 2016). "Russian Aircraft Carrier Smokes Through English Channel". Defensetech. Archived from the original on 26 March 2017. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
  53. ^ a b "'Sea Flankers' prepare for Syria". Combat Aircraft. 30 September 2016. Archived from the original on 1 December 2016. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  54. ^ "Russian Navy MiG-29K lost in Mediterranean". Combat Aircraft. 14 November 2016. Archived from the original on 16 November 2016. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  55. ^ "Carrier-based Ka-52K bound for Syria". Combat Aircraft. 21 October 2016. Archived from the original on 16 November 2016. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  56. ^ Majumdar, Dave (19 September 2016). "Russia's Only Aircraft Carrier Is Headed For Syria (But Suffers From One Big Flaw)". The National Interest. Archived from the original on 7 November 2016. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  57. ^ Forster, Katie (21 October 2016). "Russian warships escorted through English Channel by British navy on their way to Syria". The Independent. Archived from the original on 28 October 2016. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  58. ^ "Anger as Spain prepares to let Russian warships refuel on way back to Aleppo bombing". The Guardian. 26 October 2016. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  59. ^ "Russia warships: Admiral Kuznetsov battle group 'refuels off North Africa'". BBC News. 27 October 2016. Archived from the original on 28 October 2016. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  60. ^ Borger, Julian (4 November 2016). "Ominous news for Aleppo as Russian frigate reaches Syrian coast". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 5 November 2016. Retrieved 6 November 2016.
  61. ^ "Russian MiG-29 crashes in Mediterranean". BBC News. 14 November 2016. Archived from the original on 3 August 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
  62. ^ "Russian fighter jet crashes near its aircraft carrier in Mediterranean, US officials say". Fox News. 14 November 2016. Archived from the original on 17 November 2016. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
  63. ^ Karnozov, Vladimir (5 December 2016). "Russia's Carrier Operations Start with Mishaps". AIN Online.
  64. ^ "Russia uses aircraft carrier for big attack on Syrian rebels". Reuters. 15 November 2016. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  65. ^ "Commander of Syrian radical group killed in Russia's strikes". Xinhua News Agency. 17 November 2016. Archived from the original on 14 April 2017. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  66. ^ Cenciotti, David (5 December 2016). "Russian Su-33 crashed in the Mediterranean while attempting to land on Admiral Kuznetsov aircraft carrier". The Aviationist. Archived from the original on 5 December 2016. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
  67. ^ "Russian Combat Jets To Operate From Syria Airbase Following Carrier Landing Malfunction". Defense World. 6 December 2016. Archived from the original on 7 December 2016. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
  68. ^ Kramer, Andrew E. (6 January 2017). "Russian Aircraft Carrier Is Called Back as Part of Syrian Drawdown". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  69. ^ Vasilescu, Valentin (16 January 2017). "In Syria the Russian Navy and Air Force are testing new means of defense against an invasion by NATO". Algora Blog. Archived from the original on 14 April 2017. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  70. ^ Tomlinson, Lucas Y. (11 January 2017). "Russia steps up military presence in Syria, despite Putin promise". Fox News. Archived from the original on 12 January 2017. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
  71. ^ "Командующий Ливийской национальной армией посетил "Адмирал Кузнецов"" [Commander of the Libyan National Army visited "Admiral Kuznetsov"]. RIA Novosti (in Russian). 11 January 2017. Archived from the original on 18 January 2017.
  72. ^ "East Libya strongman visits Russian aircraft carrier in Mediterranean: RIA". Reuters. 11 January 2017. Archived from the original on 1 July 2017.
  73. ^ "UK warship escorts Russian carrier in English Channel". BBC News. 25 January 2017. Archived from the original on 26 January 2017. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
  74. ^ "В Североморске помпезно встретили "Адмирала Кузнецова" и "Петра Великого", вернувшихся из сирийского похода (ВИДЕО)" ["Admiral Kuznetsov" and "Peter the Great", returning from the Syrian campaign, are greeted in Severomorsk (VIDEO)]. NEWSru (in Russian). 9 February 2017. Archived from the original on 9 February 2017.
  75. ^ "Путин назвал сирийский поход "Адмирала Кузнецова" личной инициативой" [Putin called Admiral Kuznetsov's Syrian campaign a personal initiative]. RBC Daily (in Russian). 23 February 2017. Archived from the original on 24 February 2017. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
  76. ^ "Путин назвал поход "Адмирала Кузнецова" в Сирию личной инициативой" [Putin called Admiral Kuznetsov's trip to Syria a personal initiative]. Zvezda (in Russian). 23 February 2017. Archived from the original on 25 February 2017. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
  77. ^ Soper, Karl (1 August 2016). "Admiral Kuznetsov overhaul designed to maintain carrier capability while Russia considers future carrier options". Jane's Navy International. 121 (6). ISSN 1358-3719.
  78. ^ Johnson, Reuben F. (26 April 2018). "Russian Navy to upgrade Kuznetsov". Jane's Information Group. Archived from the original on 28 April 2018. Retrieved 27 April 2018. The modernisation work is to be carried out by the 35th Ship Repair Plant in Murmansk, which is a satellite facility of the Zvezdochka Ship Repair Centre in Severodvinsk. Russia's deputy defence minister for procurement, Yuri Borisov, stated in April that the entire re-fit would be complete by the end of 2020 and the ship back in service in 2021.
  79. ^ Staalesen, Atle (30 October 2018). "Aircraft carrier is damaged as dry dock sinks". The Barents Observer. Archived from the original on 30 October 2018. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  80. ^ Episkopos, Mark (2 February 2019). "Russia's Only Aircraft Carrier Is in Serious Trouble". The National Interest. Archived from the original on 12 February 2019. Retrieved 11 February 2019 – via Yahoo! News.
  81. ^ Hollings, Alex (31 December 2018). "70-ton crane removed from 200-foot hole it made in Russian aircraft carrier flight deck". TheNewsRep. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
  82. ^ "Is Russia Retiring the Kuznetsov? Likely Not Yet". Medium. 31 May 2019. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
  83. ^ Staalesen, Atle. "Murmansk gets Russia's biggest dry dock". The Barents Observer. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
  84. ^ Ullah, Zahra; Tarasova, Darya; Lendon, Brad (12 December 2019). "Russia's only aircraft carrier catches fire; 6 believed injured and 1 missing". CNN. Retrieved 12 December 2019.
  85. ^ "Предварительную оценку ущерба от пожара на "Адмирале Кузнецове" дадут на следующей неделеr" [A preliminary estimate of the damage from the fire at the "Admiral Kuznetsov" will be given next week]. Kommersant (in Russian). 14 December 2019. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
  86. ^ "Глава ОСК назвал сумму ущерба от пожара на авианосце «Адмирал Кузнецов»". 3 April 2020.
  87. ^ "Russian MoD Calls For Accelerating Repairs To Aircraft Carrier's Dock". Naval News. 14 April 2021. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  88. ^ "Repair of "Russia's Aircraft Carrier 'Admiral Kuznetsov' To Resume Repairs In June 2022". Naval News. 12 November 2021. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
  89. ^ "Russian Aircraft Carrier To Rejoin The Fleet In Late 2023". Naval News. 24 June 2021. Retrieved 24 June 2021.

External links[edit]