Russian dialects are spoken variants of the Russian language.
All the Russian dialects are divided in two principal chronological and geographic groups:
- The dialects of the territory of the primary formation, which consist of "Old" Russia of the 16th century (before the Eastern conquests by Ivan the Terrible) and roughly correlate with the modern Central and Northwestern Federal districts.
- The dialects of the territory of the second formation, where Russians settled after the 16th century.
- Chukhloma enclave (with akanye)
|Unstressed /e/, /a/, /o/
after palatalized consonants
|[ɪ], [e]||[ɪ]||[æ] (pre-stressed),
|Present 3 p. sg. & pl.||/t/||/t/||/tʲ/|
|Past sg. masc.||/v/[n 1]||/l/||/l/|
|Prothetic /v/?||no||no[n 2]||yes|
|Hardening of final soft labials||no||no||yes|
- In the dialect of Vologda
- Except for восемь ('eight') and some other words
Russian dialects usually preserve many archaic words and forms which dropped out of use or were replaced with Church Slavonic counterparts. In North Russian there are about 200 words of Uralic origin.
- Sussex, Roland; Cubberley, Paul (2006). "Dialects of Russian". The Slavic languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 521–526. ISBN 978-0-521-22315-7.
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