Russian dialects

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Russian dialects are spoken variants of the Russian language.

Map of the Russian dialects of the primary formation (Northern is dark green, Central is yellow-green, Southern is red)

Territory[edit]

All the Russian dialects are divided in two principal chronological and geographic groups:

  1. The dialects of the territory of the primary formation, which consist of "Old" Russia of the 16th century (before the Eastern conquests by Ivan the Terrible) and roughly correlate with the modern Central and Northwestern Federal districts.
  2. The dialects of the territory of the second formation, where Russians settled after the 16th century.

Classification[edit]

1. Northern Russian

2. Central Russian

  • Western
  • Eastern

3. Southern Russian

Isoglosses[edit]

Isogloss Northern
Russian
Standard
Russian
Southern
Russian
Unstressed /o/ [o] [ɐ~ə] [a~ɐ~ə~ɨ]
Unstressed /e/, /a/, /o/
after palatalized consonants
[ɪ], [e] [ɪ] [æ] (pre-stressed),
[ɪ]
/ɡ/ [ɡ] [ɡ] [ɣ]
/v/ [v] [v] [w~u̯]
/f/ [f] [f] [x~xv~xw]
Present 3 p. sg. & pl. /t/ /t/ /tʲ/
Past sg. masc. /v/[n 1] /l/ /l/
Prothetic /v/? no no[n 2] yes
Hardening of final soft labials no no yes
Notes
  1. ^ In the dialect of Vologda
  2. ^ Except for восемь ('eight') and some other words

Vocabulary[edit]

Russian dialects usually preserve many archaic words and forms which dropped out of use or were replaced with Church Slavonic counterparts. In North Russian there are about 200 words of Uralic origin.

References[edit]