Russian locomotive class FD

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Soviet locomotive class ФД
Parovoz "Felix Dzherzinski" in Brest museum.jpg
Type and origin
Power type Steam
Builder October Revolution Locomotive Factory (Voroshilovgrad)
Build date 1931—1942
Configuration 2-10-2
Gauge 1,524 mm (5 ft) or
1,520 mm (4 ft 11 2732 in)
on the Russian Railways
1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge on the China Railways
Leading dia. 900 mm (35.43 in)
Driver dia. 1,500 mm (59.06 in)
Trailing dia. 1,050 mm (41.34 in)
Length 15.974 m (52 ft 4 78 in) (w/o tender),
28.519 m (93 ft 6 34 in) (with tender)
Adhesive weight 104.0 t (102.4 long tons; 114.6 short tons)
Total weight 259.5 t (255.4 long tons; 286.0 short tons)
Fuel type Coal, oil (FDP)
 • Firegrate area
7.04 m2 (75.8 sq ft)
Boiler pressure 15 kgf/cm2 (1.47 MPa; 213 psi)
Cylinders Two, outside
Cylinder size 670 mm × 770 mm (26.38 in × 30.31 in)
bore x stroke
Performance figures
Maximum speed 85 km/h (53 mph)
Tractive effort 287.9 kN (64,720 lbf)
Operators Russian Railways, China Railways
Locale Russia, China

The Soviet locomotive class FD (Russian: ФД) was a Soviet main freight steam locomotive type named after Felix Dzerzhinsky (Russian: Феликс Дзержинский). Between 1932 and 1942, 3213 FD series locomotives were built.


The locomotive was created in connection with the industrialization conducted in the USSR. Planning took only 100 days, and typical construction time was 170 days. For certain features the design engineers referred to American practice in steam locomotive design. The first locomotive was built at the October Revolution Locomotive Factory in Voroshilovgrad in 1931 and sent for a show to Moscow.

Scale Model of Russian Class FD locomotive number FD20-2865 at to the Museum of the Moscow Railway at Paveletsky Rail Terminal

Tests, in which the locomotive performed well, were conducted in 1932. In that year the Voroshilovgradskom plant began mass production of ФД20 locomotives. Over the course of production their construction got better steadily. From the beginning of the Great Patriotic war in 1941, production was interrupted only in 1942; four locomotives were built in Ulan Ude. Total production was 2927 locomotives of ФД20 and 286 locomotives of ФД21. The two subclasses only differed in the type of superheater.

The locomotives of ФД operated in areas with high turnover of goods. They worked on 23 of 43 railways in the USSR, including in Siberia and in the Urals. From middle of 1950, in connection with conversion to diesel engines and electric locomotives, the locomotives of ФД began to be pushed aside from work. Also in 1958–1960 about 1000 locomotives were transferred to China.


See also[edit]




  • В.А. Раков. Локомотивы отечественных железных дорог 1845-1955. — 2-е, переработанное и дополненное. — Москва: «Транспорт», 1995
  • Справочник по локомотивам железных дорог СССР. Главное управление локомотивного хозяйства МПС. Трансжелдориздат 1956
  • Курс паровозов. Устройство и работа паровозов и техника их ремонта (под редакцией С.П. Сыромятникова), Трансжелдориздат (State Publishing House), 1937

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