Russian passport

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Russian passport
Russian ePassport.jpg
The front cover of a Russian biometric passport.
Date first issued 1997 (non-biometric, handwritten)
2000 (non-biometric, MRP)
2006 (biometric)
March 1, 2010 (biometric, current version)
Issued by Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs
Type of document Passport
Purpose Identification
Eligibility requirements Russian Federation citizenship
Expiration 10 years (biometric), 5 years (non-biometric)
Cost 3500 руб for biometric passport, 2000 руб for non-biometric

The Russian passport (officially in Russian: Заграничный паспорт гражданина Российской Федерации) is a booklet issued by Ministry of Internal Affairs to the citizens of the Russian Federation for international travel. Russian citizens must use their Russian passports when leaving or entering the Russian Federation. The Russian passport is distinct from the Internal Russian passport, which is a mandatory identity document for travel and identification purposes within Russia.

After the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Soviet Union passport continued to be issued until 1997, when the first modern Russian passport are known to be issued. The first version of the Russian passports issued in 1997 were handwritten and passports issued since 2000 were Machine readable passports with 36 pages and validity of 5 years. In 2006, Russia issued the first biometric passport and in 2010, the design of the biometric passports were modified, which are currently issued with 46 pages and are valid for 10 years.[1]

Citizens under 18 traveling without both parents must have written consent of both parents allowing their departure from country. When a child travels with one parent, consent of another parent is not required. Articles 20 and 21 of the Federal Law "On the entry in the Russian Federation and departure from the Russian Federation" govern only departure from Russia and have nothing to do with the requirements of other countries regarding entry to these countries.

In addition to regular passport there are three special-purpose types of passports for travelling abroad: diplomatic passport, service passport (issued to government employees going abroad on official business).

More than four million employees tied to the military and security services were banned from traveling abroad under rules issued during 2014.


Russian Empire[edit]

Arrival of foreigners to Russia met with various restrictions in the Tsarist period; border magistrates could pass foreigners within the state only with the permission of senior government. In troubled times, it begins to produce and to travel within the country system "roadways" letters (Russian: проезжих) in order, mainly police. As a general rule letters carriageways were built by Peter I (decree of October 30, 1719), in connection with the entered his conscription and head tax. In 1724, to prevent the possibility to evade the payment of the poll tax, special rules about absences of peasants.

Under the legislation in force for the period of 1906 in Russia in the place of residence, as a general rule, the passport is not required. The exception is the capital and other cities, declared an emergency situation or enhanced protection. In addition, in areas that are subject to the rules on the supervision of industrial establishments, the workers of factories and plants are required to have a passport, and in the place of permanent residence. You do not need a passport when absence from the place of permanent residence: 1) within the district and outside it as recently as 50 vents and no more than 6 months, and 2) from the persons hired for rural work, - in addition, within the townships adjacent to the county of residence, even if more than 6 months.

Law of June 10, 1902 the regulations on residence permits June 3, 1894 extended to the province of the Kingdom of Poland, with some modifications. Formed in 1902, the Committee on the needs of the agricultural industry is recognized as desirable in the types of facilitating the movement of agricultural workers, the simplification of passport regulations. A special meeting of the needs of the agricultural industry has been entrusted to the Minister of Internal Affairs of the revision of statutes on residence permits, in the sense of saving for a passport solely value of an identity document. Elaborated on these grounds in 1905, a new draft statute was a passport to postpone consideration until the convocation of the State Duma.

Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic[edit]

Soviet external passport 1929

Immediately after the Russian Revolution the Russian Republic not followed the emigration; Many disagreed with the new regime left the country since 1917 to the end of the 1920s left the country about 8,000 people, including about 500 scientists (for comparison, in the period from 1989 to 2004, according to various estimates from 25,000-80,000 scientists left Russia[2]). In 1922, two flights so-called philosophical ship from Petrograd to Stettin and several ships from the territory of Ukraine and trains from Moscow on the personal instructions of Lenin were expelled 225 intellectuals (philosophers Berdyaev, Ilyin, Frank and Bulgakov). Of the emigrants only a small part returned such as Marina Tsvetaeva and Alexei Tolstoy.

By the mid-1930s the Soviet government sealed the borders. Travelling to capitalist countries was only possible to employees of the Foreign Ministry, the nomenklatura and selected artists while most ordinary Soviet citizens had the opportunity to travel only in socialist countries for trade union tour.

The third and final wave of Soviet emigration coincided with the rupture of relations with Israel. June 10, 1968 the Central Committee received a joint letter to the leadership of the Foreign Ministry and the KGB signed by Andrey Gromyko and Yuri Andropov to the proposal to allow Soviet Jews to emigrate from the country. As a result, in the 1970s the Soviet Union had left only about 4,000. People, many against their will, for example, such well-known dissidents, like Brodsky, Aksenov, Aleshkovsky, Voinovich, Dovlatov, Gorenstein, Galich.

May 20, 1991, a few months before the collapse of the USSR the last Soviet law on the exit of citizens abroad was adopted, according to which citizens could leave at the request of the state, public and religious organizations and enterprises.

The Russian Federation[edit]

In 1993, exit visas were canceled and allowed a free issue of passports, the right to freely leave the country was enshrined in the new law of 1996.[3] Passports with the symbols of the Soviet Union were issued to citizens of the Russian Federation until the end of 2000, respectively expire in the early years of the 21st century, about 10 years after the dissolution of the Soviet state. Since 2001, Russian passports were issued with the new design which includes the emblem of Russia, a double headed eagle. Since 2010, the application for registration of passport can be submitted via the website

In 2006 biometric passports were introduced in Russia. Since 2009 in all regions of Russia there are points of issue of passport and visa documents of new generation (passports containing electronic media). The data of these items come in a single personalization center data. On March 1, 2010 biometric passport are valid for 10 years. The data on the chip Russian passports are protected by a technology access control BAC (Basic access control), which allows you to produce read data only after entering the passport number, date of birth of the holder and the expiration date of the passport (usually by means of recognition of the machine readable zone of the passport), which excludes unauthorized access to data on the chip.


Data page and signature page of a biometric international passport (2014)
Data page and signature page of a non-biometric international passport (2007)

Each passport has a data page and a signature page. A data page has a visual zone and a machine-readable zone. The visual zone has a digitized photograph of the passport holder, data about the passport, and data about the passport owner:

  • Photograph
  • Type of document ("P" for "passport")
  • Code of the issuing country (always 'RUS')
  • Passport number
  • Surname
  • Given name(s)
  • Nationality (always 'Russian Federation')
  • Date of birth (DD.MM.YYYY format)
  • Place of birth
  • Sex
  • Date of issue
  • Date of expiration
  • Authority
  • A facsimile of the owner's signature, scanned from the application form

At the bottom of the data page is a machine-readable zone, which can be read both visually and by an optical scanner. The machine-readable zone consists of two lines. There are no blank spaces in either line. A space which does not contain a letter or a number is filled with "<".

The first line of the machine-readable zone contains a letter to denote the type of travel document ("P" for passport), the code for the citizenship of the passport holder ("RUS" for "Russian Federation"), and the name (surname first, then given names) of the passport holder.

The second line of the machine-readable zone contains the passport number (supplemented by a check digit), the code of the issuing country ("RUS" for "Russian Federation"), the date of birth of the passport holder (supplemented by a check digit), a notation of the sex/gender of the passport owner ("M" or "F"), the date of expiration of the passport (supplemented by a check digit), and, at the very end of the line, one or more overall check digits.

A signature page has a line for the signature of a passport holder. A passport is not valid unless it is signed by the passport owner (except for passport owners under age of 14).

Transliteration of Russian names[edit]

Due to the fact that Russian visas (and Russian internal passports since 2011) are intended for use in Russia only, there are certain other Latin letters as well as other alphanumerical symbols used to transliterate the letter with no direct analogue in Latin script into the machine-readable zone. As an example, the letter "ч" is usually transcribed as "ch" in Russian travel documents, however, Russian visas and internal passports use "3" in the machine-readable zone instead. Another example is "Alexei" (travel passport) => "Алексей" (Cyrillic version) => "ALEKSEQ" (machine-readable version in an internal document)

Types of passports[edit]

Cover of the Russian Diplomatic e-Passport.
Cover of the Russian Service e-Passport.
Regular (red cover)
Issuable to all citizens of the Russian Federation. Period of validity is 10 years from the date of issue.
Diplomatic (green cover)
Issuable to Russian diplomats accredited overseas and their eligible dependents, and to citizens who reside in the Russian Federation and travel abroad for diplomatic work. Passport issued for the period of work, but no more than 10 years.
Service (blue cover)
Issuable to Russian federal and regional civil servants assigned overseas, their eligible dependents, to members of the Russian parliament who travel abroad on official business and to judges of the Supreme and Constitutional Courts. Also issued to military personnel when deployed overseas. Period of validity: length of service, but not to exceed 10 years.
Certificate for return
Issuable to Russian citizens and nationals overseas, in urgent circumstances. This document is valid only for return to the Russian Federation.

Visa-free travel[edit]

Countries and territories with visa-free or visa-on-arrival entries for holders of regular Russian passports
  Visa free with Internal passport
  Visa not required
  Visa on arrival
  Electronic authorization or online payment required / eVisa
  Visa required prior to arrival

Visa requirements for Russian citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other countries placed on citizens of Russia. As of 1 January 2017, Russian citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 106 countries and territories, ranking the Russian passport 51st in terms of travel freedom (tied with Micronesian passport) according to the Henley visa restrictions index.[4]

Foreign travel statistics[edit]

According to the national statistics these are the numbers of Russian visitors arriving to various countries per annum in 2015 (unless otherwise noted):[5][6]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn Data for 2016
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Data for 2014
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Counting only guests in tourist accommodation establishments.
  4. ^ a b c d e Data for 2013
  5. ^ a b c d Data for arrivals by air only.
  6. ^ Data for 2012
  7. ^ a b Data for 2009
  8. ^ Total number includes tourists, business travelers, students, exchange visitors, temporary workers and families, diplomats and other representatives and all other classes of nonimmigrant admissions (I-94).

Issue Time[edit]

According to the federal law and the orders from 2012 and 2014 for the old 5-year laminated and the new 10-year biometric passport, respectively, either document has to be issued within one to four months, [127] [128] [129] depending on circumstances, with the issue time being three months in case of an application being made to a consulate outside of Russia.

However, in practice, some consulates require an appointment to be made prior to the applicant being able to provide documents to apply for the passport, in some cases, appointments can only be available many months or even possibly years into the future, effectively undoing the upper limit for a timely issuance of the travel document.

Additionally, if passports are expired or lost, applications for the new passport are routinely declined to be accepted when abroad, prior to the verification of citizenship,[citation needed], for which the consuls require a separate application to be made,[citation needed] either in person or notarised by a notary public, with the processing times for verification itself often exceeding many months. Such practice of causing the extra costs for the applicant, however, seems to be in violation of point 23 of orders 10303 from 2012-06-28 and 3744 from 2014-03-19, which guarantee that no extra services are required in order to apply for a passport.[130]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Russian passport history (PDF)
  2. ^ Министерство образования обеспокоено «утечкой мозгов» из России
  3. ^ Ограниченные родиной. // The New Times, 11.10.2010
  4. ^ "Global Ranking - Visa Restriction Index 2017" (PDF). Henley & Partners. Retrieved 14 March 2017. 
  5. ^ The official Russian statistics.
  6. ^ Federal State Statistics 2015, page 127; 2016 9.27 p.244
  7. ^ [1]
  8. ^ Statistical Yearbook p. 91-92
  9. ^ Anuário de Estatística do Turismo
  10. ^ [2]
  11. ^ Tourism Statistics for Antigua and Barbuda
  12. ^ The data obtained on request. Ministerio de turismo
  13. ^ The data obtained on request. Central Bureau of Statistics Aruba
  14. ^ Visitors by country of residence
  15. ^ [3]
  16. ^ [4]
  17. ^ Stopovers by Country
  18. ^ Tourisme selon pays de provenance
  19. ^ [5]
  20. ^ The data obtained on request. Bermuda Tourism Authority
  21. ^ The data obtained on request. Tourism Council of Bhutan
  22. ^ "Arrivals of informational visitors by country of residence". Archived from the original on 2016-01-03. 
  23. ^ "TOURISM STATISTICS Cumulative data, January – December 2016" (PDF). Retrieved 3 March 2017. 
  24. ^ Tourism Statistics Annual Report 2015
  25. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-08-25. Retrieved 2016-08-22. 
  26. ^ [6]
  27. ^ Tourism Statistics Report
  28. ^ Tourism Statistics Edition 2015, table 17
  29. ^ Number of non-resident travellers entering Canada, by country of residence
  30. ^ Air Visitor Arrivals - Origin & General Evolution Analysis
  31. ^ [7]
  32. ^ China Inbound Tourism in 2015
  33. ^ The data obtained on request. Ministerio de Comercio, Industria y Turismo de Colombia
  34. ^ [8]
  35. ^ Anuario de Turismo
  36. ^ [9]
  37. ^ [10]
  39. ^ Table 5 Guests, overnight stays (non-residents by country, numbers, indices)
  40. ^ 2015 Visitors Statistics Report
  41. ^ [11]
  42. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-04-16. Retrieved 2016-04-02. 
  43. ^ Federal State Statistics Service. 2015, page 127
  44. ^ [12]
  45. ^ 1,477,000 according to the official Russian statistics. Number of border crossings.
  46. ^ "Appendix table 5.2. Visitor arrivals and nights spent by country of residence, January-December 2016". 
  47. ^ [13]
  48. ^ Nombre de touristas
  49. ^ International arrivals 2016
  50. ^ Tourismus in Zahlen 2016, Statistisches Bundesamt
  51. ^ Hellenic Statistical Authority. Non-residents arrivals from abroad 2015
  52. ^ Visitors arrival statistics. Origin of air arrivals
  53. ^ [14]
  54. ^ Visitor Arrivals Statistics
  56. ^ [15]
  57. ^ [16]
  58. ^ [17]
  59. ^ VISITOR ARRIVALS(1), BY COUNTRY OF CITIZENSHIP, Central Bureau of Statistics
  61. ^ Monthly Statistical Report December 2016 Vol xxvi No 12
  62. ^ 2016 Foreign Visitors & Japanese Departures, Japan National Tourism Organization
  63. ^ [18]
  64. ^ Туризм Казахстана. 2.4 Количество посетителей по въездному туризму
  65. ^ Tourism in Kyrgyzstan
  66. ^ [19]
  67. ^ [20]
  68. ^ 312,000 according to the official Russian statistics. Number of border crossings.
  69. ^ 2013 Arrivals by nationality Table 10.1
  70. ^ Number of guests and overnights in Lithuanian accommodation establishments. '000. All markets. 2015-2016
  71. ^ 743,000 according to the official Russian statistics in 2015. Number of border crossings.
  72. ^ Arrivals by touristic region and country of residence (All types of accommodation)
  73. ^ Macao statistics database
  74. ^ [21]
  75. ^ [22]
  76. ^ [23]
  77. ^
  78. ^ [24]
  79. ^ Number of visitors by country, 2009
  80. ^ ANNUAIRE 2014
  81. ^ Tourist arrivals by country of residence
  82. ^ [25]
  83. ^ [26]
  84. ^ [27]
  85. ^ "Statistics of Tourists to Mongolia". 
  86. ^ Statistical Yearbook of Montenegro 2016 - p.148
  87. ^ [28]
  88. ^ "Myanmar Tourism Statistics 2015" (PDF). Central Statistical Organization. Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development. Retrieved 5 January 2016. 
  89. ^ [29]
  90. ^ Toerisme in perspectief 2017
  91. ^ Statistics of New Zealand. Visitor arrivals by country of residence. Russia.
  92. ^ [30]
  93. ^ [31]
  94. ^ Number of Tourists to Oman
  95. ^ Pakistan Statistical Year Book 2012 20.31
  96. ^ [32]
  97. ^ [33]
  98. ^ [34]
  99. ^ The data obtained on request. Ministerio de Comercio Exterior y Turismo
  100. ^ [35]
  102. ^
  103. ^ [36]
  104. ^ Tourist turnover in the Republic of Serbia - December 2016
  105. ^ [37]
  106. ^ [38]
  107. ^ [39]
  108. ^ Table 1: Tourist arrivals and overnight stays by countries, Slovenia, 2016 – final data
  109. ^ page 43
  110. ^ [40]
  111. ^ Entradas de turistas según País de Residencia
  113. ^ Tourist Arrivals By Country Of Residence 2015
  114. ^ Visitor Arrivals by Residence
  115. ^ [41]
  116. ^ International Tourist Arrivals to Thailand By Nationality 2016
  117. ^ [42]
  118. ^ [43]
  119. ^ "Foreign citizens who visited Ukraine in 2016 year, by countries". 
  120. ^ Statistics for the Emirates Dubai
  121. ^ Dubai Statistics, Visitor by Nationality
  122. ^ Overseas Residents Visits to the UK 2016
  123. ^ Yearbook of Immigration Statistics
  124. ^ The data obtained on request. The Ministry of tourism of Uruguay, the Department of statistics.
  126. ^ International visitors to Viet Nam in December and 12 months of 2016
  127. ^ "О порядке выезда из Российской Федерации и въезда в Российскую Федерацию". Federal Migration Service (Russia). Retrieved 2015-04-13. Срок оформления паспорта дипломатическим представительством или консульским учреждением Российской Федерации не должен превышать три месяца со дня подачи заявления о выдаче паспорта, за исключением случаев подачи заявления о выдаче паспорта в форме электронного документа с использованием информационно-телекоммуникационных сетей общего пользования, в том числе сети Интернет, включая единый портал государственных и муниципальных услуг. 
  128. ^ "ПРИКАЗ от 19 марта 2014 г. N 3744". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Russia). Retrieved 2015-04-11. 15. Срок оформления паспорта либо уведомления об отказе со дня подачи заявления не должен превышать: - один месяц - в случае подачи заявления по месту жительства; - четыре месяца - в случае подачи заявления по месту пребывания; - три месяца - в случае подачи заявления в загранучреждение; - три месяца - в случае подачи заявления заявителем, имеющим (имевшим) допуск к сведениям особой важности или совершенно секретным сведениям, отнесенным к государственной тайне в соответствии с Законом Российской Федерации от 21 июля 1993 г. N 5485-1 "О государственной тайне" <1> (далее - Закон Российской Федерации о государственной тайне).  line feed character in |quote= at position 101 (help)
  129. ^ "ПРИКАЗ от 28 июня 2012 г. N 10303". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Russia). Retrieved 2015-04-11. 15. В соответствии требованиями статьи 10 Федерального закона паспорт выдается сроком на 5 лет. Срок оформления паспорта либо уведомления об отказе со дня подачи заявления не должен превышать: - один месяц - в случае подачи заявления по месту жительства; - четыре месяца - в случае подачи заявления по месту пребывания; - три месяца - в случае подачи заявления в загранучреждение; - три месяца - в случае подачи заявления заявителем, имеющим (имевшим) допуск к сведениям особой важности…  line feed character in |quote= at position 193 (help)
  130. ^ Constantine A. M. [Mcnst] (2015-04-12). "point 23 of order 3744 from 2014-03-19 seems to guarantee that service of citizenship verif cannot be pre-required!OpenDocument" (Tweet) – via Twitter. 

External links[edit]