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The front cover of a contemporary Russian biometric passport.
|Date first issued||March 1, 2010|
|Issued by||Russian Federation|
|Type of document||Passport|
|Purpose||Identification of citizens of Russian Federation outside of the territory of Russian Federation|
|Eligibility requirements||Russian Federation citizenship|
|Expiration||Choice of 5 or 10 years after issue (since 2010)|
|Cost||3500 RUB (80 USD abroad) for 10-year validity (biometric), and 2000 RUB (30 USD) for a 5-year (non biometric)|
Russian passports are of two types: domestic passports (Russian: внутренний паспорт) which are issued to citizens of the Russian Federation for the purpose of certifying identity within the country, and international passports (Russian: заграничный паспорт, lit. foreign travel passport) which are issued for the purpose of international travel.
The international passport is a passport in the sense most widely used in the world, i.e. "a document valid for crossing the border, with pages for visas and border stamps".
Two types of international passports are currently issued in Russia: old type passports and new type biometric passports. Old type passports are currently valid for only 5 years, biometric passport issued before March 1, 2010 are also valid for only 5 years. Contemporary biometric passports issued after March 1, 2010 are valid for 10 years and they also have an increased number of pages to 46 (from 36 for the old type passports).
A citizen can be denied a passport for travel abroad, and hence the right to leave Russia if (s)he:
- had, in order to get access to classified information, signed a contract with the government that included a provision restricting his/her right to leave the country;
- has been conscripted to the military or alternative civil service;
- is a defendant under criminal prosecution or convicted by court (with unspent conviction);
- is in breach of a court order;
- has outstanding tax debts;
- provided false information in his/her application.
Children under 18 travelling without both parents must have written consent of both parents allowing their departure from Russia. When a child travels with one of his parents, the consent of another parent is assumed to exist unless that parent makes a formal declaration that he or she objects that his or her child may departure from Russia. In the latter case the matter can be resolved by court. Articles 20 and 21 of the "Federal Law On the Entry in the Russian Federation and Departure from the Russian Federation" provide exhaustive information. These rules govern only departure from Russia and have nothing to do with the requirements of other countries regarding entry to these countries. For example, many countries require the consent of both parents certified by a notary as a necessary condition for entry (usually required for child's visa issuance, and not in the port of entry), even when child travels with both parents. This varies across the countries and must be checked on a case-by-case basis.
In addition to the standard international passport there are three special-purpose types of passports for travelling abroad: diplomatic passport, service passport (issued to government employees going abroad on official business) and seaman's passport.
Data page and signature page of the international passport
Each passport has a data page and a signature page. A data page has a visual zone and a machine-readable zone. The visual zone has a digitized photograph of the passport holder, data about the passport, and data about the passport holder:
- Type of document ("P" for "passport")
- Code of the issuing country ("RUS" for "Russian Federation")
- Passport number
- Given name(s)
- Nationality ("Russian Federation")
- Date of birth
- Place of birth (lists only the city and "USSR" for people born before 1992 or "RUSSIA" for people born after 1992)
- Date of issue
- Date of expiration
- Issuing authority
- A facsimile of the holder's signature, scanned from the application form (present only in biometric passports)
At the bottom of the data page is a machine-readable zone, which can be read both visually and by an optical scanner. The machine-readable zone consists of two lines. There are no blank spaces in either line. A space which does not contain a letter or a number is filled with "<".
The first line of the machine-readable zone contains a letter to denote the type of travel document ("P" for passport), the code for the citizenship of the passport holder ("RUS" for "Russian Federation"), and the name (surname first, then given name or names) of the passport holder.
The second line of the machine-readable zone contains the passport number (supplemented by a check digit), the code of the issuing country ("RUS" for "Russian Federation"), the date of birth of the passport holder (supplemented by a check digit), a notation of the sex of the passport holder ("M" or "F"), the date of expiration of the passport (supplemented by a check digit), and, at the very end of the line, one or more overall check digits.
A signature page has a line for the signature of a passport holder. A passport is not valid unless it is signed by the passport holder (except for passport holders under age of 14).
Visa requirements for Russian citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other countries placed on citizens of Russia. In 2014, Russian citizens had visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to 100 countries and territories, ranking the Russian passport 38th in the world according to the Visa Restrictions Index.
According to the federal law and the orders from 2012 and 2014 for the old 5-year laminated and the new 10-year biometric passport, respectively, either document has to be issued within one to four months,    depending on circumstances, with the issue time being three months in case of an application being made to a consulate outside of Russia.
However, in practice, some consulates require an appointment to be made prior to the applicant being able to provide documents to apply for the passport, in some cases, appointments can only be available many months or even possibly years into the future, effectively undoing the upper limit for a timely issuance of the travel document.
Additionally, if passports are expired or lost, applications for the new passport are routinely declined to be accepted when abroad, prior to the verification of citizenship,, for which the consuls require a separate application to be made, either in person or notarised by a notary public, with the processing times for verification itself often exceeding many months. Such practice of causing the extra costs for the applicant, however, seems to be in violation of point 23 of orders 10303 from 2012-06-28 and 3744 from 2014-03-19, which guarantee that no extra services are required in order to apply for a passport.
- Visa requirements for Russian citizens
- Identity card of the Russian Armed Forces
- Internal passport of Russia
- Universal electronic card
- Passport system in the Soviet Union
- Migration card
- Propiska in the Soviet Union
- Wolf ticket (Russia)
- 101st kilometre
- Closed cities
- "ПРИКАЗ от 19 марта 2014 г. N 3744". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Russia). Retrieved 2015-04-11.
15. Срок оформления паспорта либо уведомления об отказе со дня подачи заявления не должен превышать: - один месяц - в случае подачи заявления по месту жительства; - четыре месяца - в случае подачи заявления по месту пребывания; - три месяца - в случае подачи заявления в загранучреждение; - три месяца - в случае подачи заявления заявителем, имеющим (имевшим) допуск к сведениям особой важности или совершенно секретным сведениям, отнесенным к государственной тайне в соответствии с Законом Российской Федерации от 21 июля 1993 г. N 5485-1 "О государственной тайне" <1> (далее - Закон Российской Федерации о государственной тайне).
- "ПРИКАЗ от 28 июня 2012 г. N 10303". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Russia). Retrieved 2015-04-11.
15. В соответствии требованиями статьи 10 Федерального закона паспорт выдается сроком на 5 лет. Срок оформления паспорта либо уведомления об отказе со дня подачи заявления не должен превышать: - один месяц - в случае подачи заявления по месту жительства; - четыре месяца - в случае подачи заявления по месту пребывания; - три месяца - в случае подачи заявления в загранучреждение; - три месяца - в случае подачи заявления заявителем, имеющим (имевшим) допуск к сведениям особой важности…
- "О порядке выезда из Российской Федерации и въезда в Российскую Федерацию". Federal Migration Service (Russia). Retrieved 2015-04-13.
Срок оформления паспорта дипломатическим представительством или консульским учреждением Российской Федерации не должен превышать три месяца со дня подачи заявления о выдаче паспорта, за исключением случаев подачи заявления о выдаче паспорта в форме электронного документа с использованием информационно-телекоммуникационных сетей общего пользования, в том числе сети Интернет, включая единый портал государственных и муниципальных услуг.
- Constantine A. M. [Mcnst] (2015-04-12). "point 23 of order 3744 from 2014-03-19 seems to guarantee that service of citizenship verif cannot be pre-required http://www.mid.ru/bdomp/legislation.nsf/749680bd9e97b5ebc3257939004fc5f5/d60cda87f5aa1cd544257d2e0034cc40!OpenDocument" (Tweet).
- Statute on the Russian federation citizen's passport (in Russian).
- Federal Law On the Entry in the Russian Federation and Departure from the Russian Federation (.doc in Russian).
- Federal Law On the State Border of the Russian Federation (.doc in Russian).
- How to Apply for a Russian Passport.