Russian passport

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Russian passport
Russian ePassport.jpg
The front cover of a contemporary Russian biometric passport.
Date first issued 1 March 2010
Issued by  Russian Federation
Type of document Passport
Purpose Identification of Russian citizens
Eligibility requirements Russian Federation citizenship
Expiration 10 years (biometric), 5 years (non-biometric)
Cost 3500 rubles for biometric passport, 2000 rubles for non biometric

The Russian passport is a legal document issued to the citizens of the Russian Federation for the purposes of travelling abroad.

The Russian Federation currently issues two types of passports: non-biometric and biometric. Non-biometric passports are currently valid for 5 years, biometric passports issued after 1 March 2010 are valid for 10 years and have an increased number of pages from 36 to 46.

Due to the exclave position of Kaliningrad Oblast, which makes a passport an essential document at any age, citizens residing there are exempt from any fees for passport issue.[1]

The right of Russian citizen to leave the country can be temporarily restricted if (s)he:[2]

  1. had signed a contract with the government allowing access to state secrets with provision restricting his/her right to leave the country, until the restriction is lifted as specified in the contract;
  2. has been conscripted to the military or alternative civil service, until the completion of service;
  3. is a defendant under criminal prosecution, until the verdict is reached;
  4. is convicted of a crime, until completion of serving time or acquittal;
  5. is avoiding obligations imposed by the court, until fulfilling the obligations or achieving consent between the parties;
  6. provided false information in his/her application, until the situation is deemed resolved by the processing agency;
  7. is employed by the Federal Security Service, until the expiration of contract;
  8. has been declared bankrupt, until the settlement is reached by the court of arbitration.

Individuals under 18 travelling without both parents must have written consent of both parents allowing their departure from country. When a child travels with one parent, consent of another parent is not required. Articles 20 and 21 of the Federal Law "On the entry in the Russian Federation and departure from the Russian Federation" govern only departure from Russia and have nothing to do with the requirements of other countries regarding entry to these countries.

In addition to regular passport there are three special-purpose types of passports for travelling abroad: diplomatic passport, service passport (issued to government employees going abroad on official business) and seaman's passport.

History[edit]

Russian Empire[edit]

Arrival of foreigners to Russia met with various restrictions in the Tsarist period; border magistrates could pass foreigners within the state only with the permission of senior government. In troubled times, it begins to produce and to travel within the country system "roadways" letters (Russian: проезжих) in order, mainly police. As a general rule letters carriageways were built by Peter I (decree of October 30, 1719), in connection with the entered his conscription and head tax. In 1724, to prevent the possibility to evade the payment of the poll tax, special rules about absences of peasants.

Under the legislation in force for the period of 1906 in Russia in the place of residence, as a general rule, the passport is not required. The exception is the capital and other cities, declared an emergency situation or enhanced protection. In addition, in areas that are subject to the rules on the supervision of industrial establishments, the workers of factories and plants are required to have a passport, and in the place of permanent residence. You do not need a passport when absence from the place of permanent residence: 1) within the district and outside it as recently as 50 vents and no more than 6 months, and 2) from the persons hired for rural work, - in addition, within the townships adjacent to the county of residence, even if more than 6 months.

Law of June 10, 1902 the regulations on residence permits June 3, 1894 extended to the province of the Kingdom of Poland, with some modifications. Formed in 1902, the Committee on the needs of the agricultural industry is recognized as desirable in the types of facilitating the movement of agricultural workers, the simplification of passport regulations. A special meeting of the needs of the agricultural industry has been entrusted to the Minister of Internal Affairs of the revision of statutes on residence permits, in the sense of saving for a passport solely value of an identity document. Elaborated on these grounds in 1905, a new draft statute was a passport to postpone consideration until the convocation of the State Duma.

Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic[edit]

Soviet passport 1929

Immediately after the Russian Revolution the Russian Republic not followed the emigration; Many disagreed with the new regime left the country since 1917 to the end of the 1920s left the country about 8,000 people, including about 500 scientists (for comparison, in the period from 1989 to 2004, according to various estimates from 25,000-80,000 scientists left Russia[3]). In 1922, two flights so-called philosophical ship from Petrograd to Stettin and several ships from the territory of Ukraine and trains from Moscow on the personal instructions of Lenin were expelled 225 intellectuals (philosophers Berdyaev, Ilyin, Frank and Bulgakov). Of the emigrants only a small part returned such as Marina Tsvetaeva and Alexei Tolstoy.

By the mid-1930s the Soviet government sealed the borders. Travelling to capitalist countries was only possible to employees of the Foreign Ministry, the nomenclature and selected artists while most ordinary Soviet citizens had the opportunity to travel only in socialist countries for trade union tour.

The third and final wave of Soviet emigration coincided with the rupture of relations with Israel. June 10, 1968 the Central Committee received a joint letter to the leadership of the Foreign Ministry and the KGB signed by Andrey Gromyko and Yuri Andropov to the proposal to allow Soviet Jews to emigrate from the country. As a result, in the 1970s the Soviet Union had left only about 4,000. People, many against their will, for example, such well-known dissidents, like Brodsky, Aksenov, Aleshkovsky, Voinovich, Dovlatov, Gorenstein, Galich.

May 20, 1991, a few months before the collapse of the USSR the last Soviet law on the exit of citizens abroad was adopted, according to which citizens could leave at the request of the state, public and religious organizations and enterprises.

Russian Federation[edit]

In 1993, exit visas were canceled and allowed a free issue of passports, the right to freely leave the country was enshrined in the new law of 1996.[4] Passports with the symbols of the Soviet Union were issued to citizens of the Russian Federation until the end of 2000, respectively expire in the early years of the 21st century, about 10 years after the dissolution of the Soviet state. Since 2001, Russian passports were issued with the new design which includes the emblem of Russia, a double headed eagle. Since 2010, the application for registration of passport can be submitted via the website www.gosuslugi.ru.

In 2006 biometric passports were introduced in Russia. Since 2009 in all regions of Russia there are points of issue of passport and visa documents of new generation (passports containing electronic media). The data of these items come in a single personalization center data. On March 1, 2010 biometric passport are valid for 10 years. The data on the chip Russian passports are protected by a technology access control BAC (Basic access control), which allows you to produce read data only after entering the passport number, date of birth of the holder and the expiration date of the passport (usually by means of recognition of the machine readable zone of the passport), which excludes unauthorized access to data on the chip.

Description[edit]

Data page and signature page of a biometric international passport (2014)
Data page and signature page of a non-biometric international passport (2007)

Each passport has a data page and a signature page. A data page has a visual zone and a machine-readable zone. The visual zone has a digitized photograph of the passport holder, data about the passport, and data about the passport owner:

  • Photograph
  • Type of document ("P" for "passport")
  • Code of the issuing country (always 'RUS')
  • Passport number
  • Surname
  • Given name(s)
  • Nationality (always 'Russian Federation')
  • Date of birth
  • Place of birth
  • Sex
  • Date of issue
  • Date of expiration
  • Authority
  • A facsimile of the owner's signature, scanned from the application form

At the bottom of the data page is a machine-readable zone, which can be read both visually and by an optical scanner. The machine-readable zone consists of two lines. There are no blank spaces in either line. A space which does not contain a letter or a number is filled with "<".

The first line of the machine-readable zone contains a letter to denote the type of travel document ("P" for passport), the code for the citizenship of the passport holder ("RUS" for "Russian Federation"), and the name (surname first, then given names) of the passport holder.

The second line of the machine-readable zone contains the passport number (supplemented by a check digit), the code of the issuing country ("RUS" for "Russian Federation"), the date of birth of the passport holder (supplemented by a check digit), a notation of the sex/gender of the passport owner ("M" or "F"), the date of expiration of the passport (supplemented by a check digit), and, at the very end of the line, one or more overall check digits.

A signature page has a line for the signature of a passport holder. A passport is not valid unless it is signed by the passport owner (except for passport owners under age of 14).

Visa-free travel[edit]

Countries and territories with visa-free or visa-on-arrival entries for holders of regular Russian passports
  Russia
  Visa free
  Visa issued upon arrival
  Electronic authorization or eVisa
  Visa required prior to arrival

Visa requirements for Russian citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other countries placed on citizens of Russia. In 2015, Russian citizens had visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to 102 countries and territories, ranking the Russian passport 49th in the world according to the Visa Restrictions Index.

Visitor statistics[edit]

According to the Federal Security Service and the Russian Federal State Statistics Service. Method of calculation - the first country of arrival after departure from Russia. In the table top-50 for 2014, 2013, 2012. For 2011 the top isn't full. Departure of Russian citizens abroad:[5]

In the table there is no Belarus due to the lack of border and border control between Russia and Belarus crossing count is not conducted.

In the first year after visa abolition, visit of Israel grew by 37%, visit to South Korea for 11%. After Croatia denounced the agreement on visa abolition, entry into the country of owners of the Russian passports fell to 13%.

Types of passports[edit]

Regular (red cover)
Issuable to all citizens of the Russian Federation. Period of validity is 10 years from date of issue.
Diplomatic (green cover)
Issuable to Russian diplomats accredited overseas and their eligible dependents, and to citizens who reside in the Russian Federation and travel abroad for diplomatic work. Passport issued for the period of work, but no more than 10 years.
Service (blue cover)
Issuable to citizen-employees of the Russian Federation and its federal subjects assigned overseas, their eligible dependents, to members of Russian parliament who travel abroad on official business and to judges of Supreme and Constitutional Courts. Also issued to military personnel when deployed overseas. Period of validity: length of service, but not to exceed 10 years.
Certificate for return
Issuable to Russian citizens and nationals overseas, in urgent circumstances. This document is valid only for return to Russian Federation.

Issue Time[edit]

According to the federal law and the orders from 2012 and 2014 for the old 5-year laminated and the new 10-year biometric passport, respectively, either document has to be issued within one to four months, [12] [13] [14] depending on circumstances, with the issue time being three months in case of an application being made to a consulate outside of Russia.

However, in practice, some consulates require an appointment to be made prior to the applicant being able to provide documents to apply for the passport, in some cases, appointments can only be available many months or even possibly years into the future, effectively undoing the upper limit for a timely issuance of the travel document.

Additionally, if passports are expired or lost, applications for the new passport are routinely declined to be accepted when abroad, prior to the verification of citizenship,[citation needed], for which the consuls require a separate application to be made,[citation needed] either in person or notarised by a notary public, with the processing times for verification itself often exceeding many months. Such practice of causing the extra costs for the applicant, however, seems to be in violation of point 23 of orders 10303 from 2012-06-28 and 3744 from 2014-03-19, which guarantee that no extra services are required in order to apply for a passport.[15]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://kaliningrad.mid.ru/oformlenie-zagranpasporta
  2. ^ "Article 15 of the Federal Law - Федеральный закон от 15.08.1996 N 114-ФЗ (ред. от 13.07.2015) "О порядке выезда из Российской Федерации и въезда в Российскую Федерацию" (с изм. и доп., вступ. в силу с 01.10.2015)". 
  3. ^ Министерство образования обеспокоено «утечкой мозгов» из России
  4. ^ Ограниченные родиной. // The New Times, 11.10.2010
  5. ^ http://www.russiatourism.ru/contents/statistika/statisticheskie-pokazateli-vzaimnykh-poezdok-grazhdan-rossiyskoy-federatsii-i-grazhdan-inostrannykh-gosudarstv/naibolee-populyarnye-napravleniya-po-vyezdu-grazhdan-rossiyskoy-federatsii-za-rubezh/
  6. ^ 467,565 according to the official Austrian statistics - Tourismus in Österreich 2014
  7. ^ 97,183 according to the official Belgian statistics - Tourisme selon pays de provenance 2014
  8. ^ 269,832 according to the official Indian statistics - India Tourism Statistics at a Glance 2014
  9. ^ 561,000 according to the official Israeli statistics - Tourism by country of origin - Israel.
  10. ^ 64,077 according to the official Japanese statistics - 2014 Foreign Visitors & Japanese Departures.
  11. ^ 345,760 according to the official Polish statistics - Overnight stays in accommodation establishments in 2014.
  12. ^ "О порядке выезда из Российской Федерации и въезда в Российскую Федерацию". Federal Migration Service (Russia). Retrieved 2015-04-13. Срок оформления паспорта дипломатическим представительством или консульским учреждением Российской Федерации не должен превышать три месяца со дня подачи заявления о выдаче паспорта, за исключением случаев подачи заявления о выдаче паспорта в форме электронного документа с использованием информационно-телекоммуникационных сетей общего пользования, в том числе сети Интернет, включая единый портал государственных и муниципальных услуг. 
  13. ^ "ПРИКАЗ от 19 марта 2014 г. N 3744". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Russia). Retrieved 2015-04-11. 15. Срок оформления паспорта либо уведомления об отказе со дня подачи заявления не должен превышать: - один месяц - в случае подачи заявления по месту жительства; - четыре месяца - в случае подачи заявления по месту пребывания; - три месяца - в случае подачи заявления в загранучреждение; - три месяца - в случае подачи заявления заявителем, имеющим (имевшим) допуск к сведениям особой важности или совершенно секретным сведениям, отнесенным к государственной тайне в соответствии с Законом Российской Федерации от 21 июля 1993 г. N 5485-1 "О государственной тайне" <1> (далее - Закон Российской Федерации о государственной тайне).  line feed character in |quote= at position 101 (help)
  14. ^ "ПРИКАЗ от 28 июня 2012 г. N 10303". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Russia). Retrieved 2015-04-11. 15. В соответствии требованиями статьи 10 Федерального закона паспорт выдается сроком на 5 лет. Срок оформления паспорта либо уведомления об отказе со дня подачи заявления не должен превышать: - один месяц - в случае подачи заявления по месту жительства; - четыре месяца - в случае подачи заявления по месту пребывания; - три месяца - в случае подачи заявления в загранучреждение; - три месяца - в случае подачи заявления заявителем, имеющим (имевшим) допуск к сведениям особой важности…  line feed character in |quote= at position 193 (help)
  15. ^ Constantine A. M. [Mcnst] (2015-04-12). "point 23 of order 3744 from 2014-03-19 seems to guarantee that service of citizenship verif cannot be pre-required http://www.mid.ru/bdomp/legislation.nsf/749680bd9e97b5ebc3257939004fc5f5/d60cda87f5aa1cd544257d2e0034cc40!OpenDocument" (Tweet).  External link in |title= (help)

External links[edit]